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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  AFTERSTEP (1)

NAME

afterstep - X11 window manager

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Special Note For Xfree86 Users
Copyrights
Anatomy Of A Window
The Virtual Desktop
Initialization
Icons
Modules
Icccm Compliance
M4 Preprocessing
Options
Configuration Options
Built In Functions
Keyboard Shortcuts
Supplied Configuration
Use On Multi-screen Displays
See Also
Authors

SYNOPSIS

afterstep [-d dpy ] [-debug] [-f config_file ] [-s]

DESCRIPTION

AfterStep is a continuation of the BowMan window manager which was originally put together by Bo Yang. BowMan was based on the fvwm window manager, written by Robert Nation. Fvwm was based on code from twm. And so on... It is designed to emulate some of the look and feel of the NEXTSTEP(tm) user interface, while adding useful, requested, and neat features. The changes which comprise AfterStep’s personality were originally part of BowMan development, but due to a desire to move past simple emulation and into a niche as its own valuable window manager, the current designers decided to change the project name and move on. BowMan development may continue, but we will no longer be a part of it.

Some major changes from fvwm 1.24 include:

1. NEXTSTEP(tm)-alike title bar, title buttons, borders and corners.
2. AfterStep’s Wharf is a much worked-out version of GoodStuff. To avoid copyright complications it is not called a "dock."
3. NEXTSTEP(tm) style menus. However the menus are not controlled by applications, they are more of pop-up service lists on the root window.
4. NEXTSTEP(tm) style icons. The default icons are consistent with those in the NEXTSTEP(tm) interface, but they are configurable.

However, the flexibility of fvwm was not traded off. The initiation file, ~/.steprc , recognizes most of the fvwm 1.24r commands. Virtual screens and the pager are still intact. Fvwm(1.24) modules should work just fine. However, compatibility with fvwm-2 is not planned.

SPECIAL NOTE FOR XFREE86 USERS

XFree86 provides a virtual screen whose operation can be confusing when used in conjunction with this virtual window manager. With XFree86, windows which appear on the virtual screen actually get drawn into video memory, so the virtual screen size is limited by available video memory.

With AfterStep’s virtual desktop, windows which do not appear on the screen do not actually get drawn into video RAM. The size of the virtual desktop is limited to about 32,000 by 32,000 pixels. It is probably impractical to use a virtual desktop more than about 5 times the visible screen in each direction. Note that memory usage with the virtual desktop is a function of the number of windows which exist. The size of the desktop makes no difference.

When becoming familiar with AfterStep , it is recommended that you disable XFree86’s virtual screen, by setting the virtual screen size to the physical screen size. When familiar with AfterStep , you may want to re-enable XFree86’s virtual screen.

COPYRIGHTS

AfterStep is based on BowMan and shares copyrights with it. BowMan is derived from Fvwm code, which is in turn derived from twm code, thus AfterStep shares copyrights with Bowman, Fvwm, and twm.

AfterStep is copyright 1996 by Frank Fejes, Alfredo Kojima, and Dan Weeks. All other modifications are copyright to their respective authors.

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation.

Please see the file CREDITS included with the AfterStep distribution for the conditions that are incumbent on the users of AfterStep due to its relations to fvwm and twm.

FRANK FEJES, DAN WEEKS, AND ALL OTHER CONTRIBUTERS DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL ANY CONTRIBUTOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTUOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

ANATOMY OF A WINDOW

AfterStep puts a decorative border on the top and bottom of most windows. This border consists of a bar on the bottom that is divided into three sections. These sections are referred to as "handles". There is also a top bar called the title bar which is used to display the name of the window and two title-bar buttons.

Unless the standard defaults files are modified, pressing mouse button 1 on the titlebar will begin a move operation on the window. Pressing button 1 on the bottom handle bar will begin a resize operation. Pressing button 2 on either the titlebar or the bottom handle brings up an extensive list of window operations.

The default configuration has a title-bar button on each side of the title-bar. The one on the left is used to iconify the window, regardless of which mouse button is used. The one on the right is used to close the window, regardless of which mouse button is used. See the section on "Mouse" for more information. Further modifications to AfterStep’s behavior can be made in the ~/.steprc file, using /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/afterstep/system.steprc as a guide.

Shaped windows such as xeyes or oclock get a title bar that floats above the window and no bottom bar. The background area of shaped windows is transparent. If you are tight on memory, you can disable the SHAPE extensions by modifying configure.h and recompiling AfterStep. This way shaped windows get a solid color background and you save about 60 kbytes of memory when no shaped windows are present.

THE VIRTUAL DESKTOP

AfterStep provides multiple virtual desktops for users who wish to use them. The screen is a viewport onto a desktop which is larger than (or the same size as) the screen. Several distinct desktops can be accessed. Concept: one desktop for each project, or one desktop for each application, when view applications are distinct. Since each desktop can be larger than the physical screen, windows which are larger than the screen, or large groups of related windows, can easily be viewed.

The size of the each virtual desktop must be specified at start-up (default: 2 times the physical size of the screen). All virtual desktops must be the same size. The total number of distinct desktops need not be specified, but is limited to approximately 4 billion total. All windows on the current desktop can be displayed in a Pager, or miniature view or the current desktop. Windows which are not on the current desktop can be listed, along with their geometries, in a window list, accessible as a pop-up menu.

"Sticky" windows are windows which transcend the virtual desktop by "Sticking to the screen’s glass." They always stay put on the screen. This is convenient for things like clocks and xbiff’s, so you only need to run one such gadget, and it always stays with you.

Window geometries are specified relative to the current viewport. That is, xterm -geometry +0+0, will always show up in the upper-left hand corner of the visible portion of the screen. It is permissible to specify geometries which place windows on the virtual desktop, but off the screen. For example, if the visible screen is 1000 by 1000 pixels, and the desktop size is 3x3, and the current viewport is at the upper left hand corner of the desktop, then invoking xterm -geometry +1000+1000 will place the window just off of the lower right hand corner of the screen. It can be found by moving the mouse to the lower right hand corner of the screen, and waiting for it to scroll into view. There is currently no way to cause a window to map onto a desktop other than the currently active desk. A geometry specified as something like xterm -geometry -5-5 will generally place the windows lower right hand corner 5 pixels from the lower right hand corner of the visible portion of the screen. Not all applications support window geometries with negative offsets.

Some applications, like xterm and xfontsel, allow the user to specify the start-up desk on the command line. xterm -xrm "*Desk:1" will start an xterm on desk number 1. Other applications do not understand this option.

INITIALIZATION

During initialization, AfterStep will search for a configuration file which describes key and button bindings, and a few other things. The format of these files will be described later. First, AfterStep will search for a file named .steprc in the user’s home directory. Failing that, it will look for /usr/lib/X11/afterstep/system.steprc for system-wide defaults. If that file is not found, AfterStep will exit.

AfterStep will set two environment variables which will be inherited by its children. These are $DISPLAY which describes the display on which AfterStep is running. $DISPLAY may be unix:0.0 or :0.0, which doesn’t work too well when passed through rsh to another machine, so $HOSTDISPLAY will also be set, and will use a network-ready description of the display. Unfortunately, $HOSTDISPLAY will use the tcp/ip transport protocol, even for a local connection, so $DISPLAY should be used for local connections, as it may use unix-domain sockets, which are faster.

ICONS

By default, AfterStep is compiled with XPM extensions which allow one to use color icons similar to those in NEXTSTEP(tm), ctwm, Microsoft Windows, or the Macintosh. In order to use these options, you will need the XPM package, which should be available at: ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/libraries. XPM extensions can be removed from AfterStep if one wants to have monochrome icons and doesn’t want pixmap tiled titlebars, etc.

MODULES

A module is a separate program, which runs as a separate unix process, but transmits commands to AfterStep to execute. These modules get many kinds of window information from AfterStep. Users can write their own modules to do any weird or bizarre manipulations, without affecting the integrity of AfterStep itself.

Modules MUST be spawned by AfterStep, (i.e. not executed from the command line) so that AfterStep can set up two pipes used for communication between the module and AfterStep. Modules can be spawned during AfterStep initialization via the Module option, or at any time during the X session by use of the Module built-in function. Modules can exist for the duration of the X session, or can perform a single task and exit.

If a module is still active when AfterStep is told to quit, AfterStep will close down the communication pipes, and wait to receive a SIGCHLD from the module, indicating that it has detected the pipe closure, and has exited. If modules fail to detect the pipe closure, AfterStep will exit after approximately 30 seconds anyway. The number of simultaneously executing modules is limited by the operating system’s maximum number of simultaneously open files, usually between 60 and 256.

Modules are documented in their own manual pages.

ICCCM COMPLIANCE

AfterStep attempts to be ICCCM 2.0 compliant. As of this (1.0) release, colormap handling is not completely ICCCM compliant. In addition, ICCCM states that it should be possible for applications to receive ANY keystroke, which is not consistent with the keyboard shortcut approach used in AfterStep and most other window managers. The user can disable any AfterStep keystroke that should be passed to the application and not intercepted by the window manager.

M4 PREPROCESSING

If AfterStep is compiled with the M4 option, AfterStep uses m4(1) to preprocess its setup files before parsing. This way you can use m4 macros to perform operations at runtime. This makes it very easy to work with different displays with different characteristics.

For example, depending on your mood, you might want different color schemes. One way of doing this is by using the -m4opt to specify your mood. For a sunny mood use -m4opt -DSunny; for a dark mood use -m4opt -DDark. Your .steprc file might then contain:

ifdef(‘Sunny’,‘
StdForeColor            Black
StdBackColor            LightSkyBlue
HiForeColor             yellow
HiBackColor             PeachPuff1
PagerBackColor          BlanchedAlmond ’)

ifdef(‘Dark’,‘ StdForeColor Black StdBackColor #60a0c0 HiForeColor black HiBackColor #c06077 PagerBackColor #5c54c0 PagerForeColor orchid StickyForeColor Black StickyBackColor #60c0a0 ’)

The following m4 symbols are predefined by AfterStep:
BITS_PER_RGB The number of significant bits in an RGB color. (log base 2 of the number of distinct colors that can be created. This is often different from the number of colors that can be displayed at once.)
CLASS Your visual class. Will return one of StaticGray, GrayScale, StaticColor, PseudoColor, TrueColor, DirectColor, or, if it cannot determine what you have, NonStandard.
CLIENTHOST The machine that is running the clients.
COLOR This will be either ’Yes’ or ’No’. This is just a wrapper around the CLASS definition. Returns ’Yes’ on *Color and ’No’ on StaticGray and GrayScale.
AFTERDIR This is set to the path where the modules were configured to be installed.
AFTER_VERSION This is a string containing the version of AfterStep.
HEIGHT The height of your display in pixels.
HOME The user’s home directory. Obtained from the environment.
HOSTNAME The canonical hostname running the clients (ie. a fully-qualified version of CLIENTHOST).
OPTIONS This is a string of compile time options used. Each option is separated from the other by a space.
PLANES The number of bit planes your display supports in the default root window.
RELEASE The release number of your X server. For MIT X11R5 this is 5.
REVISION The X minor protocol revision. As seen by ProtocolRevision(3).
SERVERHOST This variable is set to the name of the machine that is running the X server.
TWM_TYPE Tells which twm offshoot is running. It will always be set to the string "afterstep" in this program. This is useful for protecting parts of your .twmrc file that AfterStep proper won’t understand (like WorkSpaces) so that it is still usable with other twm programs.
USER The name of the user running the program. Obtained from the environment.
VENDOR The vendor of your X server. For example: MIT X Consortium.
VERSION The X major protocol version. As seen by ProtocolVersion(3).
WIDTH The width of your display in pixels.
X_RESOLUTION The X resolution of your display in pixels per meter.
Y_RESOLUTION The Y resolution of your display in pixels per meter.
You may well find that if you research the m4(1) manual well and understand the power of m4, this will be a very useful and powerful tool. But if you use any of the symbols which are predefined by m4, you are in severe danger! For example, Sun’s m4 predefines include, so if you use that name in your .steprc, you are out of luck. The correct solution to this problem is to put a set of quotes around the troublesome word: ‘include’.

To help alleviate this problem, the following options may be useful. To change the quoting characters used by m4, use the options -m4-squote and -m4-equote. Be sure to specify both options otherwise m4 will be confused. When these are given, a changequote macro is given before the users steprc file is processed.

NOTE: Some versions of m4 are broken with respect to changing quoting characters and included files. When the quoting strings are longer than one character, the macro "include(<<file>>)", where "<<" and ">>" are the quoting characters, contains extra characters around the contents of the included file. This will confuse AfterStep. SunOS 4.1.3 is known to have this problem.

If you are using GNU m4 an additional option is available. By specifying -m4-prefix when starting AfterStep, m4 is instructed to prefix all builtin macros with m4_. Thus, include becomes m4_include.

The availability of the m4 preprocessing is subject to the compilation define M4, which is commented out in the configure.h as distributed.

OPTIONS

-d displayname Manage the display called, "displayname", instead of the name obtained from the environment variable $DISPLAY.
-debug

Puts X transactions in synchronous mode, which dramatically slows things down, but guarantees that AfterStep’s internal error messages are correct.

-f config_file Causes AfterStep to use config_file instead of ~/.steprc as the window manager configuration file.
-s Run AfterStep on only the specified screen of a multi-screen display. Normally, AfterStep will attempt to start up on all screens of a multi-screen display. The "specified screen" is the one provided in the DISPLAY environment variable, or provided through the -d option.

CONFIGURATION OPTIONS

The configuration file, usually ~/.steprc , is used to describe mouse and button bindings, colors, the virtual display size, and related items. This section describes the configuration options. Lines within the configuration file beginning with ’#’ will be ignored by AfterStep. Lines starting with ’*’ are expected to contain module configuration commands.

StdForeColor colorname

Sets the foreground color for menus and non-selected window titles to colorname. When using a monochrome screen, this option is ignored, and black is used.

StdBackColor colorname

Sets the background color for menus, and non-selected windows to colorname. When using a monochrome screen, this option is ignored, and white is used.

StickyForeColor colorname

Sets the foreground color for non-selected window sticky (Sticks-to-glass) titles to colorname. When using a monochrome screen, this option is ignored, and black is used.

StickyBackColor colorname

Sets the background color for non-selected window sticky (Sticks-to-glass) windows to colorname. When using a monochrome screen, this option is ignored, and white is used.

HiForeColor colorname

Sets the color for selected window’s title to colorname. When using a monochrome screen, this option is ignored, and black is used. Note that this currently also controls the menu highlights, popup menu titles and the icon title font. This is a "feature."

HiBackColor colorname

Sets the background color for the selected window to colorname. When using a monochrome screen, this option is ignored, and white is used. Note that this also controls the IconTitle background color.

MenuForeColor colorname

Sets the menu foreground color. When using monochrome, this option is ignored.

MenuBackColor colorname

Sets the menu background color. When using monochrome, this option is ignored.

MenuStippleColor colorname

Sets the color for shaded out entries in menus (for functions which are not allowed on the currently selected window). When using monochrome, this option is ignored, and a stipple pattern is used.

MenusHigh

Makes the popup menu submenus appear at the top of the parent menu instead of starting at the point in the parent window where the submenu item lies.

PagerBackColor colorname

Causes the pager background color to be colorname , instead of white. On a monochrome screen, this option is ignored. If the NO_PAGER option is set when building AfterStep , this option is unavailable.

PagerForeColor colorname

Causes the pager foreground color to be colorname , instead of black. This is the color used to high- light the current viewport in the pager window. On a monochrome screen, this option is ignored. If the NO_PAGER option is set when building AfterStep , this option is unavailable.

PagerFont fontname

Makes AfterStep use the font fontname instead of "fixed" for the pager labels.

TextureTypes focusedtitle unfocusedtitle stickytitle menutitle menuitem

Specifies the type of gradient fill to be used on each of the above parts of the AfterStep windows. Currently valid values are:
0 - No texture
1 - Wharf-style gradient
2 - Horizontal one way gradient
3 - Horizontal cylindrical gradient
4 - Vertical one way gradient
5 - Vertical cylindrical gradient
128 - User specified pixmap (See TitlePixmap, etc)

The entry from the included sample.steprc is TextureTypes 1 1 1 1 1. This makes all gradients fill from the upper left to the lower right with your specified colors.

TextureMaxColors title unfocusedtitle stickytitle menutitle menuitem

The number of colors to use on textures. Default is TextureMaxColors 10 10 10 10 10 on 8 bpp screens and TextureMaxColors 128 128 128 128 128 on 16+ bpp screens. The actual number of allocated colors may be lower. You must at least specify a value for title.

TitleTextureColor from to

Colors that the gradient will go from and to when gradients are drawn in a window titlebar. The default values for from and to are #101030 and #303080 respectively. Values must be in either standard X color names or hex notation.

UTitleTextureColor from to

Colors that the gradient will go from and to when gradients are drawn in a non-focused window titlebar. The default values for from and to are #86868a and #c0b6c3 respectively. Values must be in either standard X color names or hex notation.

STitleTextureColor from to

Colors that the gradient will go from and to when gradients are drawn in a sticky window titlebar. The default values for from and to are #86868a and #c0b6c3 respectively. Values must be in either standard X color names or hex notation.

MenuTextureColor from to

Colors that the gradient will go from and to when gradients are drawn on the menu entries. The default values for from and to are #101030 and #404090 respectively. Values must be in either standard X color names or hex notation.

MTitleTextureColor from to

Colors that the gradient will go from and to when gradients are drawn for menu titles. The default values for from and to are #101030 and #303080 respectively. Values must be in either standard X color names or hex notation.

TitlePixmap xpmname

If the TextureType of the focused titlebar is set to 128, this command causes the xpm defined by xpmname to be tiled in the titlebar instead of a solid color or a gradient texture. Note that the titlebar by default can show a pixmap of up to 19 pixels in height, though it may be of any length. One need not specify the complete path if the xpm is in the directory defined by PixmapPath.

UTitlePixmap xpmname

If the TextureType of unfocused titlebars is set to 128, this command causes the xpm defined by xpmname to be tiled in the titlebar instead of a solid color or a gradient texture. Note that the titlebar by default can show a pixmap of up to 19 pixels in height, though the xpm graphic may be of any actual height and length. The full path to the xpm is not required if it is in the directory defined by PixmapPath.

STitlePixmap xpmname

If the TextureType of sticky titlebars is set to 128, this command causes the xpm defined by xpmname to be tiled in the titlebar of sticky windows instead of a solid color or a gradient texture. Note that the titlebar by default can show a pixmap of up to 19 pixels in height, though the xpm graphic may be of any actual height and length. The full path to the xpm is not required if it is in the directory defined by PixmapPath.

TexturedHandle

Turns on textures for all window handles. The handle texture will be the same as the texture used in the window’s titlebar.

GradientText

Causes a gradient to be applied to the titlebar text of the focused window. The gradient colors are set using TextGradientColor.

TextGradientColor from to

Colors that the gradient will go from and to when gradients are drawn for the titlebar text. The default values for from and to are #101030 and #303080 respectively. Values must be in either standard X color names or hex notation.

TitleTextAlign num

Defines the alignment of the window title in the titlebar. The allowable values for num are as follows:
1: left aligned
2: right aligned
3: center aligned (default)

TitlebarNoPush

Causes the titlebar not to appear to be "pushed in" when you click on it with a mouse button. This is useful to reduce video strain or if you use textured pixmaps that do not look good "pushed in."

TitleButton num xpmname

Defines the pixmaps to use instead of the default NEXTSTEP(tm) style titlebar buttons that are the default. Up to 8 buttons are possible. num specifies the position of the button on the window and is an integer from 1-8. The positions are indicated as below:
1 3 5 7   TitleBarText  8 6 4 2

Note that you must bind an action to any new buttons you add using the Mouse definitions. The pixmap defined by xpmname should be exactly 10x10 pixels to fit inside the gray button bevel.

Font fontname

Makes AfterStep use the font fontname instead of "fixed" for menus, the resize indicators, and icon labels (if IconFont is not specified).

WindowFont fontname

Makes AfterStep use the font fontname instead of "fixed" for the window title bar.

NoTitle windowname

Keeps AfterStep from putting a titlebar in the decorations for windows named windowname. This is handy for clocks and similar gadgets that you don’t want to take up too much space. windowname can be a window’s name or its class.

Windowname can contain the wildcards "*" and "?" which match window names in the normal unix filename matching manner: "*" matches any number of any character and "?" matches one of any character. Actual "*", "?", and "\" characters in a window name can be entered by preceding the character with a "\".

Sticky windowname

Sticky windows "stick to the screen’s glass." That is, they don’t move the the viewport into the virtual desktop changes. windowname can be a window’s name or its class. See NoTitle for a discussion of the windowname parameter.

StaysOnTop windowname

These windows always try to stay on top of the other windows. This might be handy for clocks or mailboxes that you would always like to be visible. If the window is explicitly lowered, it will not try to force its way back to the top until it is explicitly raised. windowname can be a window’s name or its class. See NoTitle for a discussion of the windowname parameter.

StartsOnDesk windowname desk-number

This command causes windows whose name or class is windowname to be initially placed on desktop number desk-number. windowname should be enclosed in double quotes. If the window requires interactive placement, an outline will be displayed on the current desk, but the window will appear on the specified desk. See NoTitle for a discussion of the windowname parameter.

CirculateSkip windowname

Causes windows with the indicated name to be skipped over when the CirculateUp, CirculateDown or Warp functions are invoked. windowname can be a window’s name or its class. See NoTitle for a discussion of the windowname parameter.

CirculateSkipIcons

Causes circulate and warp operations to skip over iconified windows.

WindowListSkip windowname

Causes windows with the indicated name to be left out of the window list. See NoTitle for a discussion of the windowname parameter.

NoFocus windowname

Causes windows with the indicated name to not take the focus when the pointer moves over them in focus-follows-mouse (the default) mode, or when the window is clicked in ClickToFocus mode. See NoTitle for a discussion of the windowname parameter.

Style windowname options

This command is intended to replace the commands NoFocus, NoBorder, NoTitle, StartsOnDesk, Sticky, StaysOnTop, Icon, WindowListSkip, CirculateSkip, SuppressIcons, BoundaryWidth, NoBoundaryWidth, StdForeColor, and StdBackColor with a single flexible and comprehensive command. This command is used to set attributes of a window to values other than the default, or to set the window-manager default styles. windowname can be a window’s name, class or resource string. It can contain the wildcards "*" and/or "?", which are matched in the usual unix filename manner. options is a comma separated list containing all or some of the keywords BorderWidth, HandleWidth, NoFocus, Icon/NoIcon, NoTitle/Title, NoHandles/Handles, WindowListSkip/WindowListHit, CirculateSkip/CirculateHit, StaysOnTop/StaysPut, Sticky/Slippery, StartIconic/StartNormal, Color, ForeColor, BackColor, StartsOnDesk/StartsAnyWhere, and IconTitle/NoIconTitle.

In the above list, some options are listed as style-option/opposite-style-option. The opposite-style-option for entries that have them describes the default behavior, and can be used if you want to change the default behavior.

Icon takes an (optional) unquoted string argument which is the icon bitmap or pixmap to use. StartsOnDesk takes a numeric argument which is the desktop number on which the window should be initially placed. BorderWidth takes a numeric argument which is the width of the border to place the window if it does not have resize-handles. HandleWidth takes a numeric argument which is the height of the bottom bar to place with the window if it has resize handles.

Color takes two arguments. The first is the window label’s text color, and the second is the window decoration’s normal background color. The two colors are separated with a slash. If the use of a slash causes problems, then the separate ForeColor and BackColor options can be used.

An example:

# Change default AfterStep behavior to no titlebars on windows!
# Also, define a default icon.
Style "*" NoTitle,Icon unknown1.xpm,BorderWidth 4,HandleWidth 5

# now, window specific changes: Style "Fvwm*" NoHandles,Sticky,WindowListSkip # the above line is for those that use Fvwm # modules with AfterStep Style "Pager" StaysOnTop Style "*clock" NoHandles,Sticky,StaysOnTop,WindowListSkip Style "xbiff" Sticky,WindowListSkip Style "Wharf" NoHandles,Sticky,WindowListSkip Style "sxpm" NoHandles

# Put title-bars back on xterms only! Style "xterm" Title, Color black/grey Style "rxvt" Icon term.xpm Style "xterm" Icon rterm.xpm Style "xcalc" Icon xcalc.xpm Style "xbiff" Icon mail1.xpm Style "xmh" Icon mail1.xpm, StartsOnDesk 2 Style "xman" Icon xman.xpm Style "matlab" Icon math4.xpm, StartsOnDesk 3 Style "xmag" Icon magnifying_glass2.xpm Style "xgraph" Icon graphs.xpm Style "Maker" StartsOnDesk 1 Style "signal" StartsOnDesk 3

Note that all properties for a window will be read together. In the above example "Pager" gets the property StaysOnTop via an exact window name match, but also gets NoHandles,Sticky, and WindowListSkip by a match to "AfterStep*". It will get NoTitle by virtue of a match to "*". If conflicting styles are specified for a window, then the last style specified will be used.

If the NoIcon attribute is set, then the specified window will simply disappear when it is iconified. The window can be recovered through the window list. If Icon is set without an argument, then the NoIcon attribute is cleared, but no icon is specified. An example which allows only the Pager module icon to exist:

Style "*" NoIcon
Style "Pager" Icon

CenterOnCirculate

When circulating, the desktop page containing the window which the pointer is moving to is automatically selected. If CenterOnCirculate is selected, then AfterStep will do its best to center the target window in the desktop viewport, rather than just lining up to the closest page.

DeskTopSize HorizontalxVertical

Defines the virtual desktop size in units of the physical screen size.

DeskTopScale Scale

Defines the virtual desktop scale with respect to the screen.

BoundaryWidth Width

Changes the bottom bar (handle) size (in pixels) on windows to the specified value. The default size is 8.

NoBoundaryWidth Width

Changes the width of the bottom bar (handle) for windows with no titles and no resize corners. The default is 0. Any positive or zero value is acceptable. The handles without resize corners have the same mouse and keyboard bindings as the handles on normal windows.

XORvalue number

Changes the value with which bits are XOR’ed when doing rubber-band window moving or resizing. Setting this value is a trial-and-error process.

EdgeScroll horizontal vertical

Specifies the percentage of a page to scroll when the cursor hits the edge of a page. If you don’t want any paging or scrolling when you hit the edge of a page, include EdgeScroll 0 0 in your .steprc file. If you want whole pages, use EdgeScroll 100 100. Both horizontal and vertical should be positive numbers.

If the horizontal and vertical percentages are multiplied by 1000, then scrolling will wrap around at the edge of the desktop. If "EdgeScroll 100000 100000" is used, AfterStep will scroll by whole pages, wrapping around at the edge of the desktop.

PagingDefault pagingdefaultvalue

Tells AfterStep if it should start up with paging enabled or disabled. "PagingDefault 0" will start AfterStep with paging disabled, "PagingDefault 1" will start AfterStep with paging enabled by default.

EdgeResistance scrolling moving

Tells how hard it should be to change the desktop viewport by moving the mouse over the edge of the screen, and how hard it should be to move a window over the edge of the screen.

The first parameter tells how milliseconds the pointer must spend on the screen edge before AfterStep will move the viewport. This is intended for people who use EdgeScroll 100 100, but find themselves accidentally flipping pages when they don’t want to.

The second parameter tells how many pixels over the edge of the screen a window’s edge must move before it actually moves partially off the screen.

Note that, with EdgeScroll 0 0, it is still possible to move or resize windows across the edge of the current screen. By making the first parameter to EdgeResistance 10000, this type of motion is impossible. With EdgeResistances less than 10000, but greater than 0, moving over pages becomes difficult but not impossible.

OpaqueMove percentage

Tells AfterStep the maximum size window with which opaque window movement should be used. The percentage is percent of the total screen area. With OpaqueMove 0, all windows will be moved using the traditional rubber-band outline. With OpaqueMove 100, all windows will be move as solid windows. The default is OpaqueMove 5 which allows small windows to be moved in an opaque manner, but large windows to be moved as rubber-bands. Using this option with large values can slow down your video response on slower systems.

ClickToFocus [flag]

Normally keyboard input goes to the window the mouse pointer is in. If this option is set, the keyboard input (aka focus) stays with one window until a new window is clicked on.

If the (optional) flag is given a nonzero value, a mouse button click that changes the keyboard focus is caught and processed only by AfterStep. If the flag is zero, or is not supplied, a click that changes the focus is passed through for the application to process.

When the flag is nonzero, it is useful to assign a NoFocus style to all applications that are entirely mouse-controlled (e.g. Wharf).

SloppyFocus

This option changes the way focus-follows-mouse (the AfterStep default) mode behaves when the mouse pointer enters the root window (that is, the background area). Normally, the keyboard focus would disappear at this stage, but when SloppyFocus is on, exiting a window to enter the root window leaves the focus unchanged. The focus will not be removed from the last (non-root) window you visited until the mouse pointer enters a new window.

SloppyFocus has no effect in ClickToFocus mode.

ClickToRaise buttons

In focus-follows-mouse mode, ClickToRaise specifies mouse buttons that raise a partially obscured window to the top. On a window that is fully visible (except a normal window may still be below StaysOnTop windows) all the mouse buttons behave normally. Please note that in most applications you can use mouse buttons in combination with the shift key to avoid the ClickToRaise behavior when needed.

In click-to-focus mode, ClickToRaise specifies the mouse buttons that raise an unfocused window to the top. The rest of the mouse buttons merely change the focus without raising, although you can have them do delayed raising with the AutoRaise command or the Auto module.

In both focusing modes, ClickToRaise is not triggered on window decorations such as the title bar, but only on the application area.

The mouse buttons are numbered as in the Button command. You can specify any or all of your mouse buttons here as a space- or comma-separated list.

OpaqueResize

Causes resize operations to be done with the window itself, instead of an outline. Using this option does not always work well on slower video systems.

DontMoveOff

Prevents windows from being moved off or initially placed off of the desktop. A few programs will not work correctly if you use this option. This only keeps windows from being completely lost off the edge of the desktop. It insists on keeping 16 pixels on the desktop, but doesn’t care a bit about keeping the whole window on the desk. See EdgeResistance if you don’t like having windows partially off the screen.

AutoRaise delay

This built-in was replaced by the module Auto(1).

Pager X_Location Y_Location

Enables a paging style of moving across the desktop. A Pager window will appear at ( X_Location, Y_Location ) (not a pop-up). Miniature versions of all the windows on the virtual desktop are shown in the pager. The color of the miniature version is the same as the color of the full-size window’s border.

In the Pager window, pressing mouse button 1 will move the desktop viewport to the selected page (in click-to-focus mode, it will also move the keyboard focus to the window whose miniature you click on). Pressing button 2 on a window in the pager will begin a window move, using the miniature to quickly move the window anywhere on the desktop. Pressing button 3 will move the top-left corner of the viewport to the location of the button press, even if it does not line up with a page. Dragging button 3 will cause the selected viewport to scroll as you move the pointer. The Pager is automatically sticky, but does not automatically StayOnTop.

Mouse Button Context Modifiers Function

Defines a mouse binding. Button is the mouse button number. If Button is zero, then any button will perform the specified function. Context describes in what context the binding applies. Valid contexts are R for the root window, W for an application window, T for a window title bar, S for a window titlebar, or bottom bar, F for a window frame (the handle corners), I for an Icon window, or any combination of these letters. 1 is for the left title-bar button and 2 is for the title-bar button A is for any context except for title-bar buttons. For instance, a context of FST will apply when the mouse is anywhere in a window’s border, except the title-bar buttons.

Modifiers is any combination of N for no modifiers, C for control, S for shift, M for Meta, or A for any modifier. For example, a modifier of CM will apply when both the Meta and shift keys are down. Function is one of the following: AfterStep’s built in functions, a Pop-up menu, or a user-defined function.

Key keyname Context Modifiers Function

Binds a keyboard key to a specified AfterStep built in function. Definition is the same as for a mouse binding, except that the mouse button number is replaced with a key name. The keyname is one of the entries from /usr/include/X11/keysymdef.h, with the leading XK_ omitted. The Context and Modifiers fields are defined as in the mouse binding. Function is one of the following: AfterStep’s built in functions, a Pop-up menu, or an exec call to a program.

Binding a key to a title-bar button will not cause that button to appear unless a mouse binding also exists.

IconBox left top right bottom

Defines regions of the screen in which to place icons. Up to four icon boxes can be defined. If an IconBox line is provided, the icons will automatically be placed in them, if possible. Each time a window is iconified, a new place is found for it. Icon boxes are searched for space going left to right, then top to bottom. Icons will not be automatically placed on top of other icons, but they may be placed underneath application windows. If left or right is negative, then AfterStep will add the screen width to it. If top or bottom is negative, then AfterStep will add the screen height to it. NOTE: -0 is not parsed as the right or bottom pixel on the screen. You have to use -1 instead.

If no IconBox line is provided, or all icon boxes are full, then AfterStep will place icons near the current pointer location.

StubbornIconPlacement

When used with IconBoxes, causes icons to avoid placing themselves underneath existing windows.

StubbornIcons

Changes de-iconification behavior a bit. Instead of having windows always de-Iconify themselves on the current page, the de-iconify into their original position.

SuppressIcons Prevents icon windows from being created or drawn. When used with the window-list, this provides a sort of icon manager.

StickyIcons

Causes icons to always stick to the screen’s glass. That is, icons always follow you around the desktop. When a window is de-iconified, it gets unstuck. Some people find this a useful way of moving windows around.

IconTitle

Makes AfterStep add icon titles to the application’s icon. Note that using icon titles will leave less space for the application icon itself on the button, since the icontitle covers up part of the button.

IconFont fontname

Makes AfterStep use the font fontname instead of "fixed" for the IconTitle fonts.

ButtonNoBorder

Defines that the icon buttons should not have any borders drawn around them. This is particularly useful to have "flat" icon buttons, or if one defines a pixmap as the background for the buttons that already includes a border.

ButtonTextureType num

Defines the gradient type to use on the icon buttons. See the discussion of TextureTypes for the allowable values for num. Use 0 for num if you want to set a solid color for the texture with ButtonBgColor.

ButtonTextureColor from to

Colors that the gradient will go from and to when gradients are drawn for icon buttons. The default values for from and to are #101030 and #303080 respectively. Values must be in either standard X color names or hex notation.

ButtonMaxColors NumColors

The number of colors to use on icon button textures. The default is 10 on 8-bit video systems and 128 on 16+ bit video systems.

ButtonBgColor Color

If ButtonTextureType is set to 0, this command forces AfterStep to use Color for the button background. The default value for Color is #bdbebd. Values must be in either standard X color names or hex notation.

ButtonPixmap xpmname

Defines the xpm file to be used as the background for icon buttons. This xpm will be what shows through the transparent pixels in the application’s defined xpm icon. Application icons can be defined using Icon or Style.

IconPath path

Specifies the full path name of a directory where bitmap (monochrome) icons can be found. The path should start with a slash. Multiple directories may be specified in a colon separated list, just like the PATH environment variable.

PixmapPath path

Specifies the full path name of a directory where pixmap (color) icons can be found. The path should start with a slash. Multiple directories may be specified in a colon separated list, just like the PATH environment variable.

Icon windowname bitmap-file

Specifies the bitmap to be used for a window when it is iconified. The windowname can be an applications window name or class name, and must be enclosed in quotes. The bitmap-file is either the full path name to a standard X11 bitmap file, or a file in the IconPath or PixmapPath. The specified bitmap/pixmap is used in preference to any icon supplied by the window itself.

If AfterStep is compiled with XPM support for color icons, then can be an XPM pixmap file.

windowname should be enclosed in double quotes, but bitmap-file should not. No environmental variables should be used in the bitmap-file specification.

If windowname is an empty string, then the specified file is the default icon, and will be used if no other icon bitmap or pixmap can be found:

Icon "" my-favorite-icon

DecorateTransients

Causes transient windows, which are normally left undecorated, to be given the usual AfterStep decorations. Note that some pop-up windows, such as the xterm menus, are not managed by the window manager, and still do not receive decorations.

RandomPlacement

Causes windows which would normally require user placement to be automatically placed in ever-so-slightly random locations.

SmartPlacement

Causes windows which would normally require user placement to be automatically placed in a smart location - a location in which they do not overlap any other windows on the screen. If no such position can be found, user-placement or random placement will be used as a fall-back method. For the best of all possible worlds, use both random placement and SmartPlacement.

StubbornPlacement

When using SmartPlacement, causes new windows to avoid placing themselves over icons.

NoPPosition

Instructs AfterStep to ignore the PPosition field when adding new windows. Adherence to the PPosition field is required for some applications, but if you don’t have one of those, its a real headache.

ClickTime

delay Specifies the maximum delay (in milli-seconds) between a button press and a button release for the Function builtin to consider the action a mouse click. The default delay is 150 milli-seconds.

The same delay is used to decide whether a pop-up menu brought up by pressing a mouse button should stay visible after the mouse button is released.

ModulePath

Specifies a path for AfterStep to search when looking for a module to load. The path is a colon separated list, just like the usual Unix PATH environment variable. Individual directories do not need trailing slashes.

Module ModuleName

Specifies a module which should be spawned during initialization. The modules in the main distribution are Wharf, Auto, Pager, and Audio. Fvwm 1.24 modules like FvwmPager, FvwmBanner, FvwmWinList, FvwmClean, FvwnIdent, FvwmSave, FvwmScroll, and FvwmDebug can also be used by AfterStep. These modules have their own man pages. Module can also be used as a builtin. Modules can be short lived transient programs, or, like Wharf, can be intended to remain for the duration of the X session. Modules called by Module will be terminated by the window-manager prior to restarts and quits, if possible. See the introductory section on modules.

Cursor cursor_num cursor_type

This provides a very awkward way of changing cursor styles. Cursor num tells which cursor you are changing, and is a number between 0 and 12, as follows:

0 POSITION      - used when initially placing windows
1 TITLE         - used in a window title-bar
2 DEFAULT       - used in windows that don’t bother to set
                  their cursor
3 SYS           - used in one of the title-bar buttons
4 MOVE          - used when moving or resizing windows
5 WAIT          - used during an EXEC builtin command
6 MENU          - used in menus
7 SELECT        - used for various builtin commands such as
                  iconify
8 DESTROY       - used for DESTROY and DELETE built-ins
9 TOP           - used in the top side-bar of a window
10 RIGHT        - used in the right side-bar (not available)
11 BOTTOM       - used in the bottom handle of a window
12 LEFT         - used in the left side-bar (not available)
13 TOP_LEFT     - used in the top left corner
14 TOP_RIGHT    - used in the top right corner
15 BOTTOM_LEFT  - used in the bottom left corner
16 BOTTOM_RIGHT - used in the bottom right corner

The cursor_type argument is a number which tells the cursor shape to use. The available numbers can be found in /usr/include/X11/cursorfont.h, and are currently even numbers between 0 and 152. At the current time, the following cursor types are available.

0   X_cursor              2   arrow
4   based_arrow_down      6   based_arrow_up
8   boat                  10  bogosity
12  bottom_left_corner    14  bottom_right_corner
16  bottom_side           18  bottom_tee
20  box_spiral            22  center_ptr
24  circle                26  clock
28  coffee_mug            30  cross
32  cross_reverse         34  crosshair
36  diamond_cross         38  dot
40  dotbox                42  double_arrow
44  draft_large           46  draft_small
48  draped_box            50  exchange
52  fleur                 54  gobbler
56  gumby                 58  hand1
60  hand2                 62  heart
64  icon                  66  iron_cross
68  left_ptr              70  left_side
72  left_tee              74  leftbutton
76  ll_angle              78  lr_angle
80  man                   82  middlebutton
84  mouse                 86  pencil
88  pirate                90  plus
92  question_arrow        94  right_ptr
96  right_side            98  right_tee
100 rightbutton           102 rtl_logo
104 sailboat              106 sb_down_arrow
108 sb_h_double_arrow     110 sb_left_arrow
112 sb_right_arrow        114 sb_up_arrow
116 sb_v_double_arrow     118 shuttle
120 sizing                122 spider
124 spraycan              126 star
128 target                130 tcross
132 top_left_arrow        134 top_left_corner
136 top_right_corner      138 top_side
140 top_tee               142 trek
144 ul_angle              146 umbrella
148 ur_angle              150 watch
152 xterm

AppsBackingStore

Causes application windows to request backing store. Specifying this option causes the window manager to fail to be ICCCM compliant. While this option can speed things up in an X-terminal, where re-draws of windows is expensive, it may not help much on regular workstations.

SaveUnders

Causes the AfterStep decoration frames to request saveunders. This will cause AfterStep to save those portions of windows that are not visible to memory (not video memory). This can significantly improve the performance during opaque moves, but it causes a significant increase in memory usage. This can also cause garbled display with some applications.

BackingStore

Causes AfterStep decorations to request backing store. See the discussion for AppsBackingStore.

Popup PopupName

Starts the definition of a pop-up menu which will later be bound to a mouse button or key. PopupName must be enclosed in quotes. Menu entries are included on lines following the Popup keyword. The menu definition ends with the key word EndPopup. Menu entries are specified as shown in the following example. The first word on each line is the built-in function which will be performed, followed by the caption (enclosed in quotes) which will be shown in the menu, followed by any additional arguments needed by the built-in function. Sub-menus can be specified by using the Popup built-in, as long as the sub-menu was defined earlier in the configuration file.

Popup "Window Ops"
       Title   "Window Ops"
       Move    "Move"
       Resize  "Resize"
       Raise   "Raise"
       Lower   "Lower"
       Iconify "(De)Iconify"
       Nop     " "
       Destroy "Destroy"
       Title   "HARDCOPY"
       Exec    "Hardcopy"  exec xdpr &
       Exec    "Hardcopy RV"  exec xdpr -rv &
EndPopup

Note that if a tab character is embedded in the caption of a menu entry, then the text following the tab will be entered into a second column in the menu, and the entire menu will be left-adjusted. This is intended for shortcut labeling. The tab character must really be a tab. If it is expanded into spaces it will not work! For example

Popup "Window Ops"
       Title   "Window Ops    Alt-F1"

Is the start of a left adjusted menu. Alt-F1 will be placed toward the right side of the menu. Shortcut keys may be specified in the menu definition by preceding the character with an ampersand. The ampersand will not be displayed, but the character after it will be displayed at the right side of the same entry, and if the user presses the corresponding key, then that item will be activated as if the user had clicked on it with the mouse. Only alphabetic and numeric characters may be used as shortcut keys. The shift state of the keyboard is ignored when testing shortcut characters. For example:-

Popup "Window Ops"
       Maximize "Ma&ximise" 100 100
EndMenu

When this menu is popped up, the entry will appear as "Maximize x", and pressing the x key will cause the current window to be maximized. Shortcut keys are not operative unless MENU_HOTKEYS was defined when building AfterStep. If WINDOWLIST_HOTKETS was also defined, then hot keys are automatically added to the WindowList when it is displayed.

Function FunctionName

Starts the definition of a complex function, composed of the AfterStep built-in functions, which will later be bound to a mouse button or key. FunctionName must be enclosed in quotes. Function entries are included on lines following the Function keyword. The definition ends with the key word EndFunction. Function entries are specified as shown in the following example. The first word on each line is the built-in function which will be per- formed, followed the type of event which should trigger the action (enclosed in quotes), followed by any additional arguments needed by the built-in function. Menus can be specified by using the Popup built-in, as long as the menu was defined earlier in the configuration file.

The trigger actions which are recognized are Immediate, Motion, Click, DoubleClick and TripleClick. Immediate actions are executed as soon as the function is activated, even if a window has not been selected. If there are actions other than immediate ones, AfterStep will wait to see if the user is clicking, double-clicking, triple-clicking or dragging the mouse. After the decision is made AfterStep will execute only the builtins from the function definition whose trigger action matches the action performed by the user. If the following example were bound to button 1 in a window title-bar, then, when button 1 is pressed, AfterStep would wait 150 msec to see if the button is released. If the button is not released, AfterStep will start a move operation. When the move operation is complete, a raise operation will be performed. If a button release is detected, then AfterStep will wait another 150 msec for a second click. If only one click is detected, then the window will be raised. If two clicks are detected, the window will be alternately raised and lowered. If three clicks are detected the window will be Shaded or un-Shaded, depending on the prior state of the window. The 150 msec wait duration can be altered using the ClickTime option.

Function "Move-or-Raise"
       Move         "Motion"
       Raise        "Motion"
       Raise        "Click"
       RaiseLower   "DoubleClick"
       Shade        "TripleClick"
EndFunction

The clicking, double-clicking and triple-clicking concepts do not carry through to using keyboard shortcuts.

Two special functions exist: InitFunction and RestartFunction. The InitFunction will be called when AfterStep is started for the first time in any X session, and can be used to start modules, set background patterns, and begin programs. The restart function will be called when AfterStep is restarted. It can be used to start modules and set background patterns, but probably should not be used to start programs.

BUILT IN FUNCTIONS

AfterStep supports a small set of built in functions which can be bound to keyboard or mouse buttons.

Nop

Does nothing. This is used to insert a blank line or separator in a menu. If the menu item specification is Nop " ", then a blank line is inserted. If it looks like Nop "", then nothing is inserted.

Title

Does nothing. This is used to insert a title line in a popup or menu.

Beep

Makes the computer beep.

Quit

Exits AfterStep, generally causing X to exit too.

Restart name WindowManagerName

Causes AfterStep to re-read itself if WindowManagerName = afterstep, or to switch to an alternate window manager if WindowManagerName != afterstep. If the window manager is not in your default search path, then you should use the full path name for WindowManagerName.

WindowManagerName is not quoted, but name is. name is the name that appears in a menu, if that is where the function is called from. name is required even if the function is not called from a menu, for ease of parsing.

This command should not have a trailing ampersand or any command line arguments, and should not make use of any environmental variables. Of the following examples, the first three are sure losers, but the fourth is OK:

Key F1 R N Restart " " afterstep &
Key F1 R N Restart " " $(HOME)/bin/afterstep
Key F1 R N Restart " " twm -f .mystartupfile
Key F1 R N Restart " " /usr/local/bin/afterstep

Refresh

Causes all windows on the screen to re-draw themselves.

Move

Allows the user to move a window. If called from somewhere in a window or its border, then that window will be moved. If called from the root window, then the user will be allowed to select the target window

Resize

Allows the user to resize a window.

Raise

Allows the user to raise a window.

Lower

Allows the user to lower a window.

RaiseLower Alternately raises and lowers a window.

Shade Emulates the MacOS WindowShade feature. Once activated the window will become a titlebar only.

Delete Sends a message to a window asking that it remove itself, frequently causing the application to exit.

Destroy Destroys a window. Guaranteed to get rid of the window, but is a fairly violent way to terminate an application.

Close If the window accepts the delete window protocol, a message is sent to the window asking it to grace- fully remove itself. If the window does not under- stand the delete window protocol, then the window is destroyed.

Iconify [value] Iconifies a window if it is not already iconified, or de-iconifies it if it is already iconified. If the optional argument value is positive, the only iconification will be allowed, and de-iconification will be inhibited. It the optional argument is negative, only de-iconification will be allowed.

Maximize [horizontal vertical] Without its optional arguments, Maximize causes the window to alternately switch from a full-screen size to its normal size.

With the optional arguments horizontal and vertical, which are expressed as percentage of a full screen, the user can control the new size of the window. If horizontal > 0, then the horizontal dimension of the window will be set to horizontal*screen_width/100. The vertical resizing is similar. For example, the following will switch a window to the full vertical size of the screen: Maximize 0 100

The following causes windows to be stretched to the full width: Maximize 100 0

This makes a window that is half the screen size in each direction: Maximize 50 50

Values larger than 100 can be used with caution.

Stick Makes a window sticky if it is not already sticky, or non-sticky if it is already sticky.

Scroll horizontal vertical Scrolls the virtual desktop’s viewport by horizontal pages in the x-direction, and vertical pages in the y-direction. Either or both entries may be negative. Both horizontal and vertical values are expressed in percent of pages, so Scroll 100 100 means to scroll down and left by one full page. Scroll 50 25 means to scroll left half a page and down a quarter of a page. The scroll function should not be called from pop-up menus. Normally, scrolling stops at the edge of the desktop.

If the horizontal and vertical percentages are multiplied by 1000, then scrolling will wrap around at the edge of the desktop. If "Scroll 100000 0" is executed over and over, AfterStep will move to the next desktop page on each execution, and will wrap around at the edge of the desktop, so that every page is hit in turn.

TogglePage Temporarily disables edge scrolling. Edge scrolling can be re-enabled by calling this again.

CursorMove horizontal vertical Moves the mouse pointer by horizontal pages in the x-direction, and vertical pages in the y-direction. Either or both entries may be negative. Both horizontal and vertical values are expressed in percent of pages, so CursorMove 100 100 means to move down and left by one full page. CursorMove 50 25 means to move left half a page and down a quarter of a page. The CursorMove function should not be called from pop-up menus.

CirculateUp [name window_name] Causes the pointer to move to the previous window in the list of windows for which CirculateSkip has not not been specified as CirculateSkip.

If the optional arguments are supplied, then the focus will move to the first window whose name (or icon name or class) matches window_name. The optional argument name is required if window_name is supplied, and is enclosed in quotes. This argument is the name which appears in menus if the function is called from a menu, but serves no purpose if the function is not called from a menu

Here’s an example that moves the focus to an xterm window when Alt-F1 is pressed:

Key F1 A M CirculateUp "whatever" xterm

CirculateDown [name window_name] Causes the pointer to move to the next window in the list of windows for which CirculateSkip has not not been specified as CirculateSkip.

If the optional arguments are supplied, then the focus will move to the first window whose name (or icon name or class) matches window_name. The optional argument name is required if window_name is supplied, and is enclosed in quotes. This argument is the name which appears in menus if the function is called from a menu, but serves no purpose if the function is not called from a menu

Warp [name window_name] Same as CirculateDown, but De-Iconifies any iconified windows as it focuses on them.

Wait name This built-in is intended to be used in AfterStep functions only. It causes execution of a function to pause until a new window named name appears. AfterStep remains fully functional during a wait. This is particularly useful in the InitFunction, if you are trying to start windows on specific desktops:

Function "InitFunction"
       Exec "I"  exec xterm -geometry 80x64+0+0
       Wait "I"  xterm
       Desk "I"  0 2
       Exec "I"  exec xmh -font fixed -geometry 507x750+0+0 &
       Wait "I"  xmh
       Desk "I"  0 0
EndFunction

The above function starts an xterm on the current desk, waits for it to map itself, then switches to desk 2, and starts an xmh. After the xmh window appears, control moves to desk 0.

Focus Moves the viewport or window as needed to make the selected window visible. Sets the keyboard focus to the selected window. Raises the window if needed to make it visible. Warps the pointer into the selected window in focus-follows-mouse mode. Does not de-iconify. This function is primarily handy when used with a module such as the FvwmWinList.

Desk arg1 arg2 Changes to another desktop (workspace, room).

If arg1 is non zero, then the next desktop number will be the current desktop number plus arg1. Desktop numbers, like arg1 can be negative.

If arg1 is zero, then the new desktop number will be arg2.

The number of active desktops is determined dynamically. Only desktops which contain windows or are currently being displayed are active. Desktop numbers must be between 2147483647 and -2147483648 (is that enough?).

WindowsDesk new_desk Moves the selected window to the desktop specified as new_desk.

GotoPage x y Moves the desktop viewport to page (x,y). The upper left page is (0,0), the upper right is (N,0), where N is one less than the current number of horizontal pages specified in the DeskTopSize command. The lower left page is (0,M), and the lower right page is (N,M), where M is the desktop’s vertical size as specified in the DeskTopSize command. The GotoPage function should not be used in a pop-up menu.

WindowList arg1 arg2 Generates a pop-up menu (and pops it up) in which the title and geometry of each of the windows currently on the desk top are shown. The geometry of iconified windows is shown in brackets. Selecting an item from the window list pop-up menu will cause that window to be moved onto the desktop if it is currently not on it, will move the desktop viewport to the page containing the upper left hand corner of the window, will de-iconify the window if it is iconified, and will raise the window.

If arg1 is an even number, then the windows will be listed using the window name (the name that shows up in the title-bar). If it is odd, then the window’s icon name is used.

If arg1 is less than 2, then all windows on all desktops (except those listed in WindowListSkip directives), will be show.

If arg1 is 2 or 3, then only windows on the current desktop will be shown.

If arg1 is 4 or 5, then only windows on desktop number arg2 will be shown.

Exec name command Executes command. command is not quoted, but name is. name is the name that appears in a menu, if that is where the function is called from. name is required even if the function is not called from a menu, for ease of parsing.

The following example binds function key F1 in the root window, with no modifiers, to the exec function. The program rxvt(1) will be started, with an assortment of options.

Key F1 R N Exec "rxvt" exec rxvt -fg yellow -bg blue -e /bin/tcsh &

Popup NOTE: This built-in takes a slightly different form when used to bind a sub-menu into a menu than it does when binding the main menu to a key or mouse button. The form described here is for binding a main menu to a key or mouse button. Used to bind a previously defined pop-up menu to a key or mouse button.

The following example binds mouse buttons 2 and 3 to a pop-up called "Window Ops", whose definition was provided as an example earlier in this man page. The menu will pop-up if the buttons 2 or 3 are pressed in the window frame, side-bar, or title-bar, with no modifiers (none of shift, control, or meta).

Mouse 2   FST  N    Popup "Window Ops"
Mouse 3   FST  N    Popup "Window Ops"

Pop-ups can be bound to keys through the use of the key modifier. Pop-ups can be operated without using the mouse by binding to keys, and operating via the up arrow, down arrow, and enter keys.

The following example defines a sub menu, "Quit-Verify" and binds it into a main menu, called "Utilities".

Popup "Quit-Verify"
       Title   "Really Quit AfterStep?"
       Quit    "Yes, Really Quit"
       Restart "Restart AfterStep" afterstep
       Nop     "No, Don’t Quit"
EndPopup

Popup "Utilities" Title "Utilities" Exec "Xterm" exec xterm & Exec "Rxvt" exec rxvt & Exec "Top" exec rxvt -T Top -n Top -e top & Exec "Calculator" exec xcalc & Exec "Xman" exec xman & Exec "Xmag" exec xmag & Popup "Exit AfterStep" Quit-Verify EndPopup

Sub-menus must be defined prior to the main menu in which they are bound. Sub-menu nesting can be arbitrarily deep.

Function Used to bind a previously defined function to a key or mouse button.

The following example binds mouse button 1 to a function called "Move-or-Raise", whose definition was provided as an example earlier in this man page. After performing this binding, AfterStep will execute to move-or-raise function whenever button 1 is pressed in a window title-bar.

Mouse 1 T A Function "Move-or-Raise"

Module ModuleName Specifies a module which should be spawned. At the current time, the only included modules are Wharf and Pager. Wharf will normally be spawned during initialization instead of in response to a mouse binding or menu action. Modules can be short lived transient programs, or, like Wharf, can be intended to remain for the duration of the X session. Module will be terminated by the window manager prior to restarts and quits, if possible.

KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

All window-manager operations can be performed from the keyboard, so mouse-less operation should not be difficult. In addition to scrolling around the virtual desktop by binding the Scroll built-in to appropriate keys, Pop-ups, move, resize and most other built-ins can be bound to keys. Once a built-in function is started, the pointer is moved by using the up, down, left, and right arrows, and the action is terminated by pressing return. Holding down the shift key will cause the pointer movement to go in larger steps, and holding down the control key will cause the cursor movement to go in smaller steps. Standard emacs and vi cursor movement controls (^n, ^p, ^f, ^b, and ^j, ^k, ^h, ^l) can be used instead of the arrow keys.

SUPPLIED CONFIGURATION

A sample configuration file, sample.steprc was supplied with the AfterStep distribution. It is well commented and can be used as a source of examples for AfterStep configuration.

USE ON MULTI-SCREEN DISPLAYS

AfterStep does work on multi-screen displays. If the -s command line argument is not given to AfterStep , it will automatically start up on every screen on the specified display. After AfterStep starts, each screen is treated independently. Re-starts of AfterStep need to be performed separately on each screen. The use of EdgeScroll 0 0 is strongly recommended for multi-screen displays.

You may need to quit on each screen to quit from the X session completely.

Multi-screen support is only available if you compile with -DMULTIPLE_SCREENS

SEE ALSO

Wharf(1), Animate(1), Audio(1), Auto(1), asclock(1), Banner(1), Pager(1)

AUTHORS

Frank Fejes (frank@canweb.net)

Alfredo Kenji Kojima (kojima@inf.ufrgs.br)

Dan Weeks (dan@mango.sfasu.edu)

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AfterStep AFTERSTEP (1.0) March 1997

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