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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  DPKG-BUILDFLAGS (1)

NAME

dpkg-buildflags - returns build flags to use during package build

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Commands
Supported Flags
Feature Areas
Environment
Files
     Configuration files
     Packaging support
Environment
Examples
     Usage in debian/rules

SYNOPSIS

dpkg-buildflags [option...] [command]

DESCRIPTION

dpkg-buildflags is a tool to retrieve compilation flags to use during build of Debian packages. The default flags are defined by the vendor but they can be extended/overriden in several ways:
1. system-wide with /etc/dpkg/buildflags.conf;
2. for the current user with $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/dpkg/buildflags.conf where $XDG_CONFIG_HOME defaults to $HOME/.config;
3. temporarily by the user with environment variables (see section ENVIRONMENT);
4. dynamically by the package maintainer with environment variables set via debian/rules (see section ENVIRONMENT).
The configuration files can contain two types of directives:
SET flag value
  Override the flag named flag to have the value value.
STRIP flag value
  Strip from the flag named flag all the build flags listed in value.
APPEND flag value
  Extend the flag named flag by appending the options given in value. A space is prepended to the appended value if the flag’s current value is non-empty.
PREPEND flag value
  Extend the flag named flag by prepending the options given in value. A space is appended to the prepended value if the flag’s current value is non-empty.
The configuration files can contain comments on lines starting with a hash (#). Empty lines are also ignored.

COMMANDS

--dump Print to standard output all compilation flags and their values. It prints one flag per line separated from its value by an equal sign (\(lqflag=value\(rq). This is the default action.
--list Print the list of flags supported by the current vendor (one per line). See the SUPPORTED FLAGS section for more information about them.
--status
  Display any information that can be useful to explain the behaviour of dpkg-buildflags (since dpkg 1.16.5): relevant environment variables, current vendor, state of all feature flags. Also print the resulting compiler flags with their origin.

This is intended to be run from debian/rules, so that the build log keeps a clear trace of the build flags used. This can be useful to diagnose problems related to them.

--export=format
  Print to standard output commands that can be used to export all the compilation flags for some particular tool. If the format value is not given, sh is assumed. Only compilation flags starting with an upper case character are included, others are assumed to not be suitable for the environment. Supported formats:
sh Shell commands to set and export all the compilation flags in the environment. The flag values are quoted so the output is ready for evaluation by a shell.
cmdline
  Arguments to pass to a build program’s command line to use all the compilation flags (since dpkg 1.17.0). The flag values are quoted in shell syntax.
configure
  This is a legacy alias for cmdline.
make Make directives to set and export all the compilation flags in the environment. Output can be written to a makefile fragment and evaluated using an include directive.
--get flag
  Print the value of the flag on standard output. Exits with 0 if the flag is known otherwise exits with 1.
--origin flag
  Print the origin of the value that is returned by --get. Exits with 0 if the flag is known otherwise exits with 1. The origin can be one of the following values:
vendor the original flag set by the vendor is returned;
system the flag is set/modified by a system-wide configuration;
user the flag is set/modified by a user-specific configuration;
env the flag is set/modified by an environment-specific configuration.
--query-features area
  Print the features enabled for a given area (since dpkg 1.16.2). The only currently recognized areas on Debian and derivatives are qa, reproducible, sanitize and hardening, see the FEATURE AREAS section for more details. Exits with 0 if the area is known otherwise exits with 1.
The output is in RFC822 format, with one section per feature. For example:
  Feature: pie
  Enabled: no

Feature: stackprotector Enabled: yes

--help Show the usage message and exit.
--version
  Show the version and exit.

SUPPORTED FLAGS

CFLAGS Options for the C compiler. The default value set by the vendor includes -g and the default optimization level (-O2 usually, or -O0 if the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable defines noopt).
CPPFLAGS
  Options for the C preprocessor. Default value: empty.
CXXFLAGS
  Options for the C++ compiler. Same as CFLAGS.
OBJCFLAGS
  Options for the Objective C compiler. Same as CFLAGS.
OBJCXXFLAGS
  Options for the Objective C++ compiler. Same as CXXFLAGS.
GCJFLAGS
  Options for the GNU Java compiler (gcj). A subset of CFLAGS.
FFLAGS Options for the Fortran 77 compiler. A subset of CFLAGS.
FCFLAGS
  Options for the Fortran 9x compiler. Same as FFLAGS.
LDFLAGS
  Options passed to the compiler when linking executables or shared objects (if the linker is called directly, then -Wl and , have to be stripped from these options). Default value: empty.
New flags might be added in the future if the need arises (for example to support other languages).

FEATURE AREAS

Each area feature can be enabled and disabled in the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS and DEB_BUILD_MAINT_OPTIONS environment variable’s area value with the \(oq+\(cq and \(oq-\(cq modifier. For example, to enable the hardening \(lqpie\(rq feature and disable the \(lqfortify\(rq feature you can do this in debian/rules:

export DEB_BUILD_MAINT_OPTIONS=hardening=+pie,-fortify

The special feature all (valid in any area) can be used to enable or disable all area features at the same time. Thus disabling everything in the hardening area and enabling only \(lqformat\(rq and \(lqfortify\(rq can be achieved with:

export DEB_BUILD_MAINT_OPTIONS=hardening=-all,+format,+fortify

    qa

Several compile-time options (detailed below) can be used to help detect problems in the source code or build system.
bug This setting (disabled by default) adds any warning option that reliably detects problematic source code. The warnings are fatal.
canary This setting (disabled by default) adds dummy canary options to the build flags, so that the build logs can be checked for how the build flags propagate and to allow finding any omission of normal build flag settings. The only currently supported flags are CPPFLAGS, CFLAGS, OBJCFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and OBJCXXFLAGS with flags set to -D__DEB_CANARY_flag_random-id__, and LDFLAGS set to -Wl,-z,deb-canary-random-id.

    sanitize

Several compile-time options (detailed below) can be used to help sanitize a resulting binary against memory corruptions, memory leaks, use after free, threading data races and undefined behavior bugs.
address
  This setting (disabled by default) adds -fsanitize=address to LDFLAGS and -fsanitize=address -fno-omit-frame-pointer to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
thread This setting (disabled by default) adds -fsanitize=thread to CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and LDFLAGS.
leak This setting (disabled by default) adds -fsanitize=leak to LDFLAGS. It gets automatically disabled if either the address or the thread features are enabled, as they imply it.
undefined
  This setting (disabled by default) adds -fsanitize=undefined to CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and LDFLAGS.

    hardening

Several compile-time options (detailed below) can be used to help harden a resulting binary against memory corruption attacks, or provide additional warning messages during compilation. Except as noted below, these are enabled by default for architectures that support them.
format This setting (enabled by default) adds -Wformat -Werror=format-security to CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, OBJCFLAGS and OBJCXXFLAGS. This will warn about improper format string uses, and will fail when format functions are used in a way that represent possible security problems. At present, this warns about calls to printf and scanf functions where the format string is not a string literal and there are no format arguments, as in printf(foo); instead of printf("%s", foo); This may be a security hole if the format string came from untrusted input and contains \(oq%n\(cq.
fortify
  This setting (enabled by default) adds -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 to CPPFLAGS. During code generation the compiler knows a great deal of information about buffer sizes (where possible), and attempts to replace insecure unlimited length buffer function calls with length-limited ones. This is especially useful for old, crufty code. Additionally, format strings in writable memory that contain \(oq%n\(cq are blocked. If an application depends on such a format string, it will need to be worked around.

Note that for this option to have any effect, the source must also be compiled with -O1 or higher. If the environment variable DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS contains noopt, then fortify support will be disabled, due to new warnings being issued by glibc 2.16 and later.

stackprotector
  This setting (enabled by default if stackprotectorstrong is not in use) adds -fstack-protector --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 to CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, OBJCFLAGS, OBJCXXFLAGS, GCJFLAGS, FFLAGS and FCFLAGS. This adds safety checks against stack overwrites. This renders many potential code injection attacks into aborting situations. In the best case this turns code injection vulnerabilities into denial of service or into non-issues (depending on the application).

This feature requires linking against glibc (or another provider of __stack_chk_fail), so needs to be disabled when building with -nostdlib or -ffreestanding or similar.

stackprotectorstrong
  This setting (enabled by default) adds -fstack-protector-strong to CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, OBJCFLAGS, OBJCXXFLAGS, GCJFLAGS, FFLAGS and FCFLAGS. This is a stronger variant of stackprotector, but without significant performance penalties.

Disabling stackprotector will also disable this setting.

This feature has the same requirements as stackprotector, and in addition also requires gcc 4.9 and later.

relro This setting (enabled by default) adds -Wl,-z,relro to LDFLAGS. During program load, several ELF memory sections need to be written to by the linker. This flags the loader to turn these sections read-only before turning over control to the program. Most notably this prevents GOT overwrite attacks. If this option is disabled, bindnow will become disabled as well.
bindnow
  This setting (disabled by default) adds -Wl,-z,now to LDFLAGS. During program load, all dynamic symbols are resolved, allowing for the entire PLT to be marked read-only (due to relro above). The option cannot become enabled if relro is not enabled.
pie This setting (disabled by default) adds -fPIE to CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, OBJCFLAGS, OBJCXXFLAGS, GCJFLAGS, FFLAGS and FCFLAGS, and -fPIE -pie to LDFLAGS. Position Independent Executable are needed to take advantage of Address Space Layout Randomization, supported by some kernel versions. While ASLR can already be enforced for data areas in the stack and heap (brk and mmap), the code areas must be compiled as position-independent. Shared libraries already do this (-fPIC), so they gain ASLR automatically, but binary .text regions need to be build PIE to gain ASLR. When this happens, ROP (Return Oriented Programming) attacks are much harder since there are no static locations to bounce off of during a memory corruption attack.

This is not compatible with -fPIC so care must be taken when building shared objects.

Additionally, since PIE is implemented via a general register, some architectures (most notably i386) can see performance losses of up to 15% in very text-segment-heavy application workloads; most workloads see less than 1%. Architectures with more general registers (e.g. amd64) do not see as high a worst-case penalty.

    reproducible

The compile-time options detailed below can be used to help improve build reproducibility or provide additional warning messages during compilation. Except as noted below, these are enabled by default for architectures that support them.
timeless
  This setting (enabled by default) adds -Wdate-time to CPPFLAGS. This will cause warnings when the __TIME__, __DATE__ and  __TIMESTAMP__ macros are used.

ENVIRONMENT

There are 2 sets of environment variables doing the same operations, the first one (DEB_flag_op) should never be used within debian/rules. It’s meant for any user that wants to rebuild the source package with different build flags. The second set (DEB_flag_MAINT_op) should only be used in debian/rules by package maintainers to change the resulting build flags.
DEB_flag_SET
  DEB_flag_MAINT_SET This variable can be used to force the value returned for the given flag.
DEB_flag_STRIP
  DEB_flag_MAINT_STRIP This variable can be used to provide a space separated list of options that will be stripped from the set of flags returned for the given flag.
DEB_flag_APPEND
  DEB_flag_MAINT_APPEND This variable can be used to append supplementary options to the value returned for the given flag.
DEB_flag_PREPEND
  DEB_flag_MAINT_PREPEND This variable can be used to prepend supplementary options to the value returned for the given flag.
DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS
  DEB_BUILD_MAINT_OPTIONS These variables can be used by a user or maintainer to disable/enable various area features that affect build flags. The DEB_BUILD_MAINT_OPTIONS variable overrides any setting in the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS feature areas. See the FEATURE AREAS section for details.

FILES

    Configuration files

/etc/dpkg/buildflags.conf
  System wide configuration file.
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/dpkg/buildflags.conf or
  $HOME/.config/dpkg/buildflags.conf User configuration file.

    Packaging support

/usr/share/dpkg/buildflags.mk
  Makefile snippet that will load (and optionally export) all flags supported by dpkg-buildflags into variables (since dpkg 1.16.1).

ENVIRONMENT

DEB_VENDOR
  This setting defines the current vendor. If not set, it will discover the current vendor by reading  /etc/dpkg/origins/default.

EXAMPLES

To pass build flags to a build command in a makefile:

$(MAKE) $(shell dpkg-buildflags --export=cmdline)

./configure $(shell dpkg-buildflags --export=cmdline)

To set build flags in a shell script or shell fragment, eval can be used to interpret the output and to export the flags in the environment:

eval "$(dpkg-buildflags --export=sh)" && make

or to set the positional parameters to pass to a command:

eval "set -- $(dpkg-buildflags --export=cmdline)"
for dir in a b c; do (cd $dir && ./configure "$@" && make); done

    Usage in debian/rules

You should call dpkg-buildflags or include buildflags.mk from the debian/rules file to obtain the needed build flags to pass to the build system. Note that older versions of dpkg-buildpackage (before dpkg 1.16.1) exported these flags automatically. However, you should not rely on this, since this breaks manual invocation of debian/rules.

For packages with autoconf-like build systems, you can pass the relevant options to configure or make(1) directly, as shown above.

For other build systems, or when you need more fine-grained control about which flags are passed where, you can use --get. Or you can include buildflags.mk instead, which takes care of calling  dpkg-buildflags and storing the build flags in make variables.

If you want to export all buildflags into the environment (where they can be picked up by your build system):

DPKG_EXPORT_BUILDFLAGS = 1
include /usr/share/dpkg/buildflags.mk

For some extra control over what is exported, you can manually export the variables (as none are exported by default):

include /usr/share/dpkg/buildflags.mk
export CPPFLAGS CFLAGS LDFLAGS

And you can of course pass the flags to commands manually:

include /usr/share/dpkg/buildflags.mk
build-arch:
        $(CC) -o hello hello.c $(CPPFLAGS) $(CFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS)

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Debian Project DPKG-BUILDFLAGS (1) 2014-09-04

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