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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  FUSE (1)

NAME

fuse — Sinclair ZX Spectrum emulator

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Options
Monitor/debugger
The Poke Finder
The Poke Memory
The .dsk Format
Beta_space_128 Emulation
Opus Discovery Emulation
Disciple Emulation
Disk File Formats
Weak Disk Data
Movie Recording
Compressed Files
Bugs
Files
See Also
Author

SYNOPSIS

fuse [options]

DESCRIPTION

Fuse is a Sinclair ZX Spectrum emulator. It supports several models (including the 128), with quite faithful emulation of the display and sound.

The emulator can load any of the formats supported by libspectrum(3) — this includes Z80, SNA and SZX snapshots, and PZX, TAP and TZX virtual-tape files. Saving to SZX, Z80 and SNA snapshots and TZX and TAP tape files is supported. The SLT extension to the Z80 format is partly supported (enough for multi-load games); however, loading of the old DAT-file variant is not. DSK, UDI, FDI, TR0, SDF, MGT, IMG, SAD, TRD, SCL and OPD disk images are supported when a disk interface is being emulated, including the integrated disk drives on +3, Pentagon or Scorpion machines as well as the +D, DISCiPLE, Opus Discovery and Beta 128 interfaces. DCK cartridge images are supported when emulating a Timex 2068 variant. Interface 2 ROM cartridges are also supported.

Finally, there is also support for reading and writing the RZX input recording format.

See the COMPRESSED FILES section for details on reading files compressed with bzip2(3) or gzip(3).

OPTIONS

--accelerate-loader
Specify whether Fuse should attempt to accelerate tape loaders by \(lqshort circuiting\(rq the loading loop. This will in general speed up loading, but may cause some loaders to fail. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-accelerate-loader’ to disable). The same as the General Options dialog’s Accelerate loaders option.

--aspect-hint

Specify whether the GTK+ and Xlib user interfaces should ‘hint’ to the window manager about the preferred aspect ratio for the graphics window, thus preventing resizing to non-square sizes which lead to Fuse not displaying correctly. This option has been observed to cause problems with some window managers when using the GTK+ UI which can prevent the window from being resized or moved at all. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-aspect-hint’ to disable). See also the --strict-aspect-hint’ option.

--autosave-settings

Specify whether Fuse’s current settings should be automatically saved on exit. The same as the General Options dialog’s Auto-save settings option.

--auto-load

Specify whether tape and disk files should be automatically loaded when they are opened using the File, Open... menu option. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-auto-load’ to disable). Same as the General Options dialog’s Auto-load media option.

--beta128

Emulate a Beta 128 interface. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s Beta 128 interface option.

--beta128-48boot

When a Beta 128 interface is used in 48K or TC2048 emulation the option additionally controls whether the machine boots directly into the TR-DOS system. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s Beta 128 auto-boot in 48K machines option.

--betadisk file

Insert the specified file into the emulated Beta disk interface’s drive A: and select Pentagon mode on startup.

--bw-tv

Specify whether the display should simulate a colour or black and white television. This option is effective under the GTK+, Win32, Xlib and SDL user interfaces: the others will always simulate a colour TV. The same as the General Options dialog’s Black and white TV option.

--competition-code code

Specify the code to be written to competition mode RZX files. The same as the RZX Options dialog’s Competition code option.

--competition-mode

Specify whether input recordings should be made in ‘competition mode’. The same as the RZX Options dialog’s Competition mode option.

--compress-rzx

Specify whether RZX files should be written out compressed. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-compress-rzx’ to disable). Same as the RZX Options dialog’s Compress RZX data option.

--confirm-actions

Specify whether ‘dangerous’ actions (those which could cause data loss, for example resetting the Spectrum) require confirmation before occurring. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-confirm-actions’ to disable). This option is the same as the General Options dialog’s Confirm actions option.

--debugger-command string

Specify a debugger command to be run before emulator startup. This can be used to set breakpoints or the like. Currently, this is the only method to input multi-line debugger commands. (See the MONITOR/DEBUGGER section for more information).

--detect-loader

Specify whether Fuse should attempt to detect when the tape is being accessed and start and stop the virtual tape playing automatically. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-detect-loader’ to disable). Same as the General Options dialog’s Detect loaders option.

--disciple

Emulate a DISCiPLE interface. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s DISCiPLE interface option.

--discipledisk file

Insert the specified file into the emulated DISCiPLE’s drive 1.

--disk-ask-merge

Prompt the user to confirm whether Fuse should try to merge the ‘B’ side of a disk image from a separate file when opening a new single-sided disk image.

--disk-try-merge mode

Select whether Fuse should try to merge a separate file for the ‘B’ side of a disk image separate file when opening a new disk image. Most double sided disk images are dumped as two single sided disk images e.g. ‘Golden Axe - Side A.dsk’ and ‘Golden Axe - Side B.dsk’. So, if we want to play Golden Axe, first we have to insert the first disk image and when the game asks to insert side B, we have to find and open the second disk image, instead of just ‘flip’-ing the disk inside the drive. If enabled, Fuse will try to open the second image too and create a double sided disk image (merging the two one sided disk images) and insert this merged virtual disk into the disk drive. The function detects whether the file is one side of a double-sided image if the filename matches a pattern like [Ss]ide[ _][abAB12][ _.] in the file name of a disk that is being opened. If found, Fuse will try to open the other side of the disk too substituting the appropriate characters in the filename e.g. 1->2, a->b, A->B. If successful then it will merge the two images and now we have a double sided disk in drive. This means that if we open ‘Golden Axe - Side A.dsk’, then Fuse will try to open ‘Golden Axe - Side B.dsk’ too. Now, we can just ‘flip’ the disk if Golden Axe asks for ‘Side B’. The available options are Never, With single-sided drives and Always.

--divide

Emulate the DivIDE interface. The same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s DivIDE interface option.

--divide-masterfile file
--divide-slavefile file

Specify an IDE image to be loaded into the DivIDE’s emulated master and slave drives respectively.

--divide-write-protect

Specify that the emulated DivIDE’s write protect jumper should be considered set. The same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s DivIDE write protect option.

--dock file

Insert the specified file into the emulated Timex 2068 variant dock; also select the TC2068 on startup if available.

--doublescan-mode

Specify that the framebuffer UI should attempt to use a double scan mode (where each line is displayed twice).

--drive-plus3a-type type
--drive-plus3b-type type
--drive-beta128a-type type
--drive-beta128b-type type
--drive-beta128c-type type
--drive-beta128d-type type
--drive-plusd1-type type
--drive-plusd2-type type
--drive-disciple1-type type
--drive-disciple2-type type
--drive-opus1-type type
--drive-opus2-type type

Specify a disk drive type to emulate with the associated interface. See the Disk Options dialog for more information.

--drive-40-max-track count
--drive-80-max-track count

Specify the maximum number of tracks for 40 and 80 track physical drives respectively.

--embed-snapshot

Specify whether a snapshot should be embedded in an RZX file when recording is started from an existing snapshot. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-embed-snapshot’ to disable). Same as the RZX Options dialog’s Always embed snapshot option.

--fastload

Specify whether Fuse should run at the fastest possible speed when the virtual tape is playing. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-fastload’ to disable). The same as the General Options dialog’s Fastloading option.

-f frequency
--sound-freq frequency

Specify what frequency Fuse should use for the sound device, the default is 32 kHz, but some devices only support a single frequency or a limited range (e.g. 48 kHz or up to 22 kHz).

--fuller

Emulate a Fuller Box interface. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog’s Fuller Box option.

--full-screen

Specify whether Fuse should run in full screen mode. This option is effective only under the SDL UI.

-g filter
--graphics-filter mode

Specify which graphics filter to use if available. The default is normal, which uses no filtering. The available options are 2x, 2xsai, 3x, advmame2x, advmame3x, dotmatrix, half, halfskip, hq2x, hq3x, normal, super2xsai, supereagle, timex15x, timextv, tv2x, paltv, paltv2x, and paltv3x. See the GRAPHICS FILTERS section for more details.

--graphicsfile file

Set the filename used for graphical output from the emulated ZX Printer. See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.

-h
--help

Give brief usage help, listing available options.

--if2cart file

Insert the specified file into the emulated Interface 2.

--interface1

Emulate a Sinclair Interface 1. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog’s Interface 1 option.

--interface2

Emulate a Sinclair Interface 2. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-interface2’ to disable). Same as the Peripherals Options dialog’s Interface 2 option.

--issue2

Emulate an issue 2 keyboard. Same as the General Options dialog’s Issue 2 keyboard option.

-j device
--joystick-1 device

Read from device to emulate the first joystick. Fuse will use either /dev/input/js0’ or /dev/js0’ by default.

--joystick-2 device

As for --joystick-1 but for the second joystick; the default here is either /dev/input/js1’ or /dev/js1’.

--joystick-1-output type
--joystick-2-output type
--joystick-keyboard-output type

Select which joystick interface to attach for the first two real joysticks and the keyboard joystick. The default is 0, which is no output. The available options are 1 (cursor), 2 (kempston), 3 (Sinclair 1), 4 (Sinclair 2), 5 (Timex 1), 6 (Timex 2), and 7 (Fuller). Same as the Joysticks Options dialog’s Joystick type option.

--joystick-1-fire-1 code
--joystick-1-fire-2 code
--joystick-1-fire-3 code
--joystick-1-fire-4 code
--joystick-1-fire-5 code
--joystick-1-fire-6 code
--joystick-1-fire-7 code
--joystick-1-fire-8 code
--joystick-1-fire-9 code
--joystick-1-fire-10 code
--joystick-1-fire-11 code
--joystick-1-fire-12 code
--joystick-1-fire-13 code
--joystick-1-fire-14 code
--joystick-1-fire-15 code
--joystick-2-fire-1 code
--joystick-2-fire-2 code
--joystick-2-fire-3 code
--joystick-2-fire-4 code
--joystick-2-fire-5 code
--joystick-2-fire-6 code
--joystick-2-fire-7 code
--joystick-2-fire-8 code
--joystick-2-fire-9 code
--joystick-2-fire-10 code
--joystick-2-fire-11 code
--joystick-2-fire-12 code
--joystick-2-fire-13 code
--joystick-2-fire-14 code
--joystick-2-fire-15 code

Select which Fuse key code should be triggered by the applicable real joystick button press. The codes are the Fuse keyboard codes corresponding to the keys. The default value is 4096 which corresponds to the virtual joystick fire button. Same as the Joysticks Options dialog’s Joystick fire options.

--joystick-keyboard-up code
--joystick-keyboard-down code
--joystick-keyboard-left code
--joystick-keyboard-right code
--joystick-keyboard-fire code

Select which Fuse key code should correspond with each direction and fire for the keyboard virtual joystick. The same as the Keyboard Joysticks Options dialog’s Button for UP, Button for DOWN, Button for LEFT, Button for RIGHT and Button for FIRE options respectively.

--joystick-prompt

If this option is specified, then Fuse will prompt you which form of joystick emulation you wish to use when loading a snapshot. No prompt will be issued if the configuration in the snapshot matches what you are currently using. The same as the General Options dialog’s Snap joystick prompt option.

--kempston

Emulate a Kempston joystick. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog’s Kempston joystick option.

--kempston-mouse

Emulate a Kempston mouse. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog’s Kempston mouse option.

--late-timings

It has been observed that some real Spectrums run such that the screen is rendered one tstate later than on other real hardware. This option specifies that Fuse should emulate such a machine. Same as the General Options dialog’s Late timings option.

--loading-sound

Specify whether the sound made while tapes are loading should be emulated. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-loading-sound’ to disable). Same as the Sound Options dialog’s Loading sound option.

-m type
--machine type

Specify machine type to emulate initially. The default is 48, a 48K Spectrum. The available options are 16, 48, 48_ntsc, 128, plus2, plus2a, plus3, 2048, 2068, ts2068, pentagon, pentagon512, pentagon1024, scorpion and se.

--melodik

Emulate a Melodik AY interface for 16/48k Spectrums. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog’s Melodik option.

--microdrive-file file
--microdrive-2-file file
--microdrive-3-file file
--microdrive-4-file file
--microdrive-5-file file
--microdrive-6-file file
--microdrive-7-file file
--microdrive-8-file file

Specify Interface 1 Microdrive cartridge files to open.

--mouse-swap-buttons

Swap the left and right mouse buttons when emulating the Kempston mouse. The same as the General Peripherals dialog’s Swap mouse buttons option.

--movie-compr level

This option sets the compression level used when creating movies. Same as the Movie Options dialog’s Movie compression option. The available options are None, Lossless, and High (lossy). The default option is Lossless. See also the MOVIE RECORDING section.

--movie-start filename

With this command line option, Fuse will start movie recording as soon as the emulator is started. See also the MOVIE RECORDING section.

--movie-stop-after-rzx

With this command line option, Fuse will stop movie recording when RZX playback or RZX recording ends. Same as the Movie Options dialog’s Stop recording after RZX ends option. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-movie-stop-after-rzx’ to disable). See also the MOVIE RECORDING section.

--opus

Emulate a Opus Discovery interface. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s Opus Discovery interface option.

--opusdisk file

Insert the specified file into the emulated Opus Discovery’s drive 1.

--paltv2x

Specify whether the PAL TV 2x and PAL TV 3x scalers should also produce scanlines along the lines of the TV 2x and Timex TV scalers. The same as the General Options dialog’s PAL-TV use TV2x effect option.

-p file
--playback file

Specify an RZX file to begin playback from.

--plus3disk file

Insert the specified file into the emulated +3’s A: drive; also select the +3 on startup if available.

--plus3-detect-speedlock

Specify whether the +3 drives try to detect Speedlock protected disks, and emulate ‘weak’ sectors. If the disk image file (EDSK or UDI) contains weak sector data, than Speedlock detection is automatically omitted. See also the WEAK DISK DATA section. Same as the Disk Options dialog’s +3 Detect Speedlock option.

--plusd

Emulate a +D interface. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s +D interface option.

--plusddisk file

Insert the specified file into the emulated +D’s drive 1.

--printer

Specify whether the emulation should include a printer. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog’s Emulate printers option.

--rate frame

Specify the frame rate, the ratio of spectrum frame updates to real frame updates. Same as the General Options dialog’s Frame rate option.

-r file
--record file

Specify an RZX file to begin recording to.

--rom-16 file
--rom-48 file
--rom-128-0 file
--rom-128-1 file
--rom-plus2-0 file
--rom-plus2-1 file
--rom-plus2a-0 file
--rom-plus2a-1 file
--rom-plus2a-2 file
--rom-plus2a-3 file
--rom-plus3-0 file
--rom-plus3-1 file
--rom-plus3-2 file
--rom-plus3-3 file
--rom-plus3e-0 file
--rom-plus3e-1 file
--rom-plus3e-2 file
--rom-plus3e-3 file
--rom-tc2048 file
--rom-tc2068-0 file
--rom-tc2068-1 file
--rom-ts2068-0 file
--rom-ts2068-1 file
--rom-pentagon-0 file
--rom-pentagon-1 file
--rom-pentagon-2 file
--rom-pentagon-3 file
--rom-scorpion-0 file
--rom-scorpion-1 file
--rom-scorpion-2 file
--rom-scorpion-3 file
--rom-spec-se-0 file
--rom-spec-se-1 file
--rom-interface-1 file
--rom-opus file
--rom-plusd file
--rom-disciple file
--rom-beta128 file
--rom-speccyboot file

Specify the file to be used for ROM(s) used for each machine. The options respectively refer to the 16K Spectrum (48.rom), 48K Spectrum (48.rom), the two ROMs for the 128K Spectrum (128-0.rom and 128-1.rom), the two ROMs for the +2 (plus2-0.rom and plus2-1.rom), the four ROMs for the +2A (plus3-0.rom, plus3-1.rom, plus3-2.rom and plus3-3.rom), the four ROMs for the +3 (plus3-0.rom, plus3-1.rom, plus3-2.rom and plus3-3.rom), the TC2048 ROM (tc2048.rom), the two ROMs for the TC2068 (tc2068-0.rom and tc2068-1.rom), the two ROMs for the TS2068 (tc2068-0.rom and tc2068-1.rom), the two main ROMs, the TR-DOS ROM and a reset service ROM for the Pentagon (128p-0.rom, 128p-1.rom, trdos.rom and gluck.rom), the four ROMs for the Scorpion 256 (256s-0.rom, 256s-1.rom, 256s-2.rom and 256s-3.rom), the two ROMs for the Spectrum SE (se-0.rom and se-1.rom), the Interface 1 ROM (if1-2.rom), the Opus Discovery ROM (opus.rom), the DISCiPLE ROM (disciple.rom), the +D ROM (plusd.rom), the TR-DOS ROM for Beta 128 emulation with the 48K, TC2048, 128K or +2 (trdos.rom), and the SpeccyBoot ROM (speccyboot-1.4.rom). The names in brackets denote the defaults. Note that not all these ROMs are supplied with Fuse — you must supply your own copies of those which are not.

--no-rs232-handshake

This option makes Fuse’s Interface 1 emulation assume that the RS-232 line other end is live when you connect the communication channels. See also the --rs232-rx’ and --rs232-tx’ options.

--rs232-rx
--rs232-tx

Specify the communication channels (FIFO or file) to be used for Interface 1 RS-232 emulation as RxD and TxD wire. See also the --rs232-handshake’ options.

--rzx-autosaves

Specify that, while recording an RZX file, Fuse should automatically add a snapshot to the recording stream every 5 seconds. (Default to on, but you can use --no-rzx-autosaves’ to disable). Same as the RZX Options dialog’s Create autosaves option; see there for more details.

--separation type

Give stereo separation of the 128’s AY sound channels. Same as the General Options dialog’s AY stereo separation option. The available options are None, ACB, and ABC. The default option is None.

--simpleide

Specify whether Fuse will emulate the simple 8-bit IDE interface as used by the Spectrum +3e. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s Simple 8-bit IDE option.

--simpleide-masterfile file

Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated Simple 8-bit IDE interface’s master channel.

--simpleide-slavefile file

Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated Simple 8-bit IDE interface’s slave channel.

--slt

Support the SLT trap instruction. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-slt’ to disable). Same as the General Options dialog’s Use .slt traps option.

-s file
--snapshot file

Specify a snapshot file to load. The file can be in any snapshot format supported by libspectrum(3).

--sound

Specify whether Fuse should produce sound. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-sound’ to disable). Same as the Sound Options dialog’s Sound enabled option.

-d device
--sound-device device

Specify the sound output device to use and any options to give that device. If you are not using the SDL UI or using libao or libasound (ALSA) for sound output, then the device parameter just specifies the device to be used for sound output.

If you are using the SDL UI, the device parameter allows you to specify the audio driver to be used (e.g. dsp, alsa, dma, esd and arts).

If you are using libao for sound output, the device parameter allows you to specify the device used for sound output (either ‘live’ to a speaker or to a file) and the parameters to be used for that device. In general, the device parameter has the form driver[:param[=value][,param[=value][,...]]. driver selects the libao driver to be used, either one of the ‘live’ drivers (aixs, alsa, alsa09, arts, esd, irix, macosx, nas, oss or sun) or a file driver (au, raw, wav or null). The available parameter and value pairs for each device are:
[bu] aixs: AIX audio system
[bu] dev=device
device’ gives the AIX sound device.
[bu] alsa: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture version 0.5.x
[bu] card=num
num’ gives the ALSA card number.
[bu] dev=num
num’ gives the ALSA device number.
[bu] buf_size=num
num’ gives the ALSA buffer size in bytes.
[bu] alsa09: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture version 0.9+
[bu] dev=string
string’ specifies the ALSA device e.g. hw:1.2
[bu] buffer_time=num
num’ gives the ALSA buffer time in microseconds.
[bu] period_time=num
num’ gives the ALSA period time in microseconds.
[bu] use_mmap=yes|y|true|t|1
specifies that libao use memory mapped transfer.
[bu] arts: aRts soundserver: no parameters.
[bu] esd: Enlightened Sound Daemon.
[bu] host=string
string’ gives the ESD host specification.
[bu] irix: IRIX Audio Library: no parameters.
[bu] macosx: MacOS X CoreAudio: no parameters.
[bu] nas: Network Audio System.
[bu] host=string
string’ gives the NAS host specification.
[bu] buf_size=num
num’ gives the buffer size on the server.
[bu] oss: Open Sound System.
[bu] dsp=string
string’ gives the OSS device to be used e.g. /dev/sound/dsp1
[bu] sun: SUN audio system.
[bu] dev=string
string’ gives the audio device to be used.
[bu] au: SUN Sparc audio file: no parameters.
[bu] raw: raw file.
[bu] byteorder=string
string’ can be any of native (host native byteorder), big (big endian) or little (little endian).
[bu] wav: Microsoft audio file: no parameters.
[bu] null: null output: no parameters.
[bu] debug: for debugging libao.
Finally, each of the file output types (au, raw and wav) have an extra option ‘file=filename’ where filename’ gives the file output will be directed to. This defaults to fuse-sound.ao’ if it is not specified.
Some examples of use:
fuse -d alsa09:dev=hw:1
causes Fuse to use ALSA 0.9+ output with the second (#1) sound card.
fuse -d raw:byteorder=little,file=enigma.raw
causes Fuse to save little endian words to enigma.raw’.
See the ‘DEVICE’ section of ogg123(1) for up to date information of devices and options (except for the ‘file’ option which is provided by Fuse itself).
If you are using libasound or ALSA for sound output, the device parameter allows you to specify the device used for sound output and some parameters to be used for that device. In general, the device parameter has the form
devstr or
param[=value][,param[=value][,...][,devstr].
[bu] devstr: selects the ALSA device used, it can be any complex or simple ALSA device name. e.g.: default or hw:0 or tee:plughw:0,\(aq/tmp/out.raw\(aq,raw. See the alsa-lib pcm api reference at http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-lib/pcm.html for further explanation.
[bu] param and values:
[bu] buffer=nnnn: set the ALSA buffer in frames, smaller value cause smaller sound delay but may more buffer underrun (pops and clicks), larger value cause longer delay but fewer underrun. By default Fuse determine the buffer size based on the actual sound frequency.

If you use some special plugin for your pcm device (e.g.: dmix) or your card not support some needed parameter (e.g. cannot play other only 48 kHz stereo sound like some AC97 sound card) may cause Fuse unable to set the needed buffer size, appropriate sound frequency, channels and so on, therefore you cannot get optimal result or not hear the sound at all. In this case try the plughw:#, (where # mean your card number counted from 0) for ALSA device.

[bu] verbose: if given, fuse report ALSA buffer underruns to stderr.
Some examples of use:

fuse -d verbose,buffer=2000

causes Fuse to use the default ALSA device with 2000 frame length buffer and report ALSA buffer underruns on stderr.

fuse -d tee:plughw:0,\(aq/tmp/aufwm.raw\(aq,raw

causes Fuse to use the first card and parallel save the raw audio samples into /tmp/aufwm.raw file.

--sound-force-8bit

Force the use of 8-bit sound, even if 16-bit is possible. Same as the Sound Options dialog’s Force 8-bit option.

--speaker-type type

Select the output speaker emulation, type can be TV speaker, Beeper or Unfiltered. Same as the Sound Options dialog’s Speaker type option.

--speccyboot

Emulate a SpeccyBoot Ethernet interface. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog’s SpeccyBoot option. See the SpeccyBoot web page at http://speccyboot.sourceforge.net/ for full details on the SpeccyBoot.

--speccyboot-tap device

Specify the TAP device to use for SpeccyBoot emulation.

--specdrum

Emulate a SpecDrum interface. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog’s SpecDrum option. See the World of Spectrum Infoseek web page at http://www.worldofspectrum.org/infoseekid.cgi?id=1000062 for manuals, software and more.

--spectranet

Specify whether Fuse will emulate the Spectranet Ethernet interface. Same as the General Peripherals Options dialog’s Spectranet option. See the SPECTRANET EMULATION section for more details.

--spectranet-disable

This option controls the state of the Spectranet automatic page-in jumper (J2). Same as the General Peripherals Options dialog’s Spectranet disable option. See the SPECTRANET EMULATION section for more details.

--speed percentage

Specify the speed (as a percentage of real Spectrum speed) at which emulation should attempt to proceed. Same as the General Options dialog’s Emulation speed option.

--statusbar

For the GTK+ and Win32 UI, enables the statusbar beneath the display. For the Xlib and SDL UI, enables the status icons showing whether the disk and tape are being accessed. Same as the General Options dialog’s Show statusbar option.

--strict-aspect-hint

For the GTK+ UI, use stricter limits for the aspect ratio limits set by the --aspect-hint’ option. This can cause some window managers (for example, metacity(1)) to not allow the window to be resized and moved, but is necessary to prevent others (for example, fvwm(1)) from being able resize the window away from square.

-v mode
--fbmode mode

Specify which mode to use for the FB UI. Available values for mode are ‘320’ (which corresponds to a 320×240×256 mode), the default and ‘640’ (a 640×480×256 mode).

--svga-modes mode1,mode2,mode3

Specify which SVGA mode to use for the SVGAlib UI at different screen sizes. Available values for mode1, mode2 and mode3 are listed in a table, when Fuse called with --svga-modes list command line option. When user select a not available mode for a size, Fuse just ignore and try to find the best mode for it. e.g. with --svga-modes 0,0,12 Fuse use the specified 1024×768×256 SVGA mode for triple size filters, but select SVGA modes automatically for normal or double size filters. The above mode number is just an example, and mode numbers and their meanings may vary graphics card by graphics card.

-D mode
--doublescan-mode mode

Specify whether to use doublescan modes in the FB UI. Available values for mode are 0, 1 and 2. 0 means ‘never doublescan’ (use 640×480 at either 72 Hz or 60 Hz), whereas 1 and 2 both mean ‘try to use doublescan’ and will fall back on the 640×480 modes. 1 selects 72 Hz modes (the same size and shape as your typical 640×480), and 2 selects 60 Hz modes (overscan).

If your monitor displays a blank screen when using 1 or 2, press F10 then try a different option or say ‘--fbmode 640’.

-t file
--tape file

Specify a virtual tape file to use. It must be in PZX, TAP or TZX format.

--textfile file

Set the filename used for text output from the emulated printers. See the PRINTER EMULATION section below for more details.

--traps

Support traps for ROM tape loading/saving. (Enabled by default, but you can use --no-traps’ to disable). Same as the General Options dialog’s Use tape traps option.

-V
--version

Show which version of Fuse is being used.

--volume-ay volume

Sets the relative volume of the AY-3-8912 chip from a range of 0-100%. Same as the Sound Options dialog’s AY volume option.

--volume-beeper volume

Sets the relative volume of the beeper from a range of 0-100%. Same as the Sound Options dialog’s Beeper volume option.

--volume-specdrum volume

Sets the relative volume of the SpecDrum from a range of 0-100%. Same as the Sound Options dialog’s SpecDrum volume option.

--writable-roms

Allow Spectrum programs to overwrite the ROM(s). The same as the General Options dialog’s Allow writes to ROM option.

--zxatasp

Specify whether Fuse emulate the ZXATASP interface. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s ZXATASP interface option.

--zxatasp-upload

Specify the state of the ZXATASP upload jumper. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s ZXATASP upload option.

--zxatasp-write-protect

Specify the state of the ZXATASP write protect jumper. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s ZXATASP write protect option.

--zxatasp-masterfile file

Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated ZXATASP interface’s master channel.

--zxatasp-slavefile file

Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated ZXATASP interface’s slave channel.

--zxcf

Specify whether Fuse emulate the ZXCF interface. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s ZXCF interface option.

--zxcf-upload

Specify the state of the ZXCF upload jumper. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options dialog’s ZXCF upload option.

--zxcf-cffile file

Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated ZXCF interface.

--zxprinter

Emulate the ZX Printer. Same as the General Peripherals Options dialog’s ZX Printer option.

All long options which control on/off settings can be disabled using --no-foo’ (for an option --foo’). For example, the opposite of --issue2’ is --no-issue2’. These options can also be modified while the emulator is running, using the options dialogs — see the documentation for the Options menu in the MENUS AND KEYS section for details.

THE VARIOUS FRONT-ENDS

Fuse supports various front-ends, or UIs (user interfaces). The usual one is GTK+-based, but there are also SDL, Win32, Xlib, SVGAlib and framebuffer ones.

The important difference to note is that GTK+ and Win32 versions uses ‘native’ dialog boxes etc. (behaving like a fairly normal GUI-based program) while the others use an alternative, Fuse-specific ‘widget UI’. This latter front-end is easily spotted by the way it uses the main Fuse window/screen for menus and dialogs, and uses the Spectrum’s own font.

MENUS AND KEYS

Since many of the keys available are devoted to emulation of the Spectrum’s keyboard, the primary way of controlling Fuse itself (rather than the emulated machine) is via the menus. There are also function key shortcuts for some menu options.

In the GTK+ and Win32 version, the menu bar is always visible at the top of the Fuse window. You can click on a menu name to pop it up. Alternatively, you can press F1 to display a pop-up version of the menu bar, which you can then navigate with the cursor keys or mouse.

In the widget UI pressing F1 is the only way to get the main menu; and unlike the GTK+ version, the emulator pauses while the menus are being navigated. The menus show which key to press for each menu option in brackets. Pressing Esc exits a menu, and pressing Enter exits the menu system entirely (as well as ‘confirming’ any current dialog).

Here’s what the menu options do, along with the function key mappings for those items which have them:

F3
File, Open...

Open a Spectrum file. Snapshots will be loaded into memory; tape images will be inserted into the emulated tape deck, and if the Auto-load media option is set will being loading. Opening a disk image or a Timex dock image will cause the appropriate machine type (+3, Pentagon or TC2068) to be selected with the image inserted, and disks will automatically load if the Auto-load media option is set. See the FILE SELECTION section below for details on how to choose the file. Note that this behaviour is different from previous versions of Fuse, when this option would open only snapshots.

F2
File, Save Snapshot...

Save a snapshot (machine state, memory contents, etc.) to file. You can select the filename to be saved to. If it has a .szx, .z80 or .sna extension, the snapshot will be saved in that format. Otherwise, it will be saved as a .szx file.

File, Recording, Record...

Start recording input to an RZX file, initialised from the current emulation state. You will be prompted for a filename to use.

File, Recording, Record from snapshot...

Start recording input to an RZX file, initialised from a snapshot. You will first be asked for the snapshot to use and then the file to save the recording to.

Insert
File, Recording, Insert snapshot

Inserts a snapshot of the current state into the RZX file. This can be used at a later point to roll back to the inserted state by using one of the commands below.

Delete
File, Recording, Rollback

Rolls back the recording to the point at which the previous snapshot was inserted. Recording will continue from that point.

File, Recording, Rollback to...

Roll back the recording to any snapshot which has been inserted into the recording.

File, Recording, Play...

Playback recorded input from an RZX file. This lets you replay keypresses recorded previously. RZX files generally contain a snapshot with the Spectrum’s state at the start of the recording; if the selected RZX file doesn’t, you’ll be prompted for a snapshot to load as well.

File, Recording, Stop

Stop any currently-recording/playing RZX file.

File, AY Logging, Record...

Start recording the bytes output via the AY-3-8912 sound chip to a PSG file. You will be prompted for a filename to save the recording to.

File, AY Logging, Stop

Stop any current AY logging.

File, Open SCR Screenshot...

Load an SCR screenshot (essentially just a binary dump of the Spectrum’s video memory) onto the current screen. Fuse supports screenshots saved in the Timex hi-colour and hi-res modes as well as ‘normal’ Spectrum screens, and will make a simple conversion if a hi-colour or hi-res screenshot is loaded onto a non-Timex machine.

File, Save Screen as SCR...

Save a copy of whatever’s currently displayed on the Spectrum’s screen as an SCR file. You will be prompted for a filename to save the screenshot to.

File, Save Screen as PNG...

Save the current screen as a PNG file. You will be prompted for a filename to save the screenshot to.

File, Movies, Record...

Fuse can record movie (video and audio) into a file with special format which can be converted later to a common video file format with the fmfconv utility. You will be prompted for a filename to save video. Please see MOVIE RECORDING section.

File, Movies, Stop

Stop movie recording which is currently in progress.

File, Load Binary Data...

Load binary data from a file into the Spectrum’s memory. After selecting the file to load data from, you can choose where to load the data and how much data to load.

File, Save Binary Data...

Save an arbitrary chunk of the Spectrum’s memory to a file. Select the file you wish to save to, followed by the location and length of data you wish to save.

F10
File, Exit

Exit the emulator. A confirmation dialog will appear checking you actually want to do this.

F4
Options, General...

Display the General Options dialog, letting you configure Fuse. (With the widget UI, the keys shown in brackets toggle the options, Enter confirms any changes, and Esc aborts). Note that any changed settings only apply to the currently-running Fuse.

The options available are:

Emulation speed

Set how fast Fuse will attempt to emulate the Spectrum, as a percentage of the speed at which the real machine runs. If your machine isn’t fast enough to keep up with the requested speed, Fuse will just run as fast as it can. Note that if the emulation speed is not exactly 100%, no sound output will be produced.

Frame rate

Specify the frame rate, the ratio of spectrum frame updates to real frame updates. This is useful if your machine is having trouble keeping up with the spectrum screen updates.

Issue 2 keyboard

Early versions of the Spectrum used a different value for unused bits on the keyboard input ports, and a few games depended on the old value of these bits. Enabling this option switches to the old value, to let you run them.

Use tape traps

Ordinarily, Fuse intercepts calls to the ROM tape-loading routine in order to load from tape files more quickly when possible. But this can (rarely) interfere with TZX loading; disabling this option avoids the problem at the cost of slower (i.e. always real-time) tape-loading. When tape-loading traps are disabled, you need to start tape playback manually, by pressing F8 or choosing the Media, Tape, Play menu item. Fuse also uses tape traps to intercept the tape-saving routine in the ROM to save tape files quickly, tapes can also be saved using the Media, Tape, Record Start menu item.

Fastloading

If this option is enabled, then Fuse will run at the fastest possible speed when the virtual tape is playing, thus dramatically reducing the time it takes to load programs. You may wish to disable this option if you wish to stop the tape at a specific point.

Accelerate loaders

If this option is enabled, then Fuse will attempt to accelerate tape loaders by \(lqshort circuiting\(rq the loading loop. This will in general speed up loading, but may cause some loaders to fail.

Detect loaders

If this option is enabled, Fuse will attempt to detect when a loading routine is in progress, and then automatically start the virtual tape to load the program in. This is done by using a heuristic to identify a loading routine, so is by no means infallible, but works in most cases.

Auto-load media

On many occasions when you open a tape or disk file, it’s because it’s got a program in you want to load and run. If this option is selected, this will automatically happen for you when you open one of these files using the File, Open... menu option — you must then use the Media menu to use tapes or disks for saving data to, or for loading data into an already running program.

Use .slt traps

The multi-load aspect of SLT files requires a trap instruction to be supported. This instruction is not generally used except for this trap, but since it’s not inconceivable that a program could be wanting to use the real instruction instead, you can choose whether to support the trap or not.

Allow writes to ROM

If this option is selected, Fuse will happily allow programs to overwrite what would normally be ROM. This probably isn’t very useful in most circumstances, especially as the 48K ROM overwrites parts of itself.

Auto-save settings

If this option is selected, Fuse will automatically write its currently selected options to its configuration file on exit (if libxml2 was available when Fuse was compiled). If you turn this option off, you’ll have to manually use Options, Save afterwards to ensure that this setting gets written to Fuse’s configuration file.

MDR cartridge len

This option controls the number of blocks in a new Microdrive cartridge. If the value smaller than 4 or greater than 254 Fuse assumes 4 or 254.

Random length MDR cartridge

If this option is enabled, Fuse will use a random Microdrive cartridge length instead of the length specified in the MDR cartridge len option.

RS-232 handshake

If you turn this option off, Fuse assumes the RS-232 line other end is live when you connect the communication channels. See also the --rs232-rx’ and ‘--rs232-tx’ options.

Black and white TV

This option allows you to choose whether to simulate a colour or black and white television. This is effective only under the GTK+, Win32, Xlib and SDL user interfaces: the others will always simulate a colour TV.

PAL-TV use TV2x effect

This option allows you to choose whether the PAL TV 2x and higher scalers also reproduce scanlines in the same way as the TV 2x, TV 3x and Timex TV scalers.

Confirm actions

Specify whether ‘dangerous’ actions (those which could cause data loss, for example resetting the Spectrum) require confirmation before occurring.

Show statusbar

For the GTK+ and Win32 UI, enables the statusbar beneath the display. For the SDL UI, enables the status icons showing whether the disk and tape are being accessed. This option has no effect for the other user interfaces.

Snap joystick prompt

If set, Fuse will prompt you which physical joystick or keyboard you want to connect to the joystick interface enabled in the snapshot unless it already matches your current configuration.

Late timings

If selected, Fuse will cause all screen-related timings (for example, when the screen is rendered and when memory contention occurs) to be one tstate later than \(lqnormal\(rq, an effect which is present on some real hardware.

Options, Sound...

Display the Sound Options dialog, letting you configure Fuse’s sound output. (With the widget UI, the keys shown in brackets toggle the options, Enter confirms any changes, and Esc aborts). Note that any changed settings only apply to the currently-running Fuse.

Sound enabled

Specify whether sound output should be enabled at all. When this option is disabled, Fuse will not make any sound.

Loading sound

Normally, Fuse emulates tape-loading noise when loading from PZXs, TAPs or TZXs in real-time, albeit at a deliberately lower volume than on a real Spectrum. You can disable this option to eliminate the loading noise entirely.

AY stereo separation

By default, the sound output is mono, since this is all you got from an unmodified Spectrum. But enabling this option gives you so-called ACB stereo (for sound from the 128 and other clone’s AY-3-8912 sound chip).

Force 8-bit

Force the use of 8-bit sound even if 16-bit (the default) is available. Note that (when the option is enabled) if 8-bit sound isn’t available then there will be no sound at all, so it’s best not to use this option unless you have a specific need for it.

Speaker type

This option allows the emulation of the sound output system to be modified. Different choices of speaker limit the bass and treble response that can be produced from the machine. Choose between a \(lqTV\(rq type speaker and a small beeper type speaker that significantly limits bass and treble response. Choose \(lqUnfiltered\(rq to get unmodified (but less accurate) sound output.

AY volume

Sets the relative volume of the AY-3-8912 chip from a range of 0-100%.

Beeper volume

Sets the relative volume of the beeper from a range of 0-100%.

SpecDrum volume

Sets the relative volume of the SpecDrum from a range of 0-100%.

Options, Peripherals, General...

Display the Peripherals Options dialog, letting you configure the peripherals which Fuse will consider to be attached to the emulated machines. (With the widget UI, the keys shown in brackets toggle the options, Enter confirms any changes, and Esc aborts). Note that any changed settings only apply to the currently-running Fuse. Also note that any changes that enable and disable peripherals may result in a hard reset of the emulated machine.

Kempston joystick

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Kempston joystick interface (probably the most widely supported type on the Spectrum). Note that this option is basically equivalent to plugging the interface itself into a Spectrum, not to connecting a joystick; this affects how the Spectrum responds to a read of input port 31. To use a Kempston joystick in a game, this option must be enabled, and you must also select a Kempston joystick the Options, Joysticks menu.

Kempston mouse

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Kempston mouse interface.

If you’re using Fuse full-screen, your mouse is automatically used as if attached to the Kempston interface. Otherwise, you’ll need to click on the Spectrum display in order to tell Fuse to grab the pointer (and make it invisible); to tell Fuse to release it, click the middle button (or wheel) or press Escape.

With the framebuffer UI, Fuse prefers to use GPM; if this is not available, it will fall back to built-in PS/2 mouse support. In this mode, it tries /dev/input/mice, /dev/mouse then /dev/psaux, stopping when it successfully opens one. The first of these is preferred since (at least on Linux, with a 2.6-series kernel) any type of mouse can be used and any connected mouse may be used.

Swap mouse buttons

If this option is enabled, the left and right mouse buttons will be swapped when emulating a Kempston mouse.

Fuller Box

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Fuller Box AY sound and joystick interface. This emulation is only available for the 16k, 48k and TC2048 machines.

Melodik

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Melodik AY sound interface. These interfaces and many similar ones were produced to make the 48K Spectrum compatible with the same AY music as the 128K Spectrum. This emulation is only available for the 16k, 48k and TC2048 machines.

Interface 1

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the simple Sinclair Interface 1, and allow Microdrive cartridges to be connected and disconnected via the Media, Interface 1, Microdrive menus. It also enables support for the Interface 1 RS-232 interface.

Interface 2

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a cartridge port as found on the Interface 2. Cartridges can then be inserted and removed via the Media, Cartridge, Interface 2 menu. Note that the Pentagon, Scorpion, Interface 2, ZXATASP and ZXCF all use the same hardware mechanism for accessing some of their extended features, so only one of these should be selected at once or unpredictable behaviour will occur.

Emulate printers

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a printer. See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.

ZX Printer

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the ZX Printer. See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.

SpeccyBoot interface

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a SpeccyBoot interface which allows booting a ZX Spectrum over an Ethernet network. See the SpeccyBoot web page at http://speccyboot.sourceforge.net/ for more details.

SpecDrum interface

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Cheetah SpecDrum sound interface. See the World of Spectrum Infoseek web page at http://www.worldofspectrum.org/infoseekid.cgi?id=1000062 for manuals, software and more. This emulation is only available for the 48k, 128k and TC2048 machines.

Spectranet

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the Spectranet interface, which provides an Ethernet interface for the Spectrum. See the SPECTRANET EMULATION section for more details.

Spectranet disable

This option controls the state of the Spectranet automatic page-in jumper (J2). See the SPECTRANET EMULATION section for more details.

Options, Peripherals, Disk...

Note that any changes that enable and disable peripherals may result in a hard reset of the emulated machine.

Simple 8-bit IDE

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the simple 8-bit IDE interface as used by the Spectrum +3e, and allow hard disks to be connected and disconnected via the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit menu.

ZXATASP interface

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the ZXATASP interface, which provides both additional RAM and an IDE interface. See the ZXATASP AND ZXCF section for more details.

ZXATASP upload

This option controls the state of the ZXATASP upload jumper. See the ZXATASP AND ZXCF section for more details.

ZXATASP write protect

This option controls the state of the ZXATASP write protect jumper. See the ZXATASP AND ZXCF section for more details.

ZXCF interface

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the ZXCF interface, which provides both additional RAM and a CompactFlash interface. See the ZXATASP AND ZXCF section for more details.

ZXCF upload

This option controls the state of the ZXCF upload jumper. See the ZXATASP AND ZXCF section for more details.

DivIDE interface

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the DivIDE interface. See the DIVIDE section for more details.

DivIDE write protect

This option controls the state of the DivIDE write protection jumper. See the DIVIDE section for more details.

+D interface

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the +D interface. See the +D EMULATION section for more details.

DISCiPLE interface

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the DISCiPLE interface. See the DISCIPLE EMULATION section for more details.

Beta 128 interface

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the Beta 128 interface. See the BETA 128 EMULATION section for more details. Beta 128 emulation is enabled for the Pentagon and Scorpion machines regardless of this option.

Beta 128 auto-boot in 48K machines

If this option is selected, then when a Beta 128 interface is used in 48K or TC2048 emulation, the machine will boot directly into the TR-DOS system.

Opus Discovery interface

If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the Opus Discovery interface. See the OPUS DISCOVERY EMULATION section for more details.

Options, RZX...

Display the RZX Options dialog, letting you configure how Fuse’s deals with RZX input recordings. (With the widget UI, the keys shown in brackets toggle the options, Enter confirms any changes, and Esc aborts). Note that any changed settings only apply to the currently-running Fuse.

Create autosaves

If this option is selected, Fuse will add a snapshot into the recording stream every 5 seconds while creating an RZX file, thus enabling the rollback facilities to be used without having to explicitly add snapshots into the stream. Older snapshots will be pruned from the stream to keep the file size and number of snapshots down: each snapshot up to 15 seconds will be kept, then one snapshot every 15 seconds until one minute, then one snapshot every minute until 5 minutes, and then one snapshot every 5 minutes. Note that this \(lqpruning\(rq applies only to automatically inserted snapshots: snapshots manually inserted into the stream will never be pruned.

Compress RZX data

If this option is selected, and zlib was available when Fuse was compiled, any RZX files written by Fuse will be compressed. This is generally a good thing as it makes the files significantly smaller, and you probably want to turn it off only if you’re debugging the RZX files or there’s some other program which doesn’t support compressed RZX files.

Competition mode

Any input recordings which are started when this option is selected will be made in ‘competition mode’. In essence, this means that Fuse will act just like a real Spectrum would: you can’t load snapshots, pause the emulation in any way, change the speed or anything that you couldn’t do on the real machine. If any of these things are attempted, or if the emulated Fuse is running more than 5% faster or slower than normal Spectrum speed, then the recording will immediately be stopped.

If libgcrypt was available when Fuse was compiled, then recordings made with competition mode active will be digitally signed, in theory to ‘certify’ that it was made with the above restrictions in place. However, this procedure is not secure (and cannot be made so), so the presence of any signature on an RZX file should not be taken as providing proof that it was made with competition mode active. This feature is included in Fuse solely as it was one of the requirements for Fuse to be used in an on-line tournament.

Competition code

The numeric code entered here will be written into any RZX files made in competition mode. This is another feature for on-line tournaments which can be used to ‘prove’ that the recording was made after a specific code was released. If you’re not playing in such a tournament, you can safely ignore this option.

Always embed snapshot

Specify whether a snapshot should be embedded in an RZX file when recording is started from an existing snapshot.

Options, Joysticks

Fuse can emulate many of the common types of joystick which were available for the Spectrum. The input for these emulated joysticks can be taken from real joysticks attached to the emulating machine (configured via the Options, Joysticks, Joystick 1... and Options, Joysticks, Joystick 2... options), or from the q, a, o, p, and Space keys on the emulating machines keyboard, configured via the Options, Joysticks, Keyboard... option. Note that when using the keyboard to emulate a joystick, the q, a, o, p, and Space keys will not have their normal effect (to avoid problems with games which do things like use p for pause when using a joystick).

Each of the joysticks (including the ‘fake’ keyboard joystick) can be configured to emulate any one of the following joystick types:

None

No joystick: any input will simply be ignored.

Cursor

A cursor joystick, equivalent to pressing 5 (left), 6 (down), 7 (up), 8 (right), and 0 (fire).

Kempston

A Kempston joystick, read from input port 31. Note that the Options, Peripherals, Kempston interface option must also be set for the input to be recognised.

Sinclair 1
Sinclair 2

The ‘left’ and ‘right’ Sinclair joysticks, equivalent to pressing 1 (left), 2 (right), 3 (down), 4 (up), and 5 (fire), or 6 (left), 7 (right), 8 (down), 9 (up), and 0 (fire) respectively.

Timex 1
Timex 2

The ‘left’ and ‘right’ joysticks as attached to the Timex 2068 variant’s built-in joystick interface.

For the real joysticks, it is also possible to configure (although currently only when using the GTK+ interface) what effect each button on the joystick will have: this can be Joystick Fire, equivalent to pressing the emulated joystick’s fire button, Nothing, meaning to have no effect, or any Spectrum key, meaning that pressing that button will be equivalent to pressing that Spectrum key.

Options, Select ROMs

An individual dialog is available for each Spectrum variant emulated by Fuse which allows selection of the ROM(s) used by that machine. Simply select the ROM you wish to use, and then reset the Spectrum for the change to take effect.

Options, Filter...

Select the graphics filter currently in use. See the GRAPHICS FILTERS section for more details.

Options, Disk Options...

When emulating disk drives, Fuse allows the specification of the physical drive units attached to the emulated interface. Each drive can be set to be one of the following types:

Single-sided 40 track

Double-sided 40 track

Single-sided 80 track

Double-sided 80 track

The available options that can be set are:

+3 Drive A

Defaults to a single-sided 40 track drive.

+3 Drive B

Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

+3 Detect Speedlock

Specify whether the +3 drives try to detect Speedlock protected disks, and emulate ‘weak’ sectors. If the disk image file (EDSK or UDI) contains weak sector data, than Speedlock detection is automatically omitted. See also the WEAK DISK DATA section.

Beta 128 Drive A

Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

Beta 128 Drive B

Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

Beta 128 Drive C

Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

Beta 128 Drive D

Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

+D Drive 1

Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

+D Drive 2

Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

DISCiPLE Drive 1

Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

DISCiPLE Drive 2

Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

Opus Drive 1

Defaults to a single-sided 40 track drive.

Opus Drive 2

Defaults to a single-sided 40 track drive.

Try merge ’B’ side of disks

This option prompts the user to confirm whether Fuse should try to merge the ‘B’ side of a disk image from a separate file when opening a new single-sided disk image.

Confirm merge disk sides

Select whether Fuse should try to merge a separate file for the ‘B’ side of a disk image separate file when opening a new disk image. Most double sided disk images are dumped as two single sided disk images e.g. ‘Golden Axe - Side A.dsk’ and ‘Golden Axe - Side B.dsk’. So, if we want to play Golden Axe, first we have to insert the first disk image and when the game asks to insert side B, we have to find and open the second disk image, instead of just ‘flip’-ing the disk inside the drive. If enabled, Fuse will try to open the second image too and create a double sided disk image (merging the two one sided disk images) and insert this merged virtual disk into the disk drive. The function detects whether the file is one side of a double-sided image if the filename matches a pattern like [Ss]ide[ _][abAB12][ _.] in the file name of a disk that is being opened. If found, Fuse will try to open the other side of the disk too substituting the appropriate characters in the filename e.g. 1->2, a->b, A->B. If successful then it will merge the two images and now we have a double sided disk in drive. This means that if we open ‘Golden Axe - Side A.dsk’, then Fuse will try to open ‘Golden Axe - Side B.dsk’ too. Now, we can just ‘flip’ the disk if Golden Axe asks for ‘Side B’. The available options are Never, With single-sided drives and Always.

F11
Options, Full Screen

Switch Fuse between full screen and windowed mode. This menu is only available under the SDL UI.

Options, Save

If libxml2 was available when Fuse was compiled, this will cause Fuse’s current options to be written to .fuserc in your home directory, from which they will be picked up again when Fuse is restarted. The best way to update this file is by using this option, but it’s a simple XML file and shouldn’t be too hard to edit by hand if you really want to.

Pause
Machine, Pause

Pause or unpause emulation. This option is available only under the GTK+ and Win32 UIs; to pause the other user interfaces, simply press F1 to bring up the main menu.

F5
Machine, Reset

Reset the emulated Spectrum. Again, you get a chance to cancel this if you’re using the GTK+ or Win32 UIs.

Machine, Hard reset

Reset the emulated Spectrum. A hard reset is equivalent to turning the Spectrum’s power off, and then turning it back on. Again, you get a chance to cancel this if you’re using the GTK+ or Win32 UIs.

F9
Machine, Select...

Choose a type of Spectrum to emulate. An brief overview of the Sinclair, Amstrad and Timex can be found at http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum/zxspectrum.htm while more technical information can be found at http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/reference/reference.htm, and http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/reference/tmxreference.htm.

Spectrum 16K
Spectrum 48K

The original machines as released by Sinclair in 1982 with 16 or 48K of RAM respectively.

Spectrum 48K (NTSC)

The NTSC 48K machine released in limited numbers in parts of South America.

Spectrum 128K

The 128K machine as released by Sinclair in 1985 (Spain) or 1986 (UK).

Spectrum +2

The first machine released by Amstrad, in 1986. From an emulation point of view, the +2 is virtually identical to the 128K.

Spectrum +2A
Spectrum +3

The two machines released by Amstrad in 1988. Technically very similar to each other, except that the +3 features a 3\(sd disk drive while the +2A does not.

Spectrum +3e

A +3 with modified ROMs allowing access to IDE hard disks via the simple 8-bit interface, as activated from the Options, Disk Peripherals dialog. See http://www.worldofspectrum.org/zxplus3e/ for more details.

Timex TC2048
Timex TC2068

The variants of the Spectrum as released by Timex in Portugal.

Timex TS2068

The variant of the Spectrum released by Timex in North America.

Pentagon 128K

Russian clone of the Spectrum. There were many different machines called Pentagon from 1989 to 2006, this machine corresponds to a 1991 era Pentagon 128K with the optional AY sound chip and the integrated Beta 128 disk interface, and is the version of the machine most often emulated. More technical details can be found at http://www.worldofspectrum.org/rusfaq/index.html,

Pentagon 512K
Pentagon 1024K

Newer versions of the Pentagon Russian Spectrum clones which incorporate more memory and the \(lqMr Gluk Reset Service\(rq ROM offering a more powerful firmware.

Scorpion ZS 256

Another Russian clone of the Spectrum. Some details can be found at http://www.worldofspectrum.org/rusfaq/index.html. Like all the Russian clones, they have built in 3.5\(sd disk drives, accessed via the Beta 128 disk interface and TR-DOS (the Technology Research Disk Operating System). The most important distinction from the Pentagon 128k and similar machines is the display timing details.

Spectrum SE

A recent variant designed by Andrew Owen and Jarek Adamski, which is possibly best thought of as a cross between the 128K machine and the Timex variants, allowing 272K of RAM to be accessed. Some more details are available at http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/reference/sereference.htm and documentation of the extended BASIC is available at https://github.com/cheveron/sebasic4/wiki. The bug tracker for the BASIC is at https://github.com/cheveron/sebasic4/issues?state=open.

Machine, Debugger...

Start the monitor/debugger. See the MONITOR/DEBUGGER section for more information.

Machine, Poke Finder...

Start the ‘poke finder’. See the POKE FINDER section for more information.

Machine, Poke Memory...

Allow to use multiface POKEs for things such as infinite lives. See the POKE MEMORY section for more information.

Machine, Memory Browser...

Start the memory browser. It should be fairly obvious what this does; perhaps the only thing worth noting is that emulation is paused until you close the window.

Machine, NMI

Sends a non-maskable interrupt to the emulated Spectrum. Due to a typo in the standard 48K ROM, this will cause a reset, but modified ROMs are available which make use of this feature. When the +D (or DISCiPLE) is emulated, this is used to access the +D (or DISCiPLE)’s screenshot and snapshot features (see the +D EMULATION and DISCIPLE EMULATION sections below). For the DISCiPLE, Caps Shift must be held down whilst pressing the NMI button. For some UIs, this may be tricky, or even impossible to do. Note that GDOS on the DISCiPLE contains a bug which causes corruption of saved snapshots, and a failure to return from the NMI menu correctly. This bug is not present in G+DOS on the +D.

F7
Media, Tape, Open...

Choose a PZX, TAP or TZX virtual-tape file to load from. See the FILE SELECTION section below for details on how to choose the file. If Auto-load media is set in the General Options dialog (as it is by default), you may use the File, Open... menu option instead, and the tape will begin loading automatically. Otherwise, you have to start the load in the emulated machine (with LOAD "" or the 128’s Tape Loader option, though you may need to reset first).

To guarantee that TZX files will load properly, you should select the file, make sure tape-loading traps are disabled in the General Options dialog, then press F8 (or do Media, Tape, Play). That said, most TZXs will work with tape-loading traps enabled (often quickly loading partway, then loading the rest real-time), so you might want to try it that way first.

F8
Media, Tape, Play

Start playing the PZX, TAP or TZX file, if required. (Choosing the option (or pressing F8) again pauses playback, and a further press resumes). To explain — if tape-loading traps have been disabled (in the General Options dialog), starting the loading process in the emulated machine isn’t enough. You also have to ‘press play’, so to speak :-), and this is how you do that. You may also need to ‘press play’ like this in certain other circumstances, e.g. TZXs containing multi-load games may have a stop-the-tape request (which Fuse obeys).

Media, Tape, Browse

Browse through the current tape. A brief display of each of the data blocks on the current tape will appear, from which you can select which block Fuse will play next. With the GTK+ UI, emulation will continue while the browser is displayed; double-clicking on a block will select it. In the other UIs, emulation is paused and you can use the cursor keys and press Enter to select it. If you decide you don’t want to change block, just press Escape.

Media, Tape, Rewind

Rewind the current virtual tape, so it can be read again from the beginning.

Media, Tape, Clear

Clear the current virtual tape. This is particularly useful when you want a ‘clean slate’ to add newly-saved files to, before doing Media, Tape, Write... (or F6).

F6
Media, Tape, Write...

Write the current virtual-tape contents to a TZX file. You will be prompted for a filename. The virtual-tape contents are the contents of the previously-loaded tape (if any has been loaded since you last did a Media, Tape, Clear), followed by anything you’ve saved from the emulated machine since. These newly-saved files are not written to any tape file until you choose this option!

Media, Tape, Record Start

Starts directly recording the output from the emulated Spectrum to the current virtual-tape. This is useful when you want to record using a non-standard ROM or from a custom save routine. Most tape operations are disabled during recording. Stop recording with the Media, Tape, Write... menu option.

Media, Tape, Record Stop

Stops the direct recording and places the new recording into the virtual-tape.

Media, Interface 1

Virtual Microdrive images are accessible only when the Interface 1 is active from the Options, Peripherals menu. Note that any changes to the Microdrive image will not be written to the file on disk until the appropriate save option is used.

Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Insert New

Insert a new (unformatted) Microdrive cartridge into emulated Microdrive 1.

Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Insert...

Insert an existing Microdrive cartridge image into emulated Microdrive 1. You will be prompted for a filename.

Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Eject

Eject the Microdrive image in Microdrive 1. If the image has been modified, you will be asked as to whether you want any changes saved.

Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Save

Save the Microdrive image in Microdrive 1.

Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Save as...

Write the Microdrive image in Microdrive 1 to a file. You will be prompted for a filename.

Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Write protect, Enable

Enable the write protect tab for the image in Microdrive 1.

Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Write protect, Disable

Disable the write protect tab for the image in Microdrive 1.

Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 2, ...
Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 3, ...
Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 4, ...
Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 5, ...
Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 6, ...
Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 7, ...
Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 8, ...

Equivalent options for the other emulated Microdrives.

Media, Interface 1, RS232, Plug RxD
Media, Interface 1, RS232, Unplug RxD
Media, Interface 1, RS232, Plug TxD
Media, Interface 1, RS232, Unplug TxD

Connect or disconnect a communication channels (FIFO or file) to use as the RS-232 TxD or RxD wire.

Media, Disk

Virtual floppy disk images are accessible when emulating a +3, +3e, Pentagon or Scorpion, or when the Beta 128, Opus Discovery, +D or DISCiPLE interface options are enabled and a machine compatible with the chosen interface is selected. (See THE .DSK FORMAT, BETA 128 EMULATION OPUS DISCOVERY EMULATION +D EMULATION and DISCIPLE EMULATION sections below for notes on the file formats supported).

Once again, any changes made to a disk image will not affect the file which was ‘inserted’ into the drive. If you do want to keep any changes, use the appropriate ‘eject and write’ option before exiting Fuse.

Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Insert...

Insert a disk-image file to read/write in the +3’s emulated drive A:.

Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Eject

Eject the disk image currently in the +3’s emulated drive A: — or from the emulated machine’s perspective, eject it. Note that any changes made to the image will not be saved.

Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Save

Save the disk image currently in the +3’s drive A:.

Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Save as...

Save the current state of the disk image currently in the +3’s drive A: to a file. You will be prompted for a filename.

Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Insert...

As above, but for the +3’s drive B:. Fuse emulates drive B: as a second 3\(sd drive.

Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Eject

As above, but for drive B:.

Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Save

As above, but for drive B:.

Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Save as...

As above, but for drive B:.

Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Insert New

Insert a new (unformatted) disk into the emulated Beta drive A:.

Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Insert...
Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Eject
Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Save
Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Save as...

As above, but for the emulated Beta disk drive A:.

Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Write protect, Enable

Enable the write protect tab for the image in Beta drive A:.

Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Write protect, Disable

Disable the write protect tab for the image in Beta drive A:.

Media, Disk, Beta, Drive B:, ...
Media, Disk, Beta, Drive C:, ...
Media, Disk, Beta, Drive D:, ...

As above, but for the remaining emulated Beta disk interface drives.

Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Insert New
Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Insert...
Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Eject
Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Save
Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Save as...
Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Write protect, Enable
Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Write protect, Disable
Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 2, ...

As above, but for the emulated Opus Discovery drives.

Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Insert New
Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Insert...
Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Eject
Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Save
Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Save as...
Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Write protect, Enable
Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Write protect, Disable
Media, Disk, +D, Drive 2, ...

As above, but for the emulated +D drives.

Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Insert New
Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Insert...
Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Eject
Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Save
Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Save as...
Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Write protect, Enable
Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Write protect, Disable
Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 2, ...

As above, but for the emulated DISCiPLE drives.

Media, Cartridge, Timex Dock, Insert...

Insert a cartridge into the Timex 2068 dock. This will cause the emulated machine to be changed to the TC2068 (if it wasn’t already a 2068 variant) and reset.

Media, Cartridge, Timex Dock, Eject

Remove the cartridge from the Timex 2068 dock. This will cause the emulated machine to be reset.

Media, Cartridge, Interface 2, Insert...

Insert a cartridge into the Interface 2 cartridge slot. This will cause the emulated machine to be reset and the cartridge loaded.

Media, Cartridge, Interface 2, Eject...

Remove the cartridge from the Interface 2 cartridge slot. This will cause the emulated machine to be reset.

Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Insert...

Connect an IDE hard disk to the simple 8-bit interface’s master channel.

Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Commit

Cause any writes which have been done to virtual hard disk attached to the simple 8-bit interface’s master channel to be committed to the real disk, such that they survive the virtual disk being ejected.

Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Eject

Eject the virtual hard disk from the simple 8-bit interface’s master channel. Note that any writes to the virtual hard disk will be lost unless the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Commit option is used before the disk is ejected.

Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Slave, Insert...
Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Slave, Commit
Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Slave, Eject

The same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master entries above, but for the simple 8-bit interface’s slave channel.

Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Master, Insert...
Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Master, Commit
Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Master, Eject
Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Slave, Insert...
Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Slave, Commit
Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Slave, Eject

The same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master entries above, but for the two channels of the ZXATASP interface.

Media, IDE, ZXCF CompactFlash, Insert...
Media, IDE, ZXCF CompactFlash, Commit
Media, IDE, ZXCF CompactFlash, Eject

The same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master entries above, but for the ZXCF interface’s CompactFlash slot.

Media, IDE, DivIDE, Master, Insert...
Media, IDE, DivIDE, Master, Commit
Media, IDE, DivIDE, Eject
Media, IDE, DivIDE, Slave, Insert...
Media, IDE, DivIDE, Slave, Commit
Media, IDE, DivIDE, Eject

The same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit entries above, but for the two channels of the DivIDE interface.

Help, Keyboard picture...

Display a diagram showing the Spectrum keyboard, and the various keywords that can be generated with each key from (48K) BASIC. Under the GTK+ and Win32 UIs, this will appear in a separate window and emulation continues. With the other UIs, the picture remains onscreen (and the emulator paused) until you press Esc or Enter.

KEY MAPPINGS

When emulating the Spectrum, keys F1 to F10 are used as shortcuts for various menu items, as described above. The alphanumeric keys (along with Enter and Space) are mapped as-is to the Spectrum keys. The other key mappings are:
Shift emulated as Caps Shift
Control, Alt, and Meta
  emulated as Symbol Shift (most other modifiers are also mapped to this)
Backspace
  emulated as Caps-0 (Delete)
Esc emulated as Caps-1 (Edit)
Caps Lock
  emulated as Caps-2
Cursor keys
  emulated as Caps-5/6/7/8 (as appropriate)
Tab emulated as Caps Shift-Symbol Shift (Extended Mode)
Some further punctuation keys are supported, if they exist on your keyboard — ,’, .’, /’, ;’, \(aq’, #’, -’, and =’. These are mapped to the appropriate symbol-shifted keys on the Spectrum.

A list of keys applicable when using the file selection dialogs is given in the FILE SELECTION section below.

DISPLAY SIZE

Some of Fuse’s UIs allow resizing of the emulated Spectrum’s display. For the window-based ones (GTK+, Win32 and Xlib), you can resize the window by, well, resizing it. :-) Exactly how this works depends on your window manager; you may have to make the window over twice the width and height of the original size before it actually scales up. Fuse attempts to keep the window ‘square’, but with some window managers this can mean the window will never resize at all. If you experience this problem, the --no-aspect-hint’ option may help.

If you’re using the SDL UI under X11 or GTK+, the window will automatically resize to be the correct size for the graphics filter selected.

GRAPHICS FILTERS

Fuse has the ability to apply essentially arbitrary filters between building its image of the Spectrum’s screen, and displaying it on the emulating machine’s monitor. These filters can be used to do various forms of smoothing, emulation of TV scanlines and various other possibilities. Support for graphics filters varies between the different user interfaces, but there are two general classes: the GTK+, Win32, Xlib, SVGAlib and SDL user interfaces (and the saving of .png screenshots) support ‘interpolating’ filters which use a palette larger than the Spectrum’s 16 colours, while the framebuffer user interface currently does not support filters at all.

A further complication arises due to the fact that the Timex machines have their high-resolution video mode with twice the horizontal resolution. To deal with this, Fuse treats these machines as having a ‘normal’ display size which is twice the size of a normal Spectrum’s screen, leading to a different set of filters being available for these machines. Note that any of the double or triple-sizing filters are available for Timex machines only when using the SDL, Win32 or GTK+ user interfaces.

The available filters, along with their short name used to select them from the command line, are:

Timex half (smoothed) (half)
Timex half (skipping) (halfskip)

Two Timex-machine specific filters which scale the screen down to half normal (Timex) size; that is, the same size as a normal Spectrum screen. The difference between these two filters is in how they handle the high-resolution mode: the ‘smoothed’ version is an interpolating filter which averages pairs of adjacent pixels, while the ‘skipping’ version is a non-interpolating filter which simply drops every other pixel.

Normal (normal)

The simplest filter: just display one pixel for every pixel on the Spectrum’s screen.

Double size (2x)

Scale the displayed screen up to double size.

Triple size (3x)

Scale the displayed screen up to triple size. Available only with the GTK+, Win32, Xlib and SDL user interfaces or when saving screenshots of non-Timex machines.

2xSaI (2xsai)
Super 2xSaI (super2xsai)
SuperEagle (supereagle)

Three interpolating filters which apply successively more smoothing. All three double the size of the displayed screen.

AdvMAME2x (advmame2x)

A double-sizing, non-interpolating filter which attempts to smooth diagonal lines.

AdvMAME3x (advmame3x)

Very similar to AdvMAME2x, except that it triples the size of the displayed screen. Available only with the GTK+, Win32, Xlib and SDL user interfaces or when saving screenshots of non-Timex machines.

TV 2x (tv2x)
TV 3x (tv3x)
Timex TV (timextv)

Three filters which attempt to emulate the effect of television scanlines. The first is a double-sizing filter for non-Timex machines, the second is a similar triple-sizing filter, while the last is a single-sizing filter for Timex machines (note that this means TV 2X and Timex TV produce the same size output).

PAL TV (paltv)
PAL TV 2x (paltv2x)
PAL TV 3x (paltv3x)

Three filters which attempt to emulate the effect of the PAL TV system which layers a lower-resolution colour image over the top of a higher-resolution black-and-white image. The filters can also optionally add scanlines like the other TV series scalers.

Dot matrix (dotmatrix)

A double-sizing filter which emulates the effect of a dot-matrix display.

Timex 1.5x (timex15x)

An interpolating Timex-specific filter which scales the Timex screen up to 1.5× its usual size (which is therefore 3× the size of a ‘normal’ Spectrum screen). Available only for the GTK+, Win32 and SDL user interfaces or when saving screenshots.

HQ 2x (hq2x)
HQ 3x (hq3x)

Two filters which do high quality (but slow) antialiasing. Doubles and triples the size of the displayed screen respectively.

THE EMULATED SPECTRUM

The emulated Spectrum is, by default, an unmodified 48K Spectrum with a tape player and ZX Printer attached. Oh, and apparently some magical snapshot load/save machine which is probably best glossed over for the sake of the analogy. :-)

To emulate different kinds of Spectrum, select the Machine, Select... menu option, or press F9.

The Spectrum emulation is paused when any dialogs appear. In the widget UI, it’s also paused when menus or the keyboard picture are displayed.

PRINTER EMULATION

The various models of Spectrum supported a range of ways to connect printers, three of which are supported by Fuse. Different printers are made available for the different models:

16, 48, TC2048, TC2068, TS2068
  ZX Printer
128/+2/Pentagon
  Serial printer (text-only)
+2A, +3
  Parallel printer (text-only)
If Opus Discovery, +D or DISCiPLE emulation is in use and printer emulation is enabled, text-only emulation of the disk interface’s parallel printer interface is provided.

Any printout is appended to one (or both) of two files, depending on the printer — these default to printout.txt for text output, and printout.pbm for graphics (PBM images are supported by most image viewers and converters). These names can be changed with the --textfile and --graphicsfile options from the command line or configuration file. While the ZX Printer can only output graphically, simulated text output is generated at the same time using a crude sort of OCR based on the current character set (a bit like using SCREEN$). There is currently no support for graphics when using the serial/parallel output, though any escape codes used will be ‘printed’ faithfully. (!)

By the way, it’s not a good idea to modify the printout.pbm file outside of Fuse if you want to continue appending to it. The header needs to have a certain layout for Fuse to be able to continue appending to it correctly, and the file will be overwritten if it can’t be appended to.

ZXATASP AND ZXCF

The ZXATASP and ZXCF interfaces are two peripherals designed by Sami Vehmaa which significantly extend the capabilities of the Spectrum. More details on both are available from Sami’s homepage, http://user.tninet.se/~vjz762w/, but a brief overview is given here.

The real ZXATASP comes with either 128K or 512K of RAM and the ability to connect an IDE hard disks and a CompactFlash card, while the ZXCF comes with 128K, 512K or 1024K of RAM and the ability to connect a CompactFlash card. From an emulation point of view, the two interfaces are actually very similar as a CompactFlash card is logically just an IDE hard disk. Currently, Fuse’s emulation is fixed at having 512K of RAM in the ZXATASP and 1024K in the ZXCF.

To activate the ZXATASP, simply select the ZXATASP interface option from the Options, Disk Peripherals... dialog. The state of the upload and write protect jumpers is then controlled by the ZXATASP upload and ZXATASP write protect options. Similarly, the ZXCF is controlled by the ZXCF interface and ZXCF upload options (the ZXCF write protect is software controlled).

If you’re using either the ZXATASP or ZXCF, you almost certainly want to investigate ResiDOS, the operating system designed for use with the ZXATASP and ZXCF. ResiDOS provides facilities for using the extra RAM, accessing the mass storage devices and a task manager allowing virtually instant switching between programs on the Spectrum. See http://www.worldofspectrum.org/residos/ for more details.

DIVIDE

The DivIDE is another IDE interface for the Spectrum, of which full details can be found at http://baze.au.com/divide/. The interface can be activated via the DivIDE interface option from the Options, Disk Peripherals... dialog, and the state of its write protect jumper controlled via the DivIDE write protect option. If you’re going to be using the DivIDE, you’ll probably want one of the firmwares available from the DivIDE homepage.

SPECTRANET EMULATION

The Spectranet is an Ethernet network interface for the ZX Spectrum by Dylan Thomas. The interface can be activated via the Spectranet option on the Peripherals preferences dialog, and the state of its automatic page-in (disable) jumper controlled via the Spectranet disable option. If you’re going to be using the Spectranet, you’ll probably want one of the firmwares available from the Spectranet homepage (http://spectrum.alioth.net/doc/index.php) which is also where you can find more information on using the interface.

Installing the Spectranet firmware on Fuse is slightly more complicated than on a real machine, mostly because Fuse’s emulation doesn’t support DHCP. These instructions are correct as of 2012-01-26 — if you’re using a later firmware than this, things may have changed slightly.

The first thing you will need to do is to obtain a copy of the Spectranet installer as a .tap file (or similar). The installer is also available at the Spectranet site above.

Once you have a copy of the installer, start Fuse and tick the Spectranet option from the Options, Peripherals, General... dialog, and the state of its write protect jumper controlled via the Spectranet disable option. Once that’s done, open the installer file (use the Media, Tape, Open... command rather than File, Open... to prevent autoloading) and enter the following commands from BASIC:

CLEAR 26999
LOAD "" CODE
RANDOMIZE USR 27000

The screen should turn blue and you’ll see around 20 lines of message appearing as the firmware is installed, starting with \(lqErasing sector 0\(rq and finishing with \(lqRestoring page B\(rq, and you’ll get the familiar 0 OK, 0: 1 at the bottom of the screen.

Now untick the Spectranet disable option from the Options, Peripherals, General... dialog and reset the Spectrum. You should see a very brief blue status screen, before the regular copyright screen appears with some Spectranet information at the top — there should be four status lines, starting with \(lqAlioth Spectranet\(rq and ending with the Spectranet’s IP address (which will be 255.255.255.255 at this stage).

Now trigger an NMI (the Machine / NMI menu option) and you should get a white on blue Spectranet NMI menu with five options.

Select [A] Configure network settings — this should lead you to another menu, which will scroll of the top of the screen; don’t worry about this for now.

You’ll now need to set various options:

[A] Enable/disable DHCP — select N
[B] Change IP address — enter the IP address of the machine you are running Fuse on.
[C] Change netmask — enter the appropriate netmask for the IP address you selected above. If that doesn’t mean anything to you, try 255.255.255.0
[D] Change default gateway — enter the appropriate gateway address. If you don’t know any better, enter the IP address of your router.
[E] Change primary DNS — enter the address of your DNS server. If you don’t know any better, use Google’s public DNS server, 8.8.8.8.

There is no need to change options [F] or [G], but do select:

[H] Change hostname — enter a hostname for the Spectranet-enabled machine. It doesn’t really matter what you enter here — it’s mostly useful just to replace the junk default name so you can see what you’ve entered for the other settings.

Your screen should now look something like this:

Current configuration
Use DHCP: No
IP address: 192.168.000.002
Netmask: 255.255.255.000
Default gateway: 192.168.000.001
Primary DNS: 192.168.000.001
Secondary DNS: 255.255.255.255
Hardware address: FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF
Hostname: fuse
<menu options>

If everything looks correct, select [I] Save changes and exit (you’ll see a brief \(lqSaving configuration...\(rq message) followed by [E] Exit, at which point you’ll be returned to BASIC.

Now type the following commands:

%cfgnew
%cfgcommit

Which will show the standard 0 OK, 0:1 at the bottom of the screen.

Reset the Spectrum again and you’ll see the same four line status display, but this time with your IP address on the last line.

Congratulations! You have now installed the Spectranet firmware. To save having to go through all that every time you start Fuse, save a .szx snapshot at this point, and load that in every time you want to use the Spectranet.

FILE SELECTION

The way you select a file (whether snapshot or tape file) depends on which UI you’re using. So firstly, here’s how to use the GTK+ file selector.

The selector shows the directories and files in the current directory in two separate subwindows. If either list is too big to fit in the window, you can use the scrollbar to see the rest (by dragging the slider, for example), or you can use Shift-Tab (to move the keyboard focus to a subwindow) and use the cursor keys. To change directory, double-click it.

To choose a file to load you can either double-click it, or click it then click Ok. Or click Cancel to abort.

If you’re using the keyboard, probably the easiest way to use the selector is to just ignore it and type in the name. This isn’t as irksome as it sounds, since the filename input box has filename completion — type part of a directory or file name, then press Tab. It should complete it. If it was a directory, it moves to that directory; if the completion was ambiguous, it completes as much as possible, and narrows the filenames shown to those which match. You should press Enter when you’ve finished typing the filename, or Esc to abort.

Now, if you’re using the widget UI — the one using the Spectrum font — the selector works a bit differently. The files and directories are all listed in a single two-column-wide window (the directories are shown at the top, ending in ‘/’) — the names may be truncated onscreen if they’re too long to fit.

To move the cursor, you can either use the cursor keys, or the Spectrum equivalents 5/6/7/8, or (similarly) h/j/k/l. For faster movement, the Page Up, Page Down, Home, and End keys are supported and do what you’d expect. To select a file or directory, press Enter. To abort, press Esc.

With both selectors, do bear in mind that all files are shown, whether Fuse would be able to load them or not.

MONITOR/DEBUGGER

Firstly, note that the vast majority of this section applies only if you’re using the GTK+ user interface; if you’re using one of the widget user interfaces, you’ll get a very basic monitor which shows the current values of the registers and allows you to single step through execution or continue.

If you are using the GTK+ user interface, Fuse features a moderately powerful, completely transparent monitor/debugger, which can be activated via the Machine, Debugger... menu option. A debugger window will appear, showing the current state of the emulated machine: the top-left ‘pane’ shows the current state of the Z80 and the last bytes written to any emulated peripherals. The bottom-left pane lists any active breakpoints. Moving right, the next pane shows where the Spectrum’s 64K memory map (the W?’ and C?’ indicate whether each 8K chunk is writable or contended respectively), and the next a disassembly, which by default starts at the current program counter, although this can be modified either by the ‘disassemble’ command (see below) or by dragging the scrollbar next to it. The next pane shows the current stack, and the final pane any ‘events’ which are due to occur and could affect emulation. Any of these panes can be removed by use of the View menu. Below the displays are an entry box for debugger commands, and five buttons for controlling the debugger:

Evaluate

Evaluate the command currently in the entry box.

Single Step

Run precisely one Z80 opcode and then stop emulation again.

Continue

Restart emulation, but leave the debugger window open. Note that the debugger window will not be updated while emulation is running.

Break

Stop emulation and return to the debugger.

Close

Close the debugger window and restart emulation.

Double-clicking on an entry in the stack pane will cause emulation to run until the program counter reaches the value stored at that address, while double-clicking on an entry in the ‘events’ pane will cause emulation to run until that time is reached.

The main power of the debugger is via the commands entered into the entry box, which are similar in nature (but definitely not identical to or as powerful as) to those in gdb(1). In general, the debugger is case-insensitive, and numbers will be interpreted as decimal, unless prefixed by either 0x’ or $’ when they will be interpreted as hex. Each command can be abbreviated to the portion not in curly braces.

ba{se} number

Change the debugger window to displaying output in base number. Available values are 10 (decimal) or 16 (hex).

br{eakpoint} [address] [condition]

Set a breakpoint to stop emulation and return to the debugger whenever an opcode is executed at address and condition evaluates true. If address is omitted, it defaults to the current value of PC.

br{eakpoint} p{ort} (r{ead}|w{rite}) port [condition]

Set a breakpoint to trigger whenever IO port port is read from or written to and condition evaluates true.

br{eakpoint} (r{ead}|w{rite}) [address] [condition]

Set a breakpoint to trigger whenever memory location address is read from (other than via an opcode fetch) or written to and condition evaluates true. Address again defaults to the current value of PC if omitted.

br{eakpoint} ti{me} time [condition]

Set a breakpoint to occur time tstates after the start of the every frame, assuming condition evaluates true (if one is given).

br{eakpoint} ev{ent} area:detail [condition]

Set a breakpoint to occur when the event specified by area:detail occurs and condition evaluates to true. The events which can be caught are:

divide:page
divide:unpage

The DivIDE interface is paged into or out of memory respectively

if1:page
if1:unpage
The Interface 1 shadow ROM is paged into or out of memory

rzx:end
An RZX recording finishes playing

tape:play
tape:stop
The emulated tape starts or stops playing

zxcf:page
zxcf:unpage
The ZXCF interface is paged into or out of memory

zxatasp:page
zxatasp:unpage
The ZXATASP interface is paged into or out of memory

In all cases, the event can be specified as area:* to catch all events from that area.

cl{ear} [address]

Remove all breakpoints at address or the current value of PC if address is omitted. Port read/write breakpoints are unaffected.

com{mmands} id <newline>
<debugger command> <newline>
<debugger command> <newline>
...
end

Set things such that the specified debugger commands will be automatically executed when breakpoint id is triggered. There is currently no user interface for entering multi-line debugger commands, so the only way to specify this command is on the command-line via the --debugger-command option.

cond{ition} id [condition]

Set breakpoint id to trigger only when condition is true, or unconditionally if condition is omitted.

co{ntinue}

Equivalent to the Continue button.

del{ete} [id]

Remove breakpoint id, or all breakpoints if id is omitted.

di{sassemble} address

Set the centre panel disassembly to begin at address.

ex{it}

Exit the emulator immediately.

fi{nish}

Exit from the current CALL or equivalent. This isn’t infallible: it works by setting a temporary breakpoint at the current contents of the stack pointer, so will not function correctly if the code returns to some other point or plays with its stack in other ways. Also, setting this breakpoint doesn’t disable other breakpoints, which may trigger before this one. In that case, the temporary breakpoint remains, and the ‘continue’ command can be used to return to it.

i{gnore} id count

Do not trigger the next count times that breakpoint id would have triggered.

n{ext}

Step to the opcode following the current one. As with the ‘finish’ command, this works by setting a temporary breakpoint at the next opcode, so is not infallible.

o{ut} port value

Write value to IO port port.

pr{int} expression

Print the value of expression to standard output.

se{t} address value

Poke value into memory at address.

se{t} register value

Set the value of the Z80 register register to value.

se{t} [im|iff1|iff2] value

Set the interrupt mode or interrupt flip flops register to value. If the im mode is not 0, 1 or 2 it will be ignored, while non-zero iff values will be converted to one.

se{t} $variable value

Set the value of the debugger variable variable to value.

s{tep}

Equivalent to the Single Step button.

t{breakpoint} [options]

This is the same as the ‘breakpoint’ command in its various forms, except that the breakpoint is temporary: it will trigger once and once only, and then be removed.

Addresses can be specified in one of two forms: either an absolute addresses, specified by an integer in the range 0x0000 to 0xFFFF or as a page:offset’ combination, which refers to a location offset bytes into memory bank page, independent of where that bank is currently paged into memory. RAM pages are indicated simply by an integer, while ROMs are prefixed by R’ (e.g. offset 0x1234 in ROM 1 is specified as R1:0x1234’). Pages selected via the /ROMCS line are prefixed with C’, while the Timex Dock and Exrom use prefixes D’ and X’ respectively. The 48K machines are treated as having a permanent mapping of page 5 at 0x4000, page 2 at 0x8000 and page 0 at 0xC000; the 16K Spectrum is treated as having page 5 at 0x4000 and no page at 0x8000 and 0xC000.

Anywhere the debugger is expecting a numeric value, except where it expects a breakpoint id, you can instead use a numeric expression, which uses a restricted version of C’s syntax; exactly the same syntax is used for conditional breakpoints, with ‘0’ being false and any other value being true. In numeric expressions, you can use integer constants (all calculations are done in integers), register names (which simply evaluate to the value of the register), debugger variables, parentheses, the standard four numeric operations (‘+’, ‘-’, ‘*’ and ‘/’), the (non-)equality operators ‘==’ and ‘!=’, the comparison operators ‘>’, ‘<’, ‘>=’ and ‘<=’, bitwise and (‘&’), or (‘|’) and exclusive or (‘^’) and logical and (‘&&’) and or (‘||’).

THE POKE FINDER

The ‘poke finder’ is a tool which is designed to make the task of finding (infinite lives etc.) pokes for games a bit easier: it is similar to the ‘Lifeguard’ utility which was available for use with the Multiface. It works by maintaining a list of locations in which the current number of lives (etc.) may be stored, and having the ability to remove from that list any locations which don’t contain a specified value.

The poke finder dialog contains an entry box for specifying the value to be searched for, a count of the current number of possible locations and, if there are less than 20 possible locations, a list of the possible locations (in ‘page:offset’ format). The five buttons act as follows:

Incremented

Remove from the list of possible locations all addresses which have not been incremented since the last search.

Decremented

Remove from the list of possible locations all addresses which have not been decremented since the last search.

Search

Remove from the list of possible locations all addresses which do not contain the value specified in the ‘Search for’ field.

Reset

Reset the poke finder so that all locations are considered possible.

Close

Close the dialog. Note that this does not reset the current state of the poke finder.

Double-clicking on an entry in the list of possible locations will cause a breakpoint to be set to trigger whenever that location is written to.

An example of how to use this may make things a bit clearer. We’ll use the 128K version of Gryzor. Load the game, define keys to suit and start playing. Immediately pause the game and bring up the poke finder dialog. We note that we currently have 6 lives, so enter ‘6’ into the ‘Search for’ field and click ‘Search’. This reduces the number of possible locations to around 931 (you may get a slightly different number depending on exactly when you paused the game). Play along a bit and then (deliberately) lose a life. Pause the game again. As we now have 5 lives, replace the ‘6’ in the ‘Search for’ field with a ‘5’ and click ‘Search’ again. This then reduces the list of possible locations to just one: page 2, offset 0x00BC. This is the only location in memory which stored ‘6’ when we had 6 lives and ‘5’ when we had 5 lives, so its pretty likely that this is where the lives count is stored. Double-clicking on the ‘2:0x00BC’ entry in the dialog will set the appropriate breakpoint (you may wish to open the debugger at this point to confirm this). Play along a bit more. When you next lose a life, emulation is stopped with PC at 0x91CD. Scrolling up a few addresses in the debugger’s disassembly pane shows a value was loaded from 0x80BC (our hypothetical lives counter), decremented and then stored again to 0x80BC, which looks very much like the code to reduce the number of lives. We can now use the debugger to replace the decrement with a NOP (‘set 0x91c9 0’), and playing the game some more after this reveals that this has worked and we now have infinite lives.

THE POKE MEMORY

Fuse supports multiface POKEs, allowing to modify specific memory addresses in order to cheat (infinite lives, infinite ammo, etc.).

The ‘poke memory’ dialog contains a list of recently loaded POKEs and some entry boxes for adding custom POKEs:

Bank

Sets the 128K memory bank (values ‘0’ to ‘7’) or the current memory mapping (value ‘8’ or blank).

Address

Memory address to modify. Values in range 16384 to 65535 for 48K memory mode or 0 to 65535 for 128K memory banks. GTK+ UI also accepts hex addresses.

Value

New value for the former address, in range 0 to 255. Value 256 means \(lqPrompt to the user later\(rq.

It is possible to load POKEs from an external file using the File, Open... menu option or the drag-and-drop functionality in the GTK+ and Win32 UIs. After loading a snapshot or tape, Fuse will try to automatically locate a POK file with the same file name. This means that if we open ‘GAME.TAP’, then Fuse will try to open ‘GAME.POK’ and ‘POKES/GAME.POK’. See http://www.worldofspectrum.org/POKformat.txt for more details about this file format.

POKEs loaded in the list can be activated or deactivated as the user wants and will remain in memory until a machine reset.

THE .DSK FORMAT

In general, disk images for the +3 Spectrum are thought of as being in DSK format. However, this is actually a slight oversimplification; there are in fact two similar, but not identical, DSK formats. (The difference can be seen by doing head -1 dskfile’: one format will start ‘MV - CPCEMU’ and the other will start ‘EXTENDED’).

Fuse supports both the ‘CPCEMU’ and ‘EXTENDED’ formats.

BETA 128 EMULATION

Fuse supports Betadisk emulation in its Pentagon and Scorpion emulation, and also under 48K, TC2048, 128K and +2 (but not +2A) emulation if the Beta 128 interface option from the Options, Disk Peripherals... dialog is enabled. When that option is used in 48K or TC2048 emulation the Beta 128 auto-boot in 48K machines option additionally controls whether the machine boots directly into the TR-DOS system. See the DISK FILE FORMATS section for more details on supported disk file formats.

OPUS DISCOVERY EMULATION

By default, Fuse emulates the Opus Discovery interface with the optional 2k RAM expansion and a second 40 track single sided disk drive. See the DISK FILE FORMATS section for more details on supported disk file formats. The Opus Discovery’s printer port is also emulated for output only. (See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.) The Opus Discovery may only be used with 16K, 48K, 128K, TC2048 and +2 (not +2A) emulation. To access disks, use the same syntax as Interface 1 and Microdrives.

+D EMULATION

Fuse supports emulating the +D disk and printer interface. See the DISK FILE FORMATS section for more details on supported disk file formats. The +D’s printer port is emulated. (See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.) The +D may only be used with 48K, 128K and +2 (not +2A) emulation. To access disks, you will first need to load G+DOS, by inserting a disk containing the DOS file (+SYS) and entering \(lqRUN\(rq. Once DOS is loaded, you can load to/from +D disks by prefixing filenames with ‘dn’ where n’ is the number of the drive in use. For example, LOAD d1\(dqmyfile\(dq’ would load the file named ‘myfile’ from the emulated drive 1. Microdrive syntax may also be used.

To save a snapshot, choose the Machine, NMI menu option, and then press ‘4’ to save a 48K snapshot, or ‘5’ to save a 128K snapshot. When saving a 128K snapshot, you must then press Y or N to indicate whether the screen changed while saving the snapshot, to finish saving. You can also choose ‘3’ to save a screenshot to disk. Holding Caps Shift together with any of these options will cause the +D to save to the ‘other’ drive to the one used last.

Options ‘1’ and ‘2’ allow screenshots to be printed (in monochrome, in normal and large formats respectively) if printer emulation is enabled. For saving and loading of snapshots, and saving of screenshots to disk, G+DOS must be loaded first, but printing of screenshots can be performed without loading G+DOS.

Finally, ‘X’ will return from the NMI menu.

DISCIPLE EMULATION

Fuse supports emulating the DISCiPLE disk and printer interface, although it does not currently support emulation of the Sinclair Network, or support emulation of a DISCiPLE attached to a 128K machine. See the DISK FILE FORMATS section for more details on supported disk file formats, which are the same as for +D emulation as described above. The DISCiPLE’s printer port is emulated. (See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.) The DISCiPLE may only be used with 48K emulation at present. To access disks, you will first need to load GDOS, by inserting a disk containing the DOS file (SYS) and entering \(lqRUN\(rq. Once DOS is loaded, you can load to/from DISCiPLE disks by prefixing filenames with ‘dn’ where n’ is the number of the drive in use. For example, LOAD d1\(dqmyfile\(dq’ would load the file named ‘myfile’ from the emulated drive 1. Microdrive syntax may also be used.

Snapshots can be saved in a similar manner to that of the +D as described above, but note that GDOS on the DISCiPLE contains a bug which causes corruption as soon as the NMI button is pressed, affecting saving of snapshots, and also loading of snapshots that were originally saved with a +D or SAM Coup\(&#146;e. This will cause corruption even when a screenshot is printed, or if the menu is never even entered in the first place (due to Caps Shift not being pressed down, as is required for the DISCiPLE), provided that GDOS is loaded. This bug is not present in G+DOS on the +D. (Note: this was caused by saving/restoring the AF register twice in the NMI handler, where both AF and the AF\(aq shadow register should have been saved/restored.)

The NMI button works slightly differently on the DISCiPLE than on the +D. Caps Shift must be held down whilst pressing the NMI button, and there is no ‘X’ option to exit the menu. Also, printing of screenshots requires GDOS to be loaded. Depending on the UI that you’re using, holding down Caps Shift whilst choosing the Machine, NMI menu option may be slightly tricky, or even impossible. For the GTK+ UI, ensure that the Shift key is held before entering on the Machine menu. For the widget UI, it does not seem possible to perform this action.

DISK FILE FORMATS

Fuse supports several disk image formats in its +D, DISCiPLE and Beta 128 emulation.

For reading:

.UDI

Ultra Disk Image; for specification please see http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/Spectrum_emulator_file_format:_udi or http://zxmak.chat.ru/docs.htm

This is the only image format which can store all the relevant information of the recorded data on a magnetic disk, so it can be used for any non standard disk format. Fuse can read all extended track types too (mixed FM/MFM, or tracks with ‘WEAK’ data or even compressed tracks too).

.FDI

UKV Spectrum Debugger disk image format.

.MGT .IMG

DISCiPLE/+D file formats.

.SAD .SDF

For compatibility with SAM Coup\(&#146;e disk images using these formats. Note that SAM Coup\(&#146;e ‘.DSK’ images share the same format as ‘.MGT’.

.TRD

TR-DOS disk image; for detailed information please see http://web.archive.org/web/20070808150548/http://www.ramsoft.bbk.org/tech/tr-info.zip

.SCL

A simple archive format for TR-DOS disk files.

.TD0

Teledisk image format; Fuse supports only files which do not use the \(lqAdvanced Compression\(rq option. Detailed description found in http://www.classiccmp.org/dunfield/img54306/td0notes.txt and http://www.fpns.net/willy/wteledsk.htm

.DSK

CPC disk image format; Fuse supports the plain old and the new extended CPC format too. Further information please see the THE .DSK FORMAT section and the CPCEMU manual section 7.7.1 http://www.cpc-emu.org/linux/cpcemu_e.txt or the http://www.cpctech.org.uk/docs/extdsk.html

.OPD .OPU

Opus Discovery file formats.

Fuse supports most of the above formats for writing: .UDI .FDI .MGT .IMG .SAD .TRD .SCL .OPD .OPU .DSK (only the old CPC format).

You can save disk images with any output format, just select the appropriate extension. (e.g. elite3.udi’ to save as an UDI file). If the appropriate libraries were available when libspectrum(3) was compiled, than Fuse will try to create UDI images with compressed tracks to save disk space. There is a .LOG ‘image’ format for debugging purpose. This is a plain text file contains three dump of the loaded disk image at different details. Not all image formats can store all disk images. You cannot save a disk image with an inappropriate format that loses some information (e.g. variable track length or sector length).

WEAK DISK DATA

Some copy protections have what is described as ‘weak/random’ data. Each time the sector is read one or more bytes will change, the value may be random between consecutive reads of the same sector. Two disk image formats (Extended DSK and UDI) can store this type of data. Fuse can read and use weak sector data from EDSK and UDI files when present, and can save back weak sector data to UDI image format.

MOVIE RECORDING

Fuse can save movies with sound in a specific file format (FMF). This recording is very fast, and has a moderate size, but you need to use the fmfconv program in fuse-utils to convert into regular video and/or audio files. The --movie-compr option allows you to set the compression level to None, Lossless or High. If Zlib is not available, only None is valid. The default when Zlib is available is Lossless. Recording a movie may slow down emulation, if you experience performance problems, you can try to set compression to None.

Fuse records every displayed frame, so by default the recorded file has about 50 video frame per second. A standard video has about 24-30/s framerate, so if you set Options/General/Frame rate 1:n or the equivalent --rate command line option to 2 than recording frame rate reduces about 25/s. The exact frame rate depends on the Z80 clock frequency which varies depending on the specific emulated machine.

Note: You can see all of the \(lqgfx\(rq effects only if the Fuse frame rate option is set to 1, but in most cases you can safely use 2. Also, movie recording stops if the emulated machine is changed.

The recorded sound sampling rate and the channel number is equal with the Fuse generated sound sampling rate (32000 Hz by default) and channel number (mono by default). The common sampling frequencies in standard video files are 44100 Hz and 48000 Hz. If you use --sound-freq command line option you can record sound on 44100 Hz or even 48000 Hz.

You can record stereo sound if you use AY stereo separation or the equivalent --separation command line switch.

You can use fmfconv to convert recorded movie file into a standard video file.

Examples

fuse --movie-start output.fmf --rate 2 --sound-freq 44100 --separation ACB

start video recording about 25/s video frame rate and 44100 Hz sampling frequency stereo sound default compression level.

COMPRESSED FILES

Assuming the appropriate libraries were available when libspectrum(3) was compiled, snapshots, tape images, dock cartridges and input recording files can be read from files compressed with bzip2(3) or gzip(3) just as if they were uncompressed. There is currently no support for reading compressed +3, DISCiPLE/+D or Beta disk images.

BUGS

Selecting a startup filter doesn’t work properly with user interfaces other than SDL, Win32 and GTK+.

Changing virtual consoles when using SVGAlib for joystick support causes Fuse to exit. If this is a problem, compile Fuse with the --disable-ui-joystick’ option.

The poke finder can’t search outside ‘normal’ RAM.

The libao file output devices not work properly with the GTK+ UI. No error reporting, but the created file does not contain any sound data. If you use a ‘weak’ machine alsa09 makes a lot of clicks and pops and will output ALSA: underrun, at least 0ms.’ error messages.

FILES

~/.fuserc

SEE ALSO

bzip2(3), fmfconv(1) fuse-utils(1), gzip(3), libspectrum(3), ogg123(1), xspect(1), xzx(1)

The comp.sys.sinclair Spectrum FAQ, at
http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/index.html.

AUTHOR

Philip Kendall (philip-fuse@shadowmagic.org.uk).

Matan Ziv-Av wrote the SVGAlib and framebuffer UIs, the glib replacement code, and did some work on the OSS-specific sound code and the original widget UI code.

Russell Marks wrote the sound emulation and OSS-specific sound code, the joystick emulation, some of the printer code, and the original version of this man page.

John Elliott’s lib765 and libdsk libraries were used for the original +3 disk and disk image support.

Ian Collier wrote the ZX Printer emulation (for xz80).

Darren Salt wrote the original versions of the code for +3 emulation, SLT support, MITSHM support (for the Xlib UI), TZX raw data blocks, RZX embedded snapshots and compression, the Kempston mouse emulation and made many improvements to the widget code.

Alexander Yurchenko wrote the OpenBSD/Solaris-specific sound code.

Fredrick Meunier wrote the TC2048, TS2068, Pentagon and Spectrum SE support, the CoreAudio sound code, as well as maintaining the OS X port and importing the graphics filter code.

Ludvig Strigeus and The ScummVM project wrote the original graphics filter code.

Dmitry Sanarin wrote the original Beta disk interface emulation (for Glukalka).

Witold Filipczyk wrote the TC2068 support.

Matthew Westcott wrote the AY logging code and the DivIDE emulation.

Marek Januszewski wrote various bits of code to make Fuse work under Win32, including the DirectDraw user interface.

Sergio Baldov\(&#146;i made many improvements to the Win32 UI.

Stuart Brady wrote the DISCiPLE and +D emulation, Scorpion emulation and the HP-UX sound code.

Garry Lancaster wrote the 8-bit IDE, ZXATASP and ZXCF interface emulations.

Gergely Szasz wrote the Interface 1 and Microdrive emulation, the PAL TV scalers, the TV 3x scaler, the movie logging code, the libao sound code, the \(mcPD765 disk controller used in the +3 and made many improvements to the widget code.

Michael D Wynne wrote the original Opus disk interface emulation (for EightyOne).

Patrik Persson wrote the SpeccyBoot emulation.

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