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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  CTWM (1)

NAME

ctwm - Claude’s Tab Window Manager for the X Window System

CONTENTS

Syntax
Description
Options
Customization
Variables
Bindings
Menus
Icons
Sounds
Bugs
Files
Copyright
Authors

SYNTAX

ctwm [-display dpy] [-s] [-cfgchk] [-f initfile] [-v] [-n] [-k] [-K m4file] [-w [win-id]]

DESCRIPTION

ctwm is a window manager for the X Window System. It provides titlebars, shaped windows, virtual screens (workspaces), several forms of icon management, user-defined macro functions, click-to-type and pointer-driven keyboard focus, and user-specified key and pointer button bindings. It is actually twm(1) (Tab Window Manager) from the MIT X11 distribution slightly modified to accommodate the use of several virtual screens (workspaces). It is heavily inspired from the Hewlett-Packard vuewm window manager. In addition, ctwm can use coloured, shaped icons and background root pixmaps in XPM format [from Arnaud Le Hors], any format understood by the imconv package [from the San Diego Supercomputer Center], and xwd files. ctwm can be compiled to use both, either or none of the above icon/pixmap formats.

This program is usually started by the user’s session manager or startup script. When used from xdm(1) or xinit(1) without a session manager, ctwm is frequently executed in the foreground as the last client. When run this way, exiting ctwm causes the session to be terminated (i.e. logged out).

By default, application windows are surrounded by a \(oqframe\(cq with a titlebar at the top and a special border around the window. The titlebar contains the window’s name, a rectangle that is lit when the window is receiving keyboard input, and function boxes known as \(oqtitlebuttons\(cq at the left and right edges of the titlebar.

Pressing pointer Button1 (usually the left-most button unless it has been changed with xmodmap) on a titlebutton will invoke the function associated with the button. In the default interface, windows are iconified by clicking (pressing and then immediately releasing) the left titlebutton (which looks like a Dot). Conversely, windows are deiconified by clicking in the associated icon or entry in the icon manager (see description of the variable ShowIconManager and of the function f.showiconmgr).

Windows are resized by pressing the right titlebutton (which resembles a group of nested squares), dragging the pointer over edge that is to be moved, and releasing the pointer when the outline of the window is the desired size. Similarly, windows are moved by pressing in the title or highlight region, dragging a window outline to the new location, and then releasing when the outline is in the desired position. Just clicking in the title or highlight region raises the window without moving it.

When new windows are created, ctwm will honor any size and location information requested by the user (usually through -geometry command line argument or resources for the individual applications). Otherwise, an outline of the window’s default size, its titlebar, and lines dividing the window into a 3x3 grid that track the pointer are displayed. Clicking pointer Button1 will position the window at the current position and give it the default size. Pressing pointer Button2 (usually the middle pointer button) and dragging the outline will give the window its current position but allow the sides to be resized as described above. Clicking pointer Button3 (usually the right pointer button) will give the window its current position but attempt to make it long enough to touch the bottom the screen.

OPTIONS

ctwm accepts the following command line options:

-display dpy
  This option specifies the X server to use.
-s This option indicates that only the default screen (as specified by -display or by the DISPLAY environment variable) should be managed. By default, ctwm will attempt to manage all screens on the display.
-cfgchk This option causes ctwm to only try to parse the config file, and indicate whether errors are found.
-f filename
  This option specifies the name of the startup file to use. ctwm will first try to load filename.num, where num is the screen number. If it fails, it will try to load filename. By default, ctwm will look in the user’s home directory for files named .ctwmrc.num, .ctwmrc, .twmrc.num, or .twmrc (where num is a screen number).
-v This option indicates that ctwm should print error messages whenever an unexpected X Error event is received. This can be useful when debugging applications but can be distracting in regular use.
-n This option indicates that ctwm should not filter the startup file through m4. Available only if ctwm is compiled with the USEM4 flag.
-k This option indicates that ctwm should keep the definitions it prepends to your startup file when filtering through m4 in /tmp. Available only if ctwm is compiled with the USEM4 flag.
-K m4file This option indicates that ctwm should keep the result of filtering your startup file through m4 in the named file. Available only if ctwm is compiled with the USEM4 flag.

-version ctwm just prints its version number.

-info ctwm prints its detailed version and compile time options.

-w [win-id] If -w is specified without a win-id value, ctwm does not take over the whole screen(s), instead it creates a new window that becomes its root window. if the win-id value is given, it is considered to be the id of an existing window, in which case, ctwm will try to use this window as root window. You can run any number of instantiation of ctwm at the same time. You can even have embedded ctwm instantiations. This is totally useless, but I like it. The f.adoptwindow function can be used to capture an existing window belonging to another ctwm. A possible use of such mode can be to test new configuration file without restarting ctwm.
-W This option tells ctwm not to display any welcome when starting.

CUSTOMIZATION

Much of ctwm’s appearance and behavior can be controlled by providing a startup file in one of the following locations (searched in order for each screen being managed when ctwm begins):
$HOME/.ctwmrc.screennumber
  The screennumber is a small positive number (e.g. 0, 1, etc.) representing the screen number (e.g. the last number in the DISPLAY environment variable host:displaynum.screennum) that would be used to contact that screen of the display. This is intended for displays with multiple screens of differing visual types.
$HOME/.ctwmrc
  This is the usual name for an individual user’s startup file.
$HOME/.twmrc.screennumber
$HOME/.twmrc
  The users twm startup file.
/usr/lib/X11/twm/system.ctwmrc
  If none of the preceding files are found, ctwm will look in this file for a default configuration. This is often tailored by the site administrator to provide convenient menus or familiar bindings for novice users.
If no startup files are found, ctwm will use the built-in defaults described above. The only resource used by ctwm is bitmapFilePath for a colon-separated list of directories to search when looking for bitmap files (for more information, see the Athena Widgets manual and xrdb(1)).

ctwm startup files are logically broken up into three types of specifications: Variables, Bindings, Menus. The Variables section must come first and is used to describe the fonts, colors, cursors, border widths, icon and window placement, highlighting, autoraising, layout of titles, warping, use of the icon manager. The Bindings section usually comes second and is used to specify the functions that should be to be invoked when keyboard and pointer buttons are pressed in windows, icons, titles, and frames. The Menus section gives any user-defined menus (containing functions to be invoked or commands to be executed).

Variable names and keywords are case-insensitive. Strings must be surrounded by double quote characters (e.g. \(oqblue\(cq) and are case-sensitive. A pound sign (#) outside of a string causes the remainder of the line in which the character appears to be treated as a comment.

M4 PREPROCESSING

ctwm uses m4(1) to pre-process its setup files. When ctwm starts up, it opens a file for input as described above. But, it processes that file through m4 before parsing it. So, you can use m4 macros to perform operations at runtime. This makes it very easy to work when you use many different displays, with different characteristics. For example, If you want to set the lower right section of the screen to be your IconRegion, (see below for details on the IconRegion variable) you can use m4 directives and pre-defined symbols to calculate the region you want. For example:



define(IRegion, translit(eval(WIDTH/3)*eval(HEIGHT/2)+eval(WIDTH-WIDTH/3)-0, *, x))
IconRegion  "IRegion" SOUTH EAST 75 25


will define the lower half, and right-hand third of the screen. The above makes use of symbols that are predefined in m4 by ctwm. The symbols WIDTH and HEIGHT are calculated by ctwm and written into a temporary file for m4 to use. The following symbols are predefined by ctwm:
SERVERHOST This variable is set to the name of the machine that is running the X server.
CLIENTHOST The machine that is running the clients. (ie, ctwm)
HOSTNAME The canonical hostname running the clients. (ie. a fully-qualified version of CLIENTHOST)
USER The name of the user running the program. Gotten from the environment.
HOME The user’s home directory. Gotten from the environment.
PIXMAP_DIRECTORY
  The directory where the ctwm pictures are installed.
VERSION The X major protocol version. As seen by ProtocolVersion(3).
REVISION The X minor protocol revision. As seen by ProtocolRevision(3).
VENDOR The vendor of your X server. For example: MIT X Consortium.
RELEASE The release number of your X server. For MIT X11R5, this is 5.
WIDTH The width of your display in pixels.
HEIGHT The height of your display in pixels.
X_RESOLUTION The X resolution of your display in pixels per meter.
Y_RESOLUTION The Y resolution of your display in pixels per meter.
PLANES The number of bit planes your display supports in the default root window.
BITS_PER_RGB The number of significant bits in an RGB color. (log base 2 of the number of distinct colors that can be created. This is often different from the number of colors that can be displayed at once.)
TWM_TYPE Tells which twm offshoot is running. It will always be set to the string \(oqctwm\(cq in this program. This is useful for protecting parts of your .twmrc file that ctwm proper won’t understand (like WorkSpaces) so that it is still usable with other twm programs.
TWM_VERSION Tells which ctwm version is running in the form of a floating point number.
CLASS Your visual class. Will return one of StaticGray, GrayScale, StaticColor, PseudoColor, TrueColor, DirectColor, or, if it cannot determine what you have, NonStandard.

COLOR This will be either \(oqYes\(cq or \(oqNo\(cq. This is just a wrapper around the above definition. Returns \(oqYes\(cq on *Color, and \(oqNo\(cq on StaticGray and GrayScale.

XPM Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with XPM.

JPEG Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with JPEG.

IMCONV Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with IMCONV.

GNOME Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with GNOME.

SOUNDS Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with USE_SOUND.

TWM_CAPTIVE This will be either \(oqYes\(cq or \(oqNo\(cq. \(oqYes\(cq if the current ctwm is captive (flag -w), \(oqNo\(cq in the other case.

TWM_CAPTIVE_NAME
  Defined only if TWM_CAPTIVE is also defined. Contains the name of the captive ctwm (-name flag);

You may well find that if you research the m4(1) manual well, and understand the power of m4, this will be a very useful and powerful tool. But, if you use any of the symbols which are predefined by m4, you are in severe danger! For example, the Sun m4 predefines shift, so if you use that name in your .ctwmrc, you are out of luck.

The availability of the m4 preprocessing is subject to the compilation define USEM4.

VARIABLES

Many of the aspects of ctwm’s user interface are controlled by variables that may be set in the user’s startup file. Some of the options are enabled or disabled simply by the presence of a particular keyword. Other options require keywords, numbers, strings, or lists of all of these.

Lists are surrounded by braces and are usually separated by whitespace or a newline. For example:



AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }


or



AutoRaise
{
   "emacs"
   "XTerm"
   "Xmh"
}


When a variable containing a list of strings representing windows is searched (e.g. to determine whether or not to enable autoraise as shown above), a string must be an exact, case-sensitive match to the window’s name (given by the WM_NAME window property), resource name or class name (both given by the WM_CLASS window property). The preceding example would enable autoraise on windows named \(oqemacs\(cq as well as any xterm (since they are of class \(oqXTerm\(cq) or xmh windows (which are of class \(oqXmh\(cq).

String arguments that are interpreted as filenames (see the Pixmaps, Cursors, and IconDirectory below) will prepend the user’s directory (specified by the HOME environment variable) if the first character is a tilde (~). If, instead, the first character is a colon (:), the name is assumed to refer to one of the internal bitmaps that are used to create the default titlebars symbols: :xlogo or :iconify (both refer to the X used for the iconify button), :resize (the nested squares used by the resize button), and :question (the question mark used for non-existent bitmap files).

The following variables may be specified at the top of a ctwm startup file. Lists of window name prefix strings are indicated by win-list. Optional arguments are shown in square brackets:
AlwaysOnTop { win-list } This variable specifies a list of windows (all windows if the list is defaulted) that ctwm will try its best to maintain on top of others. This doesn’t work in all case.

AlwaysShowWindowWhenMovingFromWorkspaceManager When ReallyMoveInWorkspaceManager is present and the user is moving a window from the WorkSpaceMap, ctwm display the actual window only if it crosses the current active workspace. If AlwaysShowWindowWhenMovingFromWorkspaceManager is present, the actual window is always visible during the move, regardless of whether it crosses the current workspace or not. The Shift key toggles this behaviour.

AlwaysSqueezeToGravity [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that ctwm should obey window gravity when squeezing a window even when the window has a titlebar. Normally, ctwm will always squeeze a window that has a titlebar toward the north. The optional win-list may be used to control which windows this applies on.

AnimationSpeed speed The speed argument is a non-negative integer. It determines the number of times a second animations (if any) are updated. If speed is 0, animations are freezed. The default value is 0.

AutoFocusToTransients Transient windows get focus automatically when created. Useful with programs that have keyboard shortcuts that pop up windows.

AutoLower { win-list } This variable specifies a list of windows (all windows if the list is defaulted) to be automatically lowered whenever the point leaves a window. This action can be interactively enabled or disabled on individual windows using the function f.autolower.

AutoOccupy This variable specifies that clients will automatically change their occupation when their name or icon name changes. The new occupation will be recalculated from the Occupy and OccupyAll fields in the .ctwmrc file.

AutoRaise { win-list } This variable specifies a list of windows (all windows if the list is defaulted) to be automatically raised whenever the pointer has come to rest in a window for the amount of time specified by the RaiseDelay variable. This action can be interactively enabled or disabled on individual windows using the function f.autoraise.

AutoRaiseIcons Icons are raised when the cursor enters it. Useful with ShrinkIconTitles.

AutoRelativeResize This variable indicates that dragging out a window size (either when initially sizing the window with pointer Button2 or when resizing it) should not wait until the pointer has crossed the window edges. Instead, moving the pointer automatically causes the nearest edge or edges to move by the same amount. This allows the resizing of windows that extend off the edge of the screen. If the pointer is in the center of the window, or if the resize is begun by pressing a titlebutton, ctwm will still wait for the pointer to cross a window edge (to prevent accidents). This option is particularly useful for people who like the press-drag-release method of sweeping out window sizes.

AutoSqueeze { win-list } These windows will be auto-squeezed (see f.squeeze). i.e. automatically unsqueezed when they get focus, and squeezed when they loose it. Useful for the workspace manager. Not authorized for icon managers.

BeNiceToColormap By defaults new colors are allocated for shadows when a 3D look is used, but when you specify BeNiceToColormap ctwm uses stipling instead of new colors, the effect is less beautiful, but acceptable. In this case ClearShadowContrast and DarkShadowContrast have no effects.

BorderBottom pixels This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone at the bottom of the screen. All constrained window functions (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider this zone as offscreen. Default is 0.

BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }] This variable specifies the default color of the border to be placed around all non-iconified windows, and may only be given within a Color or Monochrome list. The optional wincolorlist specifies a list of window and color name pairs for specifying particular border colors for different types of windows. For example:



BorderColor "gray50"
{
   "XTerm"  "red"
   "xmh" "green"
}


The default is \(oqblack\(cq.

BorderLeft pixels This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone at the left of the screen. All constrained window functions (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider this zone as offscreen. Default is 0.

BorderResizeCursors This variable specifies that ctwm should use resizing cursors when the pointer is on the window border. To be used preferably when you have bound a button to f.resize in the frame context.

BorderRight pixels This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone at the right of the screen. All constrained window functions (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider this zone as offscreen. Default is 0.

BorderShadowDepth pixels This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for 3D window borders, when UseThreeDBorders is selected.
BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }] This variable specifies the default background color in the gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight hasn’t been set), and may only be given within a Color or Monochrome list. The optional wincolorlist allows per-window colors to be specified. The default is \(oqwhite\(cq.

BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }] This variable specifies the default foreground color in the gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight hasn’t been set), and may only be given within a Color or Monochrome list. The optional wincolorlist allows per-window colors to be specified. The default is \(oqblack\(cq.

BorderTop pixels This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone at the top of the screen. All constrained window functions (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider this zone as offscreen. Default is 0.

BorderWidth pixels This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border surrounding all client window frames if ClientBorderWidth has not been specified. This value is also used to set the border size of windows created by ctwm (such as the icon manager). The default is 2.

ButtonIndent pixels This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons should be indented on all sides. Positive values cause the buttons to be smaller than the window text and highlight area so that they stand out. Setting this and the TitleButtonBorderWidth variables to 0 makes titlebuttons be as tall and wide as possible. The default is 1 if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if it is set.

CenterFeedbackWindow The moving and resizing information window is centered in the middle of the screen instead of the top left corner.

ClearShadowContrast contrast Indicates to ctwm how to calculate the clear shadow color for 3D items. The value is a comprised between 0 and 100. The formula used is :



    clear.{RGB} = (65535 - color.{RGB}) * (contrast / 100).


Has no effect if BeNiceToColormap is active.

ClientBorderWidth This variable indicates that border width of a window’s frame should be set to the initial border width of the window, rather than to the value of BorderWidth.

Color { colors-list } This variable specifies a list of color assignments to be made if the default display is capable of displaying more than simple black and white. The colors-list is made up of the following color variables and their values: DefaultBackground, DefaultForeground, MenuBackground, MenuForeground, MenuTitleBackground, MenuTitleForeground, and MenuShadowColor. The following color variables may also be given a list of window and color name pairs to allow per-window colors to be specified (see BorderColor for details): BorderColor, IconManagerHighlight, BorderTileBackground, BorderTileForeground, TitleBackground, TitleForeground, IconBackground, IconForeground, IconBorderColor, IconManagerBackground, and IconManagerForeground. For example:



Color
{
   MenuBackground "gray50"
   MenuForeground "blue"
   BorderColor    "red" { "XTerm" "yellow" }
   TitleForeground"yellow"
   TitleBackground"blue"
}


All of these color variables may also be specified for the Monochrome variable, allowing the same initialization file to be used on both color and monochrome displays.

ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds This variable specifies the length of time between button clicks needed to begin a constrained move operation. Double clicking within this amount of time when invoking f.move will cause the window only be moved in a horizontal or vertical direction. Setting this value to 0 will disable constrained moves. The default is 400 milliseconds.
Cursors { cursor-list } This variable specifies the glyphs that ctwm should use for various pointer cursors. Each cursor may be defined either from the cursor font or from two bitmap files. Shapes from the cursor font may be specified directly as:



   cursorname  "string"


where cursorname is one of the cursor names listed below, and string is the name of a glyph as found in the file /usr/include/X11/cursorfont.h (without the \(oqXC_\(cq prefix). If the cursor is to be defined from bitmap files, the following syntax is used instead:



   cursorname  "image""mask"


The image and mask strings specify the names of files containing the glyph image and mask in bitmap(1) form. The bitmap files are located in the same manner as icon bitmap files. The following example shows the default cursor definitions:



Cursors
{
   Frame    "top_left_arrow"
   Title    "top_left_arrow"
   Icon     "top_left_arrow"
   IconMgr  "top_left_arrow"
   Move     "fleur"
   Resize      "fleur"
   Menu     "sb_left_arrow"
   Button      "hand2"
   Wait     "watch"
   Select      "dot"
   Destroy  "pirate"
}


DarkShadowContrast contrast Indicates to ctwm how to calculate the dark shadow color for 3D items. The value is a comprised between 0 and 100. The formula used is :



    dark.{RGB}  = color.{RGB} * ((100 - contrast) / 100),


Has no effect if BeNiceToColormap is active.

DecorateTransients This variable indicates that transient windows (those containing a WM_TRANSIENT_FOR property) should have titlebars. By default, transients are not reparented.

DefaultBackground string This variable specifies the background color to be used for sizing and information windows. The default is \(oqwhite\(cq.

DefaultForeground string This variable specifies the foreground color to be used for sizing and information windows. The default is \(oqblack\(cq.

DontIconifyByUnmapping { win-list } This variable specifies a list of windows that should not be iconified by simply unmapping the window (as would be the case if IconifyByUnmapping had been set). This is frequently used to force some windows to be treated as icons while other windows are handled by the icon manager.

DontMoveOff This variable indicates that windows should not be allowed to be moved off the screen. It can be overridden by the f.forcemove function.

DontPaintRootWindow This variable tells ctwm not to paint the root window, whatever you told in the Workspaces specification. This is useful to have pixmaps in the Workspace Map but not on the root window.

DontSave { win-list } These windows won’t have their characteristics saved for the session manager.

DontSetInactive { win-list } These windows won’t be set to InactiveState when they become invisible due to a change workspace. This has been added because some ill-behaved clients (Frame5) don’t like this.

DontSqueezeTitle [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that titlebars should not be squeezed to their minimum size as described under SqueezeTitle below. If the optional window list is supplied, only those windows will be prevented from being squeezed.

DontToggleWorkSpaceManagerState Turns off the feature toggling the workspace manager state to/from map/button state when you press ctrl and the workspace manager window is in focus.

DontWarpCursorInWMap Tells ctwm not to warp the cursor to the corresponding actual window when you click in a small window in the workspace map.

ForceIcons This variable indicates that icon pixmaps specified in the Icons variable should override any client-supplied pixmaps.

FramePadding pixels This variable specifies the distance between the titlebar decorations (the button and text) and the window frame. The default is 2 pixels if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if it is set.

IconBackground string [{ win-list }] This variable specifies the background color of icons, and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-list. The default is \(oqwhite\(cq.

IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }] This variable specifies the color of the border used for icon windows, and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-list. The default is \(oqblack\(cq.
IconBorderWidth pixels This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border surrounding icon windows. The default is 2.

IconDirectory string This variable specifies the directory that should be searched if a bitmap file cannot be found in any of the directories in the bitmapFilePath resource.

IconFont string This variable specifies the font to be used to display icon names within icons. The default is \(oqvariable\(cq.

IconForeground string [{ win-list }] This variable specifies the foreground color to be used when displaying icons, and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-list. The default is \(oqblack\(cq.

IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that windows should be iconified by being unmapped without trying to map any icons. This assumes that the user is will remap the window through the icon manager, the f.warpto function, or the TwmWindows menu. If the optional win-list is provided, only those windows will be iconified by simply unmapping. Windows that have both this and the IconManagerDontShow options set may not be accessible if no binding to the TwmWindows menu is set in the user’s startup file.

IconifyStyle string Where string is either "normal", "mosaic", "zoomin", "zoomout" or "sweep". Tells ctwm to use some fancy graphical effects when iconifying windows.

IconJustification string Where string is either "left", "center" or "right". Tells ctwm how to justify the icon image against the icon title (if any).

IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list }] This variable specifies the background color to use for icon manager entries, and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-list. The default is \(oqwhite\(cq.

IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that the icon manager should not display any windows. If the optional win-list is given, only those windows will not be displayed. This variable is used to prevent windows that are rarely iconified (such as xclock or xload) from taking up space in the icon manager.

IconManagerFont string This variable specifies the font to be used when displaying icon manager entries. The default is \(oqvariable\(cq.

IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list }] This variable specifies the foreground color to be used when displaying icon manager entries, and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-list. The default is \(oqblack\(cq.

IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ] This variable specifies the geometry of the icon manager window. The string argument is standard geometry specification that indicates the initial full size of the icon manager. The icon manager window is then broken into columns pieces and scaled according to the number of entries in the icon manager. Extra entries are wrapped to form additional rows. The default number of columns is 1.

IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }] This variable specifies the border color to be used when highlighting the icon manager entry that currently has the focus, and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-list. The default is \(oqblack\(cq.

IconManagers { iconmgr-list } This variable specifies a list of icon managers to create. Each item in the iconmgr-list has the following format:



   "winname" ["iconname"]"geometry" columns


where winname is the name of the windows that should be put into this icon manager, iconname is the name of that icon manager window’s icon, geometry is a standard geometry specification, and columns is the number of columns in this icon manager as described in IconManagerGeometry. For example:



IconManagers
{
   "XTerm"  "=300x5+800+5"5
   "myhost" "=400x5+100+5"2
}


Clients whose name or class is \(oqXTerm\(cq will have an entry created in the \(oqXTerm\(cq icon manager. Clients whose name was \(oqmyhost\(cq would be put into the \(oqmyhost\(cq icon manager.

IconManagerShadowDepth pixels This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for 3D IconManager entries, when UseThreeDIconManagers is selected.

IconManagerShow { win-list } This variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in the icon manager. When used in conjunction with the IconManagerDontShow variable, only the windows in this list will be shown in the icon manager.

IconMenuDontShow { win-list } Don’t show the name of these windows in the TwmIcons menu.

IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight [iconjust] [iconregjust] [iconregalign] [{ win-list }]
This variable specifies an area on the root window in which icons are placed if no specific icon location is provided by the client. The geomstring is a quoted string containing a standard geometry specification. If more than one IconRegion lines are given, icons will be put into the succeeding icon regions when the first is full. The vgrav argument should be either North or South and is used to control whether icons are first filled in from the top or bottom of the icon region. Similarly, the hgrav argument should be either East or West and is used to control whether icons should be filled in from left or from the right. Icons are laid out within the region in a grid with cells gridwidth pixels wide and gridheight pixels high. The optional win-list argument tells ctwm that if such a window is iconified, and there is enough room in this icon region for its icon, then place it here. The optional iconjust, iconregjust and iconregalign can be used to give specific values of IconJustification, IconRegionJustification and IconRegionAlignement for this IconRegion.

IconRegionAlignement string Where string is either "top", "center" "bottom" or "border". Tells ctwm how to align icons inside their place in the IconRegion. If \(oqborder\(cq is given, the justification will be \(oqtop\(cq if the icon region gravity is \(oqnorth\(cq and \(oqbottom\(cq if the icon region gravity is \(oqsouth\(cq.

IconRegionJustification string Where string is either "left", "center" "right" or "border". Tells ctwm how to justify icons inside their place in the IconRegion. If \(oqborder\(cq is given, the justification will be \(oqleft\(cq if the icon region gravity is \(oqwest\(cq and \(oqright\(cq if the icon region gravity is \(oqeast\(cq.

Icons { win-list } This variable specifies a list of window names and the bitmap filenames that should be used as their icons. For example:



Icons
{
   "XTerm"  "xterm.icon"
   "xfd"    "xfd_icon"
}


Windows that match \(oqXTerm\(cq and would not be iconified by unmapping, would try to use the icon bitmap in the file \(oqxterm.icon\(cq.If ForceIcons is specified, this bitmap will be used even if the client has requested its own icon pixmap.

IgnoreCaseInMenuSelection Used when moving the pointer inside a menu with the keyboard. When you type a letter, the pointer goes to the next entry beginning with this letter. If IgnoreCaseInMenuSelection is present, this selection ignores the case of this first letter.

IgnoreLockModifier If present, all bindings (buttons and keys) will ignore the LockMask. Useful if you often use caps lock, and don’t want to define twice all your bindings.

IgnoreModifier All bindings (buttons and keys) will ignore the modifiers you specified. It is useful when you use caps locks or num locks. You don’t need IgnoreLockModifier any more with this option.



IgnoreModifier { lock m2 }


IgnoreTransient List of windows for which to ignore transients.



IgnoreTransient { "Wine" }


InterpolateMenuColors This variable indicates that menu entry colors should be interpolated between entry specified colors. In the example below:



Menu "mymenu"
{
   "Title"     ("black":"red")f.title
   "entry1"       f.nop
   "entry2"       f.nop
   "entry3" ("white":"green")f.nop
   "entry4"       f.nop
   "entry5" ("red":"white")f.nop
}


the foreground colors for \(oqentry1\(cq and \(oqentry2\(cq will be interpolated between black and white, and the background colors between red and green. Similarly, the foreground for \(oqentry4\(cq will be half-way between white and red, and the background will be half-way between green and white.

MakeTitle { win-list } This variable specifies a list of windows on which a titlebar should be placed and is used to request titles on specific windows when NoTitle has been set.
MapWindowBackground color [{ win-list }] This variable specifies the background colors to use for small windows in the workspace map window and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. If there is neither MapWindowBackground, nor MapWindowForeground the window title colors are used.
MapWindowCurrentWorkSpace { border_color [background] [foreground] [bitmap] } Specify the appearence of the map window corresponding to the current workspace.
MapWindowDefaultWorkSpace { border_color [background] [foreground] [bitmap] } Specify the appearence of the map window corresponding to the workspaces other than the current workspace when no root background information has been provided to ctwm in the WorkSpace command. Not used in others cases.
MapWindowForeground color [{ win-list }] This variable specifies the foreground colors to use for small windows in the workspace map window and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. If there is neither MapWindowBackground, nor MapWindowForeground the window title colors are used.
MaxIconTitleWidth width The integer argument tells ctwm the maximun width to use for an icon title. If an icon title is larger than width, it is truncated.
MaxWindowSize string This variable specifies a geometry in which the width and height give the maximum size for a given window. This is typically used to restrict windows to the size of the screen. The default is \(oq30000x30000\(cq.
MenuBackground string This variable specifies the background color used for menus, and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The default is \(oqwhite\(cq.
MenuFont string This variable specifies the font to use when displaying menus. The default is \(oqvariable\(cq.
MenuForeground string This variable specifies the foreground color used for menus, and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The default is \(oqblack\(cq.
MenuShadowColor string This variable specifies the color of the shadow behind pull-down menus and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The default is \(oqblack\(cq.
MenuShadowDepth pixels This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for 3D menus, when UseThreeDMenus is selected.
MenuTitleBackground string This variable specifies the background color for f.title entries in menus, and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The default is \(oqwhite\(cq.
MenuTitleForeground string This variable specifies the foreground color for f.title entries in menus and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The default is \(oqblack\(cq.
Monochrome { colors } This variable specifies a list of color assignments that should be made if the screen has a depth of 1. See the description of Color.
MoveDelta pixels This variable specifies the number of pixels the pointer must move before the f.move function starts working. Also see the f.deltastop function. The default is zero pixels.
MovePackResistance pixels This variable specifies the number of pixels of the movepack and movepush resistance. See f.movepack and f.movepush.
MoveOffResistance pixels This variable specifies the number of pixels of the moveoff resistance. If pixels is positive, DontMoveOff will only prevent you from going off the edge if you’re within n pixels off the edge. If you go further, DontMoveOff gives up and lets you go as far as you wish. f.forcemove still allows you to totally ignore DontMoveOff. A negative value puts you back into \(oqnever moveoff\(cq mode (it’s the default).
NoBackingStore This variable indicates that ctwm’s menus should not request backing store to minimize repainting of menus. This is typically used with servers that can repaint faster than they can handle backing store.
NoBorder { win-list } These windows won’t have borders. If you want no borders on all windows, use the BorderWidth keyword.
NoCaseSensitive This variable indicates that case should be ignored when sorting icon names in an icon manager. This option is typically used with applications that capitalize the first letter of their icon name.
NoDefaults This variable indicates that ctwm should not supply the default titlebuttons and bindings. This option should only be used if the startup file contains a completely new set of bindings and definitions.
NoGrabServer This variable indicates that ctwm should not grab the server when popping up menus and moving opaque windows.
NoHighlight [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that borders should not be highlighted to track the location of the pointer. If the optional win-list is given, highlighting will only be disabled for those windows. When the border is highlighted, it will be drawn in the current BorderColor. When the border is not highlighted, it will be stippled with an gray pattern using the current BorderTileForeground and BorderTileBackground colors.
NoIconTitle [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that icons should not display the icon name of the client. If the optional win-list is given, only those clients will not have icon titles.
NoIconManagerFocus This variable indicates that ctwm will not set the focus on the corresponding window when the pointer is in an IconManager.
NoIconManagers This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.
NoImagesInWorkSpaceManager This variable turns off displaying of background images in the WorkSpaceMap. Instead only the colors defined in WorkSpaces will be used as background in the WorkSpaceMap.
NoMenuShadows This variable indicates that menus should not have drop shadows drawn behind them. This is typically used with slower servers since it speeds up menu drawing at the expense of making the menu slightly harder to read.
NoOpaqueMove [{ window-list }] The counterpart of OpaqueMove. See OpaqueMove.
NoOpaqueResize [{ window-list }] The counterpart of OpaqueResize. See OpaqueResize.
NoRaiseOnDeiconify This variable indicates that windows that are deiconified should not be raised.
NoRaiseOnMove This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when moved. This is typically used to allow windows to slide underneath each other.
NoRaiseOnResize This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when resized. This is typically used to allow windows to be resized underneath each other.
NoRaiseOnWarp This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when the pointer is warped into them with the f.warpto function. If this option is set, warping to an occluded window may result in the pointer ending up in the occluding window instead the desired window (which causes unexpected behavior with f.warpring).
NoSaveUnders This variable indicates that menus should not request save-unders to minimize window repainting following menu selection. It is typically used with displays that can repaint faster than they can handle save-unders.
NoShowOccupyAll This variable specifies that OccupyAll windows won’t be displayed in the WorkSpaceMap window.
NoStackMode [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that client window requests to change stacking order should be ignored. If the optional win-list is given, only requests on those windows will be ignored. This is typically used to prevent applications from relentlessly popping themselves to the front of the window stack.
NoTitle [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that windows should not have titlebars. If the optional win-list is given, only those windows will not have titlebars. MakeTitle may be used with this option to force titlebars to be put on specific windows.
NoTitleFocus This variable indicates that ctwm should not set keyboard input focus to each window as it is entered. Normally, ctwm sets the focus so that focus and key events from the titlebar and icon managers are delivered to the application. If the pointer is moved quickly and ctwm is slow to respond, input can be directed to the old window instead of the new. This option is typically used to prevent this \(oqinput lag\(cq and to work around bugs in older applications that have problems with focus events.
NoTitleHighlight [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that the highlight area of the titlebar, which is used to indicate the window that currently has the input focus, should not be displayed. If the optional win-list is given, only those windows will not have highlight areas. This and the SqueezeTitle options can be set to substantially reduce the amount of screen space required by titlebars.
NoWarpToMenuTitle This variable indicates that the cursor should not be warped to the title of a menu which does not have room to drop down below the current cursor position.
Occupy { occupy-list } This variable specifies which windows occupy which workspaces at startup.
occupy-list consists of entries of the form :



        [Window]   win-name { wpsc1 wspc2 ... }
or      Workspace  wspc-name {win1 win2 ... }


Example :



Occupy {
               "xload"   {"all"}
    Window     "xterm"   {"here" "there" "elsewhere"}
               "xv"      {"images"}
    WorkSpace  "images"  {"xloadimage"}
}


Note : The Occupy declaration should come after the WorkSpaces declaration.

OccupyAll { window-list }
This variable specifies a list of windows that will occupy all workspaces at startup.
window-list is a list of window names.
Example :



OccupyAll
{
    "xload"
    "xbiff"
    "xconsole"
}


Note : The OccupyAll declaration should come after the WorkSpaces declaration.

OpaqueMove [{ window-list }] This variable indicates that the f.move function should actually move the window instead of just an outline so that the user can immediately see what the window will look like in the new position. This option is typically used on fast displays (particularly if NoGrabServer is set). The optional window list parameter indicates that only windows in this list should actually be moved in opaque mode. The NoOpaqueMove counterpart is also available.

OpaqueMoveThreshold threshold The integer parameter is a percentage and indicates that only windows (elligible for opaque moving) with a surface smaller than this percentage of the surface of the screen should actually be moved in opaque mode.

OpaqueResize [{ window-list }] The opaque version of resize. Extremely resource intensive, but beautiful with fast server/client/network. See OpaqueMove. The NoOpaqueResize counterpart is also available.

OpaqueResizeThreshold threshold The resize version of OpaqueMoveThreshold.

OpenWindowTimeout seconds seconds is an integer representing a number of second. When a window tries to open on an unattended display, it will be automatically mapped after this number of seconds.

PackNewWindows Use f.movepack algorithm instead of f.move when opening a new window.

Pixmaps { pixmaps } This variable specifies a list of pixmaps that define the appearance of various images. Each entry is a keyword indicating the pixmap to set, followed by a string giving the name of the bitmap file. The following pixmaps may be specified:



Pixmaps
{
   TitleHighlight "gray1"
XCOMM TitleHighlight"supman%.xbm"
}


The default for TitleHighlight is to use an even stipple pattern.

PixmapDirectory path This variable specifies the path where ctwm looks to find non-X11 bitmap files. Whenever you want to use a image file that is not an X11 bitmap, specify : xpm:filename, for xpm files, xwd:filename for xwd files, im:filename, for other files supported by the imconv package, jpeg:file for jpeg file, or \(oq|command\(cq for an on the fly generated xwd file. Use the % character to specify an animation. path can be a colon separated list of directories. Example :



PixmapDirectory  "/usr/lib/X11/twm"
Icons
{
    "Axe"    "xpm:edit.xpm"
    "xterm"  "xpm:ball%.xpm"
}


N.B This is only valid if your version of ctwm has been compiled with the right extension (XPM, JPEG or IMCONV options).

RaiseDelay milliseconds For windows that are to be automatically raised when the pointer enters (see the AutoRaise variable and the f.autoraise function) this variable specifies the length of time the pointer should rest in the window before it is raised. The default is 0 milliseconds.

RaiseOnClick If present a window will be raised on top of others when clicked on, and the ButtonPress event will be correctly forwarded to the client that owns this window (if it asked to). See RaiseOnClickButton.

RaiseOnClickButton button_number Where button_number is a valid button number (generally 1 to 3). Specify the button to use for RaiseOnClick.

RaiseWhenAutoUnSqueeze Windows are raised when auto-unsqueezed (See AutoSqueeze).

RandomPlacement [ string1 [ string2 ]] Where string1 is either \(oqon\(cq, \(oqoff\(cq, \(oqall\(cq or \(oqunmapped\(cq, and string2 is a displacement for the pseudo-randomly placed window compared to the previous one. This variable indicates that windows with no specified geometry should be placed in a pseudo-random location instead of having the user drag out an outline. The argument \(oqon\(cq or \(oqall\(cq tells ctwm do do this for all such windows, \(oqoff\(cq, not to do this, and \(oqunmapped\(cq, only for unmapped windows, e.g. iconified or not visible in the current workspace. If the second argument isn’t given, the displacement +30+30 (30 pixels left and down) is used.

ReallyMoveInWorkspaceManager This keyword tells ctwm to move the actual window when the user is moving the small windows in the WorkSpaceMap window. If not present the WorkSpaceMap can be used only to modify the occupation of a window. Pressing the shift key while dragging a window in the workspace manager temporarily toggles this option.

ResizeFont string This variable specifies the font to be used for in the dimensions window when resizing windows. The default is \(oqfixed\(cq.

RestartPreviousState This variable indicates that ctwm should attempt to use the WM_STATE property on client windows to tell which windows should be iconified and which should be left visible. This is typically used to try to regenerate the state that the screen was in before the previous window manager was shutdown.

ReverseCurrentWorkspace string This variable tells ctwm to reverse the background and foreground colors in the small windows in the workspace map for the current workspace.

SaveColor { colors-list } This variable indicates a list of color assignments to be stored as pixel values in the root window property _MIT_PRIORITY_COLORS. Clients may elect to preserve these values when installing their own colormap. Note that use of this mechanism is a way for an application to avoid the \(oqtechnicolor\(cq problem, whereby useful screen objects such as window borders and titlebars disappear when a program’s custom colors are installed by the window manager. For example:



SaveColor
{
        BorderColor
        TitleBackground
        TitleForeground
        "red"
        "green"
        "blue"
}


This would place on the root window 3 pixel values for borders and titlebars, as well as the three color strings, all taken from the default colormap.

ShrinkIconTitles A la Motif shrinking of icon titles, and expansion when mouse is inside icon. The old incorrect spelling SchrinkIconTitles is also still accepted.

ShortAllWindowsMenus Don’t show WorkSpaceManager and IconManagers in the TwmWindows and TwmAllWindows menus.

ShowIconManager This variable indicates that the icon manager window should be displayed when ctwm is started. It can always be brought up using the f.showiconmgr function.

ShowWorkSpaceManager This variable specifies that the WorkSpaceManager should be visible.

SloppyFocus Use sloppy focus.

SaveWorkspaceFocus When changing to a workspace, restore the focus to the last window that had the focus when you left the workspace by warping the mouse into it. This essentially saves the focus window with the workspace and restores it automatically when you switch. In many cases, it avoids having to reach for the mouse after moving to a new workspace.

SortIconManager This variable indicates that entries in the icon manager should be sorted alphabetically rather than by simply appending new windows to the end.

SoundHost The host on which sounds should be played. See the SOUNDS section.

SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }] This variable indicates that ctwm should attempt to use the SHAPE extension to make titlebars occupy only as much screen space as they need, rather than extending all the way across the top of the window. The optional squeeze-list may be used to control the location of the squeezed titlebar along the top of the window. It contains entries of the form:



   "name"      justificationnumdenom


where name is a window name, justification is either left, center, or right, and num and denom are numbers specifying a ratio giving the relative position about which the titlebar is justified. The ratio is measured from left to right if the numerator is positive, and right to left if negative. A denominator of 0 indicates that the numerator should be interpreted as pixels. For compatibility, the pixel-position 0/0 is the relative middle of the window (1/2) for center and the relative right side of the window (2/2) for right, but this use is not recommended. Use "right 2 2" for relative positioning, or "right -1 0" for absolute; this makes a difference when dragging the titlebar (see f.movetitlebar). For example:



SqueezeTitle
{
   "XTerm"  left  00
   "xterm1" left  13
   "xterm2" left  23
   "oclock" center12
   "emacs"  right 22
}


The default positioning is left-justified, absolute at 0 pixels.

The DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off squeezing on certain titles.

StartIconified [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that client windows should initially be left as icons until explicitly deiconified by the user. If the optional win-list is given, only those windows will be started iconic. This is useful for programs that do not support an -iconic command line option or resource.

StartInMapState This variable specifies that the WorkSpaceManager should be started in its map form when created.

StartSqueezed { win-list } These windows will first show up squeezed (see f.squeeze).

StayUpMenus Tells ctwm to use stayup menus. These menus will stay on the screen when ButtonUp, if either the menu has not yet been entered by the pointer, or the current item is a f.title.

SunkFocusWindowTitle This variable specifies that the title of the focus window (if exists) should be sunken instead of raised. Only valid if UseThreeDTitles is set.

ThreeDBorderWidth pixels The width of the 3D border in pixels, if any.

TitleBackground string [{ win-list }] This variable specifies the background color used in titlebars, and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. The default is \(oqwhite\(cq.

TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border surrounding titlebuttons. This is typically set to 0 to allow titlebuttons to take up as much space as possible and to not have a border. The default is 1 if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if it is set.

TitleButtonShadowDepth pixels This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for 3D title buttons, when UseThreeDTitles is selected.

TitleFont string This variable specifies the font used for displaying window names in titlebars. The default is \(oqvariable\(cq.

TitleForeground string [{ win-list }] This variable specifies the foreground color used in titlebars, and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. The default is \(oqblack\(cq.

TitleJustification string This keyword needs a string value. The acceptable values are : \(oqleft\(cq, \(oqcenter\(cq and \(oqright\(cq. The window titles will be justified according to this in the title window.

TitlePadding pixels This variable specifies the distance between the various buttons, text, and highlight areas in the titlebar. The default is 8 pixels if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if it is set.

TitleShadowDepth pixels This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for 3D titles, when UseThreeDTitles is selected.

TransientHasOccupation This variable specifies that transient-for and non-group leader windows can have their own occupation potentially different from their leader window. The default case is that these windows follow their leader, use this keyword if the default action doesn’t please you.

TransientOnTop percentage The parameter (required) is a percentage and tells ctwm to put transient (and non-group leader) windows always on top of their leader if and only if their surface is smaller than this fraction of the surface of their leader. The surface of a window is its width times its weight.

UnknownIcon string This variable specifies the filename of a bitmap file to be used as the default icon. This bitmap will be used as the icon of all clients which do not provide an icon bitmap and are not listed in the Icons list.

UnmapByMovingFarAway [{ win-list }] These windows will be moved out of the screen instead of being unmapped when they become invisible due to a change workspace. This has been added because some ill-behaved clients (Frame5) don’t like to be unmapped.

UsePPosition string This variable specifies whether or not ctwm should honor program-requested locations (given by the PPosition flag in the WM_NORMAL_HINTS property) in the absence of a user-specified position. The argument string may have one of three values: "off" (the default) indicating that ctwm should ignore the program-supplied position, "on" indicating that the position should be used, and "non-zero" indicating that the position should used if it is other than (0,0). The latter option is for working around a bug in older toolkits.

UseSunkTitlePixmap This makes it so the shadows are inversed for title pixmaps when focus is lost. This is similar to having the SunkFocusWindowTitle, but it makes your xbm or 3d XPM (if any) sink instead of just the whole bar.

UseThreeDBorders Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking window borders. The width ot the 3D borders is ThreeDBorderWidth. The color of the 3D border is BorderTileBackground, and if NoHighlight is not selected, the border of the Focus window is BorderColor.

UseThreeDIconManagers Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking IconManagers if any.

UseThreeDMenus Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking menus.

UseThreeDTitles Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking windows titles. In which case the default values of TitleButtonBorderWidth, FramePadding, TitlePadding and ButtonIndent are set to 0. There are plenty of built-in scalable pixmaps for buttons, :xpm:menu, :xpm:dot, :xpm:cross, :xpm:bar, :xpm:vbar, :xpm:iconify, :xpm:resize, :xmp:sunkresize and :xpm:box. There are several built-in scalable animations for buttons : %xpm:resize, %xpm:menu-up, %xpm:menu-down, %xpm:resize-out-top, %xpm:resize-in-top, %xpm:resize-out-bot, %xpm:resize-in-bot, %xpm:maze-out, %xpm:maze-in, %xpm:zoom-out, %xpm:zoom-in and %xpm:zoom-inout. Try them to see what they look like.

UseThreeDWMap Tells ctwm to use 3D for the small windows in the workspace map.

VirtualScreens { geometries-list }
This variable specifies a list of geometries for virtual screens. Virtual screens are designed to be used when you have several physical screens bound together with the Xinerama X extension.
geometries-list is a list of valid geometry strings, that correspond to your actual physical screens.
Example :



VirtualScreens
{
    "1280x1024+0+0"
    "1600x1200+1280+0"
}


WarpCursor [{ win-list }] This variable indicates that the pointer should be warped into windows when they are deiconified. If the optional win-list is given, the pointer will only be warped when those windows are deiconified.

WindowBox [{ win-list }] creates a new window called a box, where all the client windows that match the windows list are opened in, instead of the root window. This is useful to group small windows in the same box (xload for instance)



WindowBox "xloadbox" "320x100+0-0" {
    "xload"
}


WindowGeometries [{ win-list }] Used to give a default geometry to some clients :



WindowGeometries {
    "Mozilla*"       "1000x800+10+10"
    "jpilot*"        "800x600-0-0"
}


WindowRegion geomstring vgrav fIhgrav [{ win-list }] Similar to IconRegion, but for windows.

WindowRing [{ win-list }] This variable specifies a list of windows along which the f.warpring function cycles. If no argument is given, all the windows are in the ring.

WarpRingOnScreen Tells ctwm that f.warpring warps pointer only to windows visible in the current workspace.

WarpToDefaultMenuEntry (Useful only with StayUpMenus) When using StayUpMenus, and a menu does stays up, the pointer is warped to the default entry of the menu.

WarpUnmapped This variable indicates that that the f.warpto function should deiconify any iconified windows it encounters. This is typically used to make a key binding that will pop a particular window (such as xmh), no matter where it is. The default is for f.warpto to ignore iconified windows.

WindowRingExclude [{ win-list }] All listed windows will be excluded from the WarpRing.

WMgrButtonShadowDepth depth Control the depth of the shadow of the workspace manager buttons.

WMgrHorizButtonIndent nb_pixels Specifies the horizontal space, in pixel, between the buttons of the workspace manager (in button mode).

WMgrVertButtonIndent nb_pixels Specifies the vertical space, in pixel, between the buttons of the workspace manager (in button mode).

WorkSpaceFont string This allows you to specify the font to use for the small windows in the workspace manager map. (Try \(oq-adobe-times-*-r-*--10-*-*-*-*-*-*-*\(cq).

WorkSpaceManagerGeometry string [ columns ] This variable specifies the geometry of the workspace manager window. The string argument is standard geometry specification that indicates the initial full size of the workspace manager. The columns argument indicates the number of columns to use for the workspace manager window.



WorkSpaceManagerGeometry        "360x60+60-0" 8


WorkSpaces { workspace-list } This variable specifies a list of workspaces that are created at startup, Where workspace-list is :



name [{bg-button [fg-button] [bg-root] [fg-root] [pixmap-root]}]


With :
bg-button:
  background color of the corresponding button in the workspace manager.
fg-button:
  foreground color of the corresponding button in the workspace manager.
bg-root: background color of the corresponding root screen.
fg-root: foreground color of the corresponding root screen.
pixmap-root:
  pixmap to display on the corresponding root screen, either the name of a bitmap, xpm:xpmfile, xwd:xwdfile, jpeg:jpgfile, im:imfile or |command_that generate_xwd.
Example :



WorkSpaces
{
  "One"   {"#686B9F" "white" "DeepSkyBlue3" "white" "jpeg:shark.jpg"}
  "Two"   {"#619AAE" "white" "firebrick"}
  "Three" {"#727786" "white" "MidnightBlue" "white" "xpm:ball%.xpm"}
  "Four"  {"#727786" "white" "white" "white" "|(giftoppm | pnmtoxwd) < 2010.gif"}

"Five" {"#727786" "white" "DeepSkyBlue3" "white" "plaid"} "Six" {"#619AAE" "white" "DeepSkyBlue3" "white" "xpm:background1"} "Seven" {"#8C5b7A" "white" "chartreuse4"} "Eight" {"#686B9F" "white" "MidnightBlue"} }

The WorkSpaces declaration should come before the Occupy or OccupyAll declarations. The maximum number of workspaces is 32.
Each workspace also has a label, which is displayed in the WorkSpaceManager window when it is in button state. By moving the mouse cursor over a button and typing letters and/or backspace, you may edit the label. The name is unaffected. Functions that look up workspaces by name also look at the label.

XMoveGrid number This variable specifies the value to use to constrain window movement. When moving windows around, the x coordinate will always be a multiple of this variable. Default is 1. f.forcemove ignores this variable.

XorValue number This variable specifies the value to use when drawing window outlines for moving and resizing. This should be set to a value that will result in a variety of distinguishable colors when exclusive-or’ed with the contents of the user’s typical screen. Setting this variable to 1 often gives nice results if adjacent colors in the default colormap are distinct. By default, ctwm will attempt to cause temporary lines to appear at the opposite end of the colormap from the graphics.

YMoveGrid number This variable specifies the value to use to constrain window movement. When moving windows around, the y coordinate will always be a multiple of this variable. Default is 1. f.forcemove ignores this variable.

Zoom [ count ] This variable indicates that outlines suggesting movement of a window to and from its iconified state should be displayed whenever a window is iconified or deiconified. The optional count argument specifies the number of outlines to be drawn. The default count is 8.
The following variables must be set after the fonts have been assigned, so it is usually best to put them at the end of the variables or beginning of the bindings sections:

ChangeWorkspaceFunction function This variable specifies the function to be executed when the user change the current workspace (zap).

DefaultFunction function This variable specifies the function to be executed when a key or button event is received for which no binding is provided. This is typically bound to f.nop, f.beep, or a menu containing window operations.

DeIconifyFunction function This variable specifies the function to be executed when a window is deiconified.

IconifyFunction function This variable specifies the function to be executed when a window is iconified.

WindowFunction function This variable specifies the function to execute when a window is selected from the TwmWindows menu. If this variable is not set, the window will be deiconified and raised.

BINDINGS

After the desired variables have been set, functions may be attached to titlebuttons and key and pointer buttons. Titlebuttons may be added from the left or right side and appear in the titlebar from left-to-right according to the order in which they are specified. Key and pointer button bindings may be given in any order.
Title buttons

Titlebuttons specifications must include the name of the pixmap to use in the button box and the function to be invoked when a pointer button is pressed within them:



LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"= function


or



LeftTitleButton "bitmapname" {
    Buttoni = modlist : function
    ...
    Buttonj = function
}


or



RightTitleButton "bitmapname"= function


or



RightTitleButton "bitmapname" {
    Buttoni = modlist : function
    ...
    Buttonj = function
}


The bitmapname may refer to one of the built-in bitmaps (which are scaled to match TitleFont) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name described above.

The pointer button specifications come in two forms, with a modifier list or without. When the specification comes without a modifier list, it’s used for the case when no modifiers are used. In other words, the following two lines are equivalent:



    Buttoni = function




    Buttoni = : function


Key and pointer buttons

Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must be pressed, over which parts of the screen the pointer must be, and what function is to be invoked. Keys are given as strings containing the appropriate keysym name; buttons are given as the keywords Button1-Button5:



"FP1"    = modlist : context : function
Button1  = modlist : context : function


The modlist is any combination of the modifier names shift, control, lock, meta, mod1, mod2, mod3, mod4, or mod5 (which may be abbreviated as s, c, l, m, m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, respectively) separated by a vertical bar (|). Similarly, the context is any combination of window, title, icon, root, frame, workspace, iconmgr, their first letters (iconmgr abbreviation is m), or all, separated by a vertical bar. The function is any of the f. keywords described below. For example, the default startup file contains the following bindings:



Button1  =  : root: f.menu "TwmWindows"
Button1  = m   : window | icon: f.function "move-or-lower"
Button2  = m   : window | icon: f.iconify
Button3  = m   : window | icon: f.function "move-or-raise"
Button1  =  : title: f.function "move-or-raise"
Button2  =  : title: f.raiselower
Button1  =  : icon: f.function "move-or-iconify"
Button2  =  : icon: f.iconify
Button1  =  : iconmgr: f.iconify
Button2  =  : iconmgr: f.iconify


A user who wanted to be able to manipulate windows from the keyboard could use the following bindings:



"F1"     =  : all : f.iconify
"F2"     =  : all : f.raiselower
"F3"     =  : all : f.warpring "next"
"F4"     =  : all : f.warpto "xmh"
"F5"     =  : all : f.warpto "emacs"
"F6"     =  : all : f.colormap "next"
"F7"     =  : all : f.colormap "default"
"F20"    =  : all : f.warptoscreen "next"
"Left"      = m   : all: f.backiconmgr
"Right"  = m | s  : all: f.forwiconmgr
"Up"     = m   : all: f.upiconmgr
"Down"   = m | s  : all: f.downiconmgr


ctwm provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be conveniently stored in a titlebar, menu, or set of key bindings. Although a small set of defaults are supplied (unless the NoDefaults is specified), most users will want to have their most common operations bound to key and button strokes. To do this, ctwm associates names with each of the primitives and provides user-defined functions for building higher level primitives and menus for interactively selecting among groups of functions.

Functions

User-defined functions contain the name by which they are referenced in calls to f.function and a list of other functions to execute. For example:



Function "move-or-lower"{ f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
Function "move-or-raise"{ f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
Function "move-or-iconify"{ f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
Function "restore-colormap"{ f.colormap "default" f.lower }


The function name must be used in f.function exactly as it appears in the function specification.

In the descriptions below, if the function is said to operate on the selected window, but is invoked from a root menu, the cursor will be changed to the Select cursor and the next window to receive a button press will be chosen:
! string This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.
f.addtoworkspace string This function adds the selected window to the workspace whose name is string.
f.adoptwindow This function asks for the user to select a window with the mouse, and then adopt this window if it doesn’t belong to the current ctwm. Useful only with the -w flag.
f.altcontext Set the alternate context. The next key or button event ctwm reveives will be interpreted using the alternate context. To define bindings in the alternate context, use the keyword alter in the context field of the binding command. For example:



"Return"= m : all : f.altcontext
"n"   =  : alter  : f.nextworkspace
"p"   =  : alter  : f.prevworkspace


f.altkeymap number Set the alternate keymap number, where number is an integer between 1 and 5 included. The next key or button event ctwm reveives will be interpreted using this alternate keymap. To define bindings in an alternate keymap, use the keyword a followed by number in the modifier field of the binding command. For example:



"Return"= c : all : f.altkeymap "1"
"i"   = a1  : window|icon|iconmgr: f.iconify
"z"   = a1  : window: f.zoom
"d"   = a1  : window|icon: f.delete
"o"   = a1  : window|icon: f.occupy
"r"   = a1  : window|icon: f.refresh


When using an alternate keymaps, only the root, window, icon and iconmgr contexts are allowed.

f.autolower This function toggles whether or not the selected window is lowered whenever the pointer leaves it. See the description of the variable AutoLower.

f.autoraise This function toggles whether or not the selected window is raised whenever entered by the pointer. See the description of the variable AutoRaise.

f.backmapiconmgr This function warps the pointer in the same manner as f.backiconmgr but only stops at windows that are mapped.

f.backiconmgr This function warps the pointer to the previous column in the current icon manager, wrapping back to the previous row if necessary.

f.beep This function sounds the keyboard bell.

f.bottomzoom This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function, but resizes the window to fill only the bottom half of the screen.

f.changesize string This function allows you to change the size of the focused window. The format of the string must be either "<border> <+|-><sizechange>" (where border must be one of Top, Bottom, Left or Right) or "<x size>x<y size>" (where the size is the requested new window size). The height of the window can never be set/changed to less than the title height + 1 (or 1 if the window has no title) and the width can never be set/changed to less than 1.



"Right"  = c|s: all      : f.changesize "right +10"
"Left"   = c|s: all      : f.changesize "right -10"
"Down"   = c|s: all      : f.changesize "bottom +10"
"Up"     = c|s: all      : f.changesize "bottom -10"

"F1" = c|s: all : f.changesize "640x480" "F2" = c|s: all : f.changesize "800x600" "F3" = c|s: all : f.changesize "1024x768"

f.circledown This function lowers the top-most window that occludes another window.

f.circleup This function raises the bottom-most window that is occluded by another window.

f.colormap string This function rotates the colormaps (obtained from the WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property on the window) that ctwm will display when the pointer is in this window. The argument string may have one of the following values: "next", "prev", and "default". It should be noted here that in general, the installed colormap is determined by keyboard focus. A pointer driven keyboard focus will install a private colormap upon entry of the window owning the colormap. Using the click to type model, private colormaps will not be installed until the user presses a mouse button on the target window.
f.deiconify This function deiconifies the selected window. If the window is not an icon, this function does nothing.

f.delete This function sends the WM_DELETE_WINDOW message to the selected window if the client application has requested it through the WM_PROTOCOLS window property. The application is supposed to respond to the message by removing the indicated window. If the window has not requested WM_DELETE_WINDOW messages, the keyboard bell will be rung indicating that the user should choose an alternative method. Note this is very different from f.destroy. The intent here is to delete a single window, not necessarily the entire application.

f.deleteordestroy First tries to delete the window (send it WM_DELETE_WINDOW message), or kills it, if the client doesn’t accept such message.

f.deltastop This function allows a user-defined function to be aborted if the pointer has been moved more than MoveDelta pixels. See the example definition given for Function "move-or-raise" at the beginning of the section.

f.destroy This function instructs the X server to close the display connection of the client that created the selected window. This should only be used as a last resort for shutting down runaway clients. See also f.delete.

f.downiconmgr This function warps the pointer to the next row in the current icon manger, wrapping to the beginning of the next column if necessary.

f.downworkspace Goto the workspace immediately underneath the current workspace in the workspace manager. If the current workspace is the bottom one, goto the top one in the same column. The result depends on the layout of the workspace manager.

f.exec string This function passes the argument string to /bin/sh for execution. In multiscreen mode, if string starts a new X client without giving a display argument, the client will appear on the screen from which this function was invoked. If the string \(oq$currentworkspace\(cq is present inside the string argument, it will be substituted with the current workspace name.

f.fill string Where string is either : \(oqright\(cq, \(oqleft\(cq, \(oqtop\(cq, \(oqbottom\(cq or \(oqvertical\(cq. The current window is resized in the specified direction until it reaches an obstacle (either another window, or the screen border). f.fill \(oqvertical\(cq sets the window status to \(oqzoomed\(cq and toggles, ie calling it again will reset the previous window size.

f.fittocontent Can be used only with window boxes. The result is to have the box have the minimal size that contains all its children windows.

f.focus This function toggles the keyboard focus of the server to the selected window, changing the focus rule from pointer-driven if necessary. If the selected window already was focused, this function executes an f.unfocus.

f.forcemove This function is like f.move except that it ignores the DontMoveOff variable.

f.forwiconmgr This function warps the pointer to the next column in the current icon manager, wrapping to the beginning of the next row if necessary.

f.forwmapiconmgr This function warps the pointer in the same manner as f.forwiconmgr but only stops at windows that are mapped.

f.fullzoom This function resizes the selected window to the full size of the display or else restores the original size if the window was already zoomed.

f.function string This function executes the user-defined function whose name is specified by the argument string.

f.gotoworkspace workspace_name This function warps you to the workspace whose name is workspace_name.

f.hbzoom This function is a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

f.hideiconmgr This function unmaps the current icon manager.

f.hideworkspacemgr Unmap the WorkSpace manager.

f.horizoom This variable is similar to the f.zoom function except that the selected window is resized to the full width of the display.

f.htzoom This function is a synonym for f.topzoom.

f.hypermove Use this function to \(oqmove\(cq a window between 2 captives ctwm (or between a captive and the root ctwm). Of course 2 ctwms are completely different universes. You have to go in hyperspace to achieve this, hence the name.

f.hzoom This function is a synonym for f.horizoom.

f.iconify This function iconifies or deiconifies the selected window or icon, respectively.

f.identify This function displays a summary of the name and geometry of the selected window. Clicking the pointer or pressing a key in the window will dismiss it.

f.initsize This function resets a window to its initial size given by the WM_NORMAL_HINTS hints.

f.jumpdown step This function is designed to be bound to a key, it moves the current window (step * {X,Y}MoveGrid) pixels downward. stopping if the window encounters another window or the screen border (ala f.pack).

f.jumpleft step Leftward equivalent of f.jumpdown.

f.jumpright step Rightward equivalent of f.jumpdown.

f.jumpup step Upward equivalent of f.jumpdown.

f.lefticonmgr This function similar to f.backiconmgr except that wrapping does not change rows.

f.leftworkspace Goto the workspace immediately on the left of the current workspace in the workspace manager. If the current workspace is the leftest one, goto the rightest one in the same row. The result depends on the layout of the workspace manager.

f.leftzoom This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function but causes the selected window is only resized to the left half of the display.

f.lower This function lowers the selected window.

f.menu string This function invokes the menu specified by the argument string. Cascaded menus may be built by nesting calls to f.menu. When a menu is popped up, you can use the arrow keys to move the cursor around it. \(oqDown\(cq or space goes down, \(oqUp\(cq goes up, \(oqLeft\(cq pops down the menu, and \(oqRight\(cq activates the current entry. The first letter of an entry name activates this entry (the first one if several entries match). If the first letter is ~ then Meta-the-second-letter activates it, if this first letter is ^ then Control-the-second-letter activates it, and if this first letter is space, then the second letter activates it.

f.move This function drags an outline of the selected window (or the window itself if the OpaqueMove variable is set) until the invoking pointer button is released. Double clicking within the number of milliseconds given by ConstrainedMoveTime warps the pointer to the center of the window and constrains the move to be either horizontal or vertical depending on which grid line is crossed. To abort a move, press another button before releasing the first button.

f.movepack This function is like f.move except that it tries to avoid overlapping of windows. When the moving window begin to overlap with another window, the move is stopped. If you go too far over the other window (more that MovePackResistance pixels), the move is resumed and the moving window can overlap with the other window. Useful to pack windows closely.

f.movepush This function is like f.move except that it tries to avoid overlapping of windows. When the moving window begins to overlap with another window, the other window is pushed. If you go too far over the other window (more that MovePackResistance pixels), there is no push and the moving window can overlap with the other window. Only available if OpaqueMove is active.

f.moveresize geometry Takes one string argument which is a geometry with the standard X geometry syntax (e.g. 200x300+150-0). Sets the current window to the specified geometry. The width and height are to be given in pixel, no base size or resize increment are used.

f.movetitlebar If applied to a squeezed titlebar (see SqueezeTitle) you can drag it along the top of the window (a feature which was first found in BeOS). The existing justification type is preserved, as is the positioning (relative or absolute). This means that a relatively positioned titlebar will move when the width of a window changes, whereas an absolutely positioned title will not.

The default positioning is left-justified, absolute at 0 pixels.



Button1 = m1 : title : f.movetitlebar


f.movetitlebar does nothing if the window has no title, the window is squeezed (see f.squeeze), or the title is not squeezed (see SqueezeTitle).

f.movetonextworkspace Move the window to the next workspace.

f.movetoprevworkspace Move the window to the previous workspace.

f.movetonextworkspaceandfollow Move the window to the next workspace and go to that workspace.

f.movetoprevworkspaceandfollow Move the window to the previous workspace and go to that workspace.

f.nexticonmgr This function warps the pointer to the next icon manager containing any windows on the current or any succeeding screen.

f.nextworkspace Goto the next workspace in the list, using the order given in the .ctwmrc file.

f.nop This function does nothing and is typically used with the DefaultFunction or WindowFunction variables or to introduce blank lines in menus.

f.occupy This function pops up a window for the user to choose which workspaces a window belongs to.

f.occupyall This function makes the specified window occupy all the workspaces.

f.pack string Where string is either : \(oqright\(cq, \(oqleft\(cq, \(oqtop\(cq or \(oqbottom\(cq The current window is moved in the specified direction until it reaches an obstacle (either another window, or the screen border). The pointer follows the window.

f.previconmgr This function warps the pointer to the previous icon manager containing any windows on the current or preceding screens.

f.prevworkspace Goto the previous workspace in the list, using the order given in the .ctwmrc file.

f.pin Valid only in a root menu. Make a menu permanent on the screen. This is a toggle function, if you select it while the menu is already permanent, it becomes non-permanent.

f.quit This function causes ctwm to restore the window’s borders and exit. If ctwm is the first client invoked from xdm, this will result in a server reset.

f.raiseicons This function raises all the icons in the current workspace.

f.raise This function raises the selected window.

f.raiselower This function raises the selected window to the top of the stacking order if it is occluded by any windows, otherwise the window will be lowered.

f.removefromworkspace string This function removes the selected window from the workspace whose name is string.

f.refresh This function causes all windows to be refreshed.

f.rereadsounds This function causes the .ctwm-sounds file to be re-read. See the SOUNDS section.

f.resize This function displays an outline of the selected window. Crossing a border (or setting AutoRelativeResize) will cause the outline to begin to rubber band until the invoking button is released. To abort a resize, press another button before releasing the first button.

f.restart
f.twmrc This function kills and restarts ctwm.

f.restoregeometry Restore the current window geometry to what was saved in the last call to f.savegeometry.

f.righticonmgr This function is similar to f.nexticonmgr except that wrapping does not change rows.

f.rightworkspace Goto the workspace immediately on the right of the current workspace in the workspace manager. If the current workspace is the rightest one, goto the leftest one in the same row. The result depends on the layout of the workspace manager.

f.rightzoom This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function except that the selected window is only resized to the right half of the display.

f.ring Selects a window and adds it to the WarpRing, or removes it if it was already in the ring. This command makes f.warpring much more useful, by making its configuration dynamic.

f.savegeometry The geometry of the current window is saved. The next call to f.restoregeometry will restore this window to this geometry.

f.saveyourself This function sends a WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the selected window if it has requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS window property. Clients that accept this message are supposed to checkpoint all state associated with the window and update the WM_COMMAND property as specified in the ICCCM. If the selected window has not selected for this message, the keyboard bell will be rung.

f.separator Valid only in menus. The effect is to add a line separator between the previous and the following entry. The name selector part in the menu is not used (but must be present).

f.setbuttonsstate Set the WorkSpace manager in button state.

f.setmapstate Set the WorkSpace manager in map state.

f.showiconmgr This function maps the current icon manager.

f.sorticonmgr This function sorts the entries in the current icon manager alphabetically. See the variable SortIconManager.

f.showbackground This function unmaps all windows in the current workspace. This is a toggle function, if all windows are unmapped, they are all remapped. Better bind this function in the root context.

f.showworkspacemgr Map the WorkSpace manager.

f.slowdownanimation Decrease AnimationSpeed by 1.

f.speedupanimation Increase AnimationSpeed by 1.

f.squeeze f.squeeze squeezes a window to a null vertical size. Works only for windows with either a title, or a 3D border (in order to have something left on the screen). If the window is already squeezed, it is unsqueezed.

f.startanimation Restart freezed animations (if any).

f.stopanimation Freeze animations (if any).

f.title This function provides a centered, unselectable item in a menu definition. It should not be used in any other context.

f.toggleoccupation string This function adds the selected window to the workspace whose name is string if it doesn’t already belongs to it, and removes it from this workspace if not.

f.togglesound Toggle sound on/off. See the SOUNDS section.

f.togglestate Toggle the state of the WorkSpace manager.

f.toggleworkspacemgr Toggle the presence of the WorkSpaceManager. If it is mapped, it will be unmapped and vice versa.

f.topzoom This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function except that the selected window is only resized to the top half of the display.

f.unfocus This function resets the focus back to pointer-driven. This should be used when a focused window is no longer desired.

f.upiconmgr This function warps the pointer to the previous row in the current icon manager, wrapping to the last row in the same column if necessary.

f.upworkspace Goto the workspace immediately above the current workspace in the workspace manager. If the current workspace is the top one, goto the bottom one in the same column. The result depends on the layout of the workspace manager.

f.vanish The specified window vanishes from the current workspace if it occupies at least one other WorkSpace. Do nothing in the others cases.
f.vlzoom This function is a synonym for f.leftzoom.

f.vrzoom This function is a synonym for f.rightzoom.

f.warphere win_name This function adds the window which has a name or class that matches string to the current workspace and warps the pointer to it. If the window is iconified, it will be deiconified if the variable WarpUnmapped is set or else ignored.

f.warpring string This function warps the pointer to the next or previous window (as indicated by the argument string, which may be "next" or "prev") specified in the WindowRing variable.

f.warpto string This function warps the pointer to the window which has a name or class that matches string. If the window is iconified, it will be deiconified if the variable WarpUnmapped is set or else ignored.

f.warptoiconmgr string This function warps the pointer to the icon manager entry associated with the window containing the pointer in the icon manager specified by the argument string. If string is empty (i.e. ""), the current icon manager is chosen.

f.warptoscreen string This function warps the pointer to the screen specified by the argument string. String may be a number (e.g. "0" or "1"), the word "next" (indicating the current screen plus 1, skipping over any unmanaged screens), the word "back" (indicating the current screen minus 1, skipping over any unmanaged screens), or the word "prev" (indicating the last screen visited.
f.winrefresh This function is similar to the f.refresh function except that only the selected window is refreshed.
f.zoom This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function, except that the only the height of the selected window is changed.

MENUS

Functions may be grouped and interactively selected using pop-up (when bound to a pointer button) or pull-down (when associated with a titlebutton) menus. Each menu specification contains the name of the menu as it will be referred to by f.menu, optional default foreground and background colors, the list of item names and the functions they should invoke, and optional foreground and background colors for individual items:



Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
{
   string1  [ ("fore1":"backn")]function1
   string2  [ ("fore2":"backn")]function2
      .
      .
      .
   stringN  [ ("foreN":"backN")]functionN
}


The menuname is case-sensitive. The optional deffore and defback arguments specify the foreground and background colors used on a color display to highlight menu entries. The string portion of each menu entry will be the text which will appear in the menu. The optional fore and back arguments specify the foreground and background colors of the menu entry when the pointer is not in the entry. These colors will only be used on a color display. The default is to use the colors specified by the MenuForeground and MenuBackground variables. The function portion of the menu entry is one of the functions, including any user-defined functions, or additional menus.

There are 3 special menus. TwmWindows contains the names of all of the client and ctwm-supplied windows in the current workspace. Selecting an entry will cause the WindowFunction to be executed on that window. If WindowFunction hasn’t been set, the window will be deiconified and raised. TwmWorkspaces contains the names of your workspaces, selecting an entry goto this workspace. In addition, these entries have submenus containing the names of all windows occupying this workspace, selecting such an entry executes f.warpto on this window. And finally, TwmAllWindows contains the names of all the windows ctwm manages. Selecting an entry executes f.warpto on this window.

If an entry name begins with a \(oq*\(cq (star), this star won’t be displayed and the corresponding entry will be the default entry for this menu. When a menu has a default entry and is used as a submenu of another menu, this default entry action will be executed automatically when this submenu is selected without being displayed. It’s hard to explain, but easy to understand.

ICONS

ctwm supports several different ways of manipulating iconified windows. The common pixmap-and-text style may be laid out by hand or automatically arranged as described by the IconRegion variable. In addition, a terse grid of icon names, called an icon manager, provides a more efficient use of screen space as well as the ability to navigate among windows from the keyboard.

An icon manager is a window that contains names of selected or all windows currently on the display. In addition to the window name, a small button using the default iconify symbol will be displayed to the left of the name when the window is iconified. By default, clicking on an entry in the icon manager performs f.iconify. To change the actions taken in the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when specifying button and keyboard bindings.

Moving the pointer into the icon manager also directs keyboard focus to the indicated window (setting the focus explicitly or else sending synthetic events NoTitleFocus is set). Using the f.upiconmgr, f.downiconmgr f.lefticonmgr, and f.righticonmgr functions, the input focus can be changed between windows directly from the keyboard.

SOUNDS

If compiled with the USE_SOUND flag, ctwm is able to play sounds for any X event. ctwm will look for the file .ctwm-sounds in the user’s home directory to map every X event to a sound file to be played.

Each line in .ctwm-sounds has the following syntax:



{X event}: {sound file}


The currently known X events that can be given are:



KeyPress
KeyRelease
ButtonPress
ButtonRelease
MotionNotify
EnterNotify
LeaveNotify
FocusIn
FocusOut
KeymapNotify
Expose
GraphicsExpose
NoExpose
VisibilityNotify
CreateNotify
DestroyNotify
UnmapNotify
MapNotify
MapRequest
ReparentNotify
ConfigureNotify
ConfigureRequest
GravityNotify
ResizeRequest
CirculateNotify
CirculateRequest
PropertyNotify
SelectionClear
SelectionRequest
SelectionNotify
ColormapNotify
ClientMessage
MappingNotify


Additionally, the following two are recognised, and represent the time when ctwm is started or shut down:



Startup
Shutdown


BUGS

The resource manager should have been used instead of all of the window lists.

Double clicking very fast to get the constrained move function will sometimes cause the window to move, even though the pointer is not moved.

If IconifyByUnmapping is on and windows are listed in IconManagerDontShow but not in DontIconifyByUnmapping, they may be lost if they are iconified and no bindings to f.menu "TwmWindows" or f.warpto are setup.

FILES

$HOME/.ctwmrc.<screen number>
$HOME/.ctwmrc
/usr/lib/X11/twm/system.ctwmrc
$HOME/.twmrc

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

DISPLAY This variable is used to determine which X server to use. It is also set during f.exec so that programs come up on the proper screen.
HOME This variable is used as the prefix for files that begin with a tilde and for locating the ctwm startup file.

SEE ALSO

X(1), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1)

COPYRIGHT

Portions copyright 1988 Evans & Sutherland Computer Corporation; portions copyright 1989 Hewlett-Packard Company and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, See X(1) for a full statement of rights and permissions.

AUTHORS

Tom LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium; Steve Pitschke, Stardent Computer; Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium; Dave Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave Payne, Apple Computer; Claude Lecommandeur, Swiss Polytechnical Institute of Lausanne (lecom@sic.epfl.ch); Richard Levitte (richard@levitte.org).
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