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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  DPKG-ARCHITECTURE (1)

NAME

dpkg-architecture - set and determine the architecture for package building

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Commands
Options
Terms
Variables
Files
     Architecture tables
     Packaging support
Examples
     Usage in debian/rules
Notes
See Also

SYNOPSIS

dpkg-architecture [option...] [command]

DESCRIPTION

dpkg-architecture provides a facility to determine and set the build and host architecture for package building.

The build architecture is always determined by an external call to dpkg(1), and can not be set at the command line.

You can specify the host architecture by providing one or both of the options --host-arch and --host-type. The default is determined by an external call to gcc(1), or the same as the build architecture if CC or gcc are both not available. One out of --host-arch and --host-type is sufficient, the value of the other will be set to a usable default. Indeed, it is often better to only specify one, because  dpkg-architecture will warn you if your choice does not match the default.

COMMANDS

-l, --list
  Print the environment variables, one each line, in the format VARIABLE=value. This is the default action.
-e, --equal architecture
  Check for equality of architecture (since dpkg 1.13.13). It compares the current or specified Debian host architecture against architecture, to check if they are equal. This action will not expand the architecture wildcards. Command finishes with an exit status of 0 if matched, 1 if not matched.

-i, --is architecture-wildcard
  Check for identity of architecture (since dpkg 1.13.13). It compares the current or specified Debian host architecture against architecture-wildcard after having expanded it as an architecture wildcard, to check if they match. Command finishes with an exit status of 0 if matched, 1 if not matched.
-q, --query variable-name
  Print the value of a single variable.
-s, --print-set
  Print an export command. This can be used to set the environment variables using eval.
-u, --print-unset
  Print a similar command to --print-unset but to unset all variables.
-c, --command command
  Execute a command in an environment which has all variables set to the determined value.
-L, --list-known
  Print a list of valid architecture names. Possibly restricted by one or more of the matching options --match-wildcard, --match-bits or --match-endian (since dpkg 1.17.14).
-?, --help
  Show the usage message and exit.
--version
  Show the version and exit.

OPTIONS

-a, --host-arch architecture
  Set the host Debian architecture.
-t, --host-type gnu-system-type
  Set the host GNU system type.
-A, --target-arch architecture
  Set the target Debian architecture (since dpkg 1.17.14).
-T, --target-type gnu-system-type
  Set the target GNU system type (since dpkg 1.17.14).
-W, --match-wildcard architecture-wildcard
  Restrict the architectures listed by --list-known to ones matching the specified architecture wildcard (since dpkg 1.17.14).
-B, --match-bits architecture-bits
  Restrict the architectures listed by --list-known to ones with the specified CPU bits (since dpkg 1.17.14). Either 32 or 64.
-E, --match-endian architecture-endianness
  Restrict the architectures listed by --list-known to ones with the specified endianness (since dpkg 1.17.14). Either little or big.
-f, --force
  Values set by existing environment variables with the same name as used by the scripts are honored (i.e. used by  dpkg-architecture), except if this force flag is present. This allows the user to override a value even when the call to  dpkg-architecture is buried in some other script (for example  dpkg-buildpackage(1)).

TERMS

build machine The machine the package is built on.
host machine The machine the package is built for.
target machine The machine the compiler is building for. This is only needed when building a cross-toolchain, one that will be built on the build architecture, to be run on the host architecture, and to build code for the target architecture.
Debian architecture The Debian architecture string, which specifies the binary tree in the FTP archive. Examples: i386, sparc, hurd-i386.
Debian architecture wildcard A Debian architecture wildcard is a special architecture string that will match any real architecture being part of it. The general form is <kernel>-<cpu>. Examples: linux-any, any-i386, hurd-any.
GNU system type An architecture specification string consisting of two parts separated by a hyphen: cpu and system. Examples: i586-linux-gnu, sparc-linux-gnu, i686-gnu, x86_64-netbsd.
multiarch triplet The clarified GNU system type, used for filesystem paths. This triplet does not change even when the baseline ISA gets bumped, so that the resulting paths are stable over time. The only current difference with the GNU system type is that the CPU part for i386 based systems is always i386. Examples: i386-linux-gnu, x86_64-linux-gnu. Example paths: /lib/powerpc64le-linux-gnu/, /usr/lib/i386-kfreebsd-gnu/.

VARIABLES

The following variables are set by dpkg-architecture:
DEB_BUILD_ARCH The Debian architecture of the build machine.
DEB_BUILD_ARCH_OS The Debian system name of the build machine (since dpkg 1.13.2).
DEB_BUILD_ARCH_CPU The Debian cpu name of the build machine (since dpkg 1.13.2).
DEB_BUILD_ARCH_BITS The pointer size of the build machine (in bits; since dpkg 1.15.4).
DEB_BUILD_ARCH_ENDIAN The endianness of the build machine (little / big; since dpkg 1.15.4).
DEB_BUILD_GNU_CPU The CPU part of DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE.
DEB_BUILD_GNU_SYSTEM The System part of DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE.
DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE The GNU system type of the build machine.
DEB_BUILD_MULTIARCH The clarified GNU system type of the build machine, used for filesystem paths (since dpkg 1.16.0).
DEB_HOST_ARCH The Debian architecture of the host machine.
DEB_HOST_ARCH_OS The Debian system name of the host machine (since dpkg 1.13.2).
DEB_HOST_ARCH_CPU The Debian cpu name of the host machine (since dpkg 1.13.2).
DEB_HOST_ARCH_BITS The pointer size of the host machine (in bits; since dpkg 1.15.4).
DEB_HOST_ARCH_ENDIAN The endianness of the host machine (little / big; since dpkg 1.15.4).
DEB_HOST_GNU_CPU The CPU part of DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE.
DEB_HOST_GNU_SYSTEM The System part of DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE.
DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE The GNU system type of the host machine.
DEB_HOST_MULTIARCH The clarified GNU system type of the host machine, used for filesystem paths (since dpkg 1.16.0).
DEB_TARGET_ARCH The Debian architecture of the target machine (since dpkg 1.17.14).
DEB_TARGET_ARCH_OS The Debian system name of the target machine (since dpkg 1.17.14).
DEB_TARGET_ARCH_CPU The Debian cpu name of the target machine (since dpkg 1.17.14).
DEB_TARGET_ARCH_BITS The pointer size of the target machine (in bits; since dpkg 1.17.14).
DEB_TARGET_ARCH_ENDIAN The endianness of the target machine (little / big; since dpkg 1.17.14).
DEB_TARGET_GNU_CPU The CPU part of DEB_TARGET_GNU_TYPE (since dpkg 1.17.14).
DEB_TARGET_GNU_SYSTEM The System part of DEB_TARGET_GNU_TYPE (since dpkg 1.17.14).
DEB_TARGET_GNU_TYPE The GNU system type of the target machine (since dpkg 1.17.14).
DEB_TARGET_MULTIARCH The clarified GNU system type of the target machine, used for filesystem paths (since dpkg 1.17.14).

FILES

    Architecture tables

All these files have to be present for dpkg-architecture to work. Their location can be overridden at runtime with the environment variable DPKG_DATADIR.
/usr/share/dpkg/cputable
  Table of known CPU names and mapping to their GNU name.
/usr/share/dpkg/ostable
  Table of known operating system names and mapping to their GNU name.
/usr/share/dpkg/triplettable
  Mapping between Debian architecture triplets and Debian architecture names.
/usr/share/dpkg/abitable
  Table of Debian architecture ABI attribute overrides.

    Packaging support

/usr/share/dpkg/architecture.mk
  Makefile snippet that properly sets and exports all the variables that dpkg-architecture outputs (since dpkg 1.16.1).

EXAMPLES

dpkg-buildpackage accepts the -a option and passes it to  dpkg-architecture. Other examples:
CC=i386-gnu-gcc dpkg-architecture -c debian/rules build
eval `dpkg-architecture -u`
Check if the current or specified host architecture is equal to an architecture:
dpkg-architecture -elinux-alpha
dpkg-architecture -amips -elinux-mips
Check if the current or specified host architecture is a Linux system:
dpkg-architecture -ilinux-any
dpkg-architecture -ai386 -ilinux-any

    Usage in debian/rules

The environment variables set by dpkg-architecture are passed to debian/rules as make variables (see make documentation). However, you should not rely on them, as this breaks manual invocation of the script. Instead, you should always initialize them using  dpkg-architecture with the -q option. Here are some examples, which also show how you can improve the cross compilation support in your package:

Retrieving the GNU system type and forwarding it to ./configure:

DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE ?= $(shell dpkg-architecture -qDEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE)
DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE ?= $(shell dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE)
[...]
ifeq ($(DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE), $(DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE))
  confflags += --build=$(DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE)
else
  confflags += --build=$(DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE) \
               --host=$(DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE)
endif
[...]
./configure $(confflags)

Doing something only for a specific architecture:

DEB_HOST_ARCH ?= $(shell dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_ARCH)

ifeq ($(DEB_HOST_ARCH),alpha) [...] endif

or if you only need to check the CPU or OS type, use the DEB_HOST_ARCH_CPU or DEB_HOST_ARCH_OS variables.

Note that you can also rely on an external Makefile snippet to properly set all the variables that dpkg-architecture can provide:

include /usr/share/dpkg/architecture.mk

ifeq ($(DEB_HOST_ARCH),alpha) [...] endif

In any case, you should never use dpkg --print-architecture to get architecture information during a package build.

NOTES

All long command and option names available only since dpkg 1.17.17.

SEE ALSO

dpkg-buildpackage(1), dpkg-cross(1).
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Debian Project DPKG-ARCHITECTURE (1) 2013-03-28

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