The target should be specified as a single IP address or hostname. You cannot specify multiple targets, IP networks or ranges.
If you use an IP address for the target, you can use the
-o option to pass the
--numeric option to
arp-scan, which will prevent it from attempting DNS lookups. This can speed up the
fingerprinting process, especially on systems with a slow or faulty DNS
arp-fingerprint fingerprints the specified target host using the ARP protocol.
It sends various different types of ARP request to the target, and records
which types it responds to. From this, it constructs a fingerprint string
consisting of "1" where the target responded and "0" where it did not.
An example of a fingerprint string is
01000100000. This fingerprint string is then used to lookup the likely target operating system.
Many of the fingerprint strings are shared by several operating systems, so
there is not always a one-to-one mapping between fingerprint strings and
operating systems. Also the fact that a systems fingerprint matches a certain
operating system (or list of operating systems) does not necessarily mean that
the system being fingerprinted is that operating system, although it is quite
likely. This is because the list of operating systems is not exhaustive; it is
just what I have discovered to date, and there are bound to be operating
systems that are not listed.
The ARP fingerprint of a system is generally a function of that systems
kernel (although it is possible for the ARP function to be implemented in
user space, it almost never is).
Sometimes, an operating system can give different fingerprints depending
on the configuration. An example is Linux, which will respond to a non-local
source IP address if that IP is routed through the interface being tested.
This is both good and bad: on one hand it makes the fingerprinting task more
complex; but on the other, it can allow some aspects of the system configuration
to be determined.
Sometimes the fact that two different operating systems share a common ARP
fingerprint string points to a re-use of networking code. One example of
this is Windows NT and FreeBSD.
arp-scan to send the ARP requests and receive the replies.
There are other methods that can be used to fingerprint a system using
arp-scan which can be used in addition to
arp-fingerprint. These additional methods are not included in
arp-fingerprint either because they are likely to cause disruption to the target system, or
because they require knowledge of the targets configuration that may not
always be available.
arp-fingerprint is still being developed, and the results should not be relied on. As most
of the ARP requests that it sends are non-standard, it is possible that it
may disrupt some systems, so caution is advised.
If you find a system that
arp-fingerprint reports as
UNKNOWN, and you know what operating system it is running, could you please send
details of the operating system and fingerprint to
email@example.com so I can include it in future versions. Please include the exact version
of the operating system if you know it, as fingerprints sometimes change
$ arp-fingerprint 192.168.0.1
192.168.0.1 01000100000 Linux 2.2, 2.4, 2.6
$ arp-fingerprint -o "-N -I eth1" 192.168.0.202
192.168.0.202 11110100000 FreeBSD 5.3, Win98, WinME, NT4, 2000, XP, 2003