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Man Pages

Manual Reference Pages  -  CHDIR (1)


builtin, !, %, ., :, @, [, {, }, alias, alloc, bg, bind, bindkey, break, breaksw, builtins, case, cd, chdir, command, complete, continue, default, dirs, do, done, echo, echotc, elif, else, end, endif, endsw, esac, eval, exec, exit, export, false, fc, fg, filetest, fi, for, foreach, getopts, glob, goto, hash, hashstat, history, hup, if, jobid, jobs, kill, limit, local, log, login, logout, ls-F, nice, nohup, notify, onintr, popd, printenv, printf, pushd, pwd, read, readonly, rehash, repeat, return, sched, set, setenv, settc, setty, setvar, shift, source, stop, suspend, switch, telltc, test, then, time, times, trap, true, type, ulimit, umask, unalias, uncomplete, unhash, unlimit, unset, unsetenv, until, wait, where, which, while - shell built-in commands


See Also


See the built-in command description in the appropriate shell manual page.


Shell builtin commands are commands that can be executed within the running shell’s process. Note that, in the case of csh(1) builtin commands, the command is executed in a subshell if it occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last.

If a command specified to the shell contains a slash /’, the shell will not execute a builtin command, even if the last component of the specified command matches the name of a builtin command. Thus, while specifying "echo" causes a builtin command to be executed under shells that support the echo builtin command, specifying "/bin/echo" or "./echo" does not.

While some builtin commands may exist in more than one shell, their operation may be different under each shell which supports them. Below is a table which lists shell builtin commands, the standard shells that support them and whether they exist as standalone utilities.

Only builtin commands for the csh(1) and sh(1) shells are listed here. Consult a shell’s manual page for details on the operation its builtin commands. Beware that the sh(1) manual page, at least, calls some of these commands "built-in commands" and some of them "reserved words". Users of other shells may need to consult an info(1) page or other sources of documentation.

Commands marked "No**" under External do exist externally, but are implemented as scripts using a builtin command of the same name.
Command      External      csh 1      sh(1)
!      No      No      Yes
%      No      Yes      No
.      No      No      Yes
:      No      Yes      Yes
@      No      Yes      No
[      Yes      No      Yes
{      No      No      Yes
}      No      No      Yes
alias      No**      Yes      Yes
alloc      No      Yes      No
bg      No**      Yes      Yes
bind      No      No      Yes
bindkey      No      Yes      No
break      No      Yes      Yes
breaksw      No      Yes      No
builtin      No      No      Yes
builtins      No      Yes      No
case      No      Yes      Yes
cd      No**      Yes      Yes
chdir      No      Yes      Yes
command      No**      No      Yes
complete      No      Yes      No
continue      No      Yes      Yes
default      No      Yes      No
dirs      No      Yes      No
do      No      No      Yes
done      No      No      Yes
echo      Yes      Yes      Yes
echotc      No      Yes      No
elif      No      No      Yes
else      No      Yes      Yes
end      No      Yes      No
endif      No      Yes      No
endsw      No      Yes      No
esac      No      No      Yes
eval      No      Yes      Yes
exec      No      Yes      Yes
exit      No      Yes      Yes
export      No      No      Yes
false      Yes      No      Yes
fc      No**      No      Yes
fg      No**      Yes      Yes
filetest      No      Yes      No
fi      No      No      Yes
for      No      No      Yes
foreach      No      Yes      No
getopts      No**      No      Yes
glob      No      Yes      No
goto      No      Yes      No
hash      No**      No      Yes
hashstat      No      Yes      No
history      No      Yes      No
hup      No      Yes      No
if      No      Yes      Yes
jobid      No      No      Yes
jobs      No**      Yes      Yes
kill      Yes      Yes      Yes
limit      No      Yes      No
local      No      No      Yes
log      No      Yes      No
login      Yes      Yes      No
logout      No      Yes      No
ls-F      No      Yes      No
nice      Yes      Yes      No
nohup      Yes      Yes      No
notify      No      Yes      No
onintr      No      Yes      No
popd      No      Yes      No
printenv      Yes      Yes      No
printf      Yes      No      Yes
pushd      No      Yes      No
pwd      Yes      No      Yes
read      No**      No      Yes
readonly      No      No      Yes
rehash      No      Yes      No
repeat      No      Yes      No
return      No      No      Yes
sched      No      Yes      No
set      No      Yes      Yes
setenv      No      Yes      No
settc      No      Yes      No
setty      No      Yes      No
setvar      No      No      Yes
shift      No      Yes      Yes
source      No      Yes      No
stop      No      Yes      No
suspend      No      Yes      No
switch      No      Yes      No
telltc      No      Yes      No
test      Yes      No      Yes
then      No      No      Yes
time      Yes      Yes      No
times      No      No      Yes
trap      No      No      Yes
true      Yes      No      Yes
type      No**      No      Yes
ulimit      No**      No      Yes
umask      No**      Yes      Yes
unalias      No**      Yes      Yes
uncomplete      No      Yes      No
unhash      No      Yes      No
unlimit      No      Yes      No
unset      No      Yes      Yes
unsetenv      No      Yes      No
until      No      No      Yes
wait      No**      Yes      Yes
where      No      Yes      No
which      Yes      Yes      No
while      No      Yes      Yes


csh(1), echo(1), false(1), info(1), kill(1), login(1), nice(1), nohup(1), printenv(1), printf(1), pwd(1), sh(1), test(1), time(1), true(1), which(1)


The builtin manual page first appeared in
.Fx 3.4 .


This manual page was written by
.An Sheldon Hearn Aq .
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