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Manual Reference Pages  -  GDU (1)


du - estimate file space usage




du [\,OPTION\/]... [\,FILE\/]...
du [\,OPTION\/]... \,--files0-from=F\/


Summarize disk usage of the set of FILEs, recursively for directories.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
-0, --null end each output line with NUL, not newline
-a, --all write counts for all files, not just directories
  print apparent sizes, rather than disk usage; although the apparent size is usually smaller, it may be larger due to holes in (’sparse’) files, internal fragmentation, indirect blocks, and the like
-B, --block-size=\,SIZE\/
  scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., ’-BM’ prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below
-b, --bytes
  equivalent to ’--apparent-size --block-size=\,1\/
-c, --total
  produce a grand total
-D, --dereference-args
  dereference only symlinks that are listed on the command line
-d, --max-depth=\,N\/
  print the total for a directory (or file, with --all) only if it is N or fewer levels below the command line argument; --max-depth=\,0\/ is the same as --summarize
  summarize disk usage of the NUL-terminated file names specified in file F; if F is -, then read names from standard input
-H equivalent to --dereference-args (-D)
-h, --human-readable
  print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
  list inode usage information instead of block usage
-k like --block-size=\,1K\/
-L, --dereference
  dereference all symbolic links
-l, --count-links
  count sizes many times if hard linked
-m like --block-size=\,1M\/
-P, --no-dereference
  don’t follow any symbolic links (this is the default)
-S, --separate-dirs
  for directories do not include size of subdirectories
--si like -h, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-s, --summarize
  display only a total for each argument
-t, --threshold=\,SIZE\/
  exclude entries smaller than SIZE if positive, or entries greater than SIZE if negative
--time show time of the last modification of any file in the directory, or any of its subdirectories
  show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status
  show times using STYLE, which can be: full-iso, long-iso, iso, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is interpreted like in ’date’
-X, --exclude-from=\,FILE\/
  exclude files that match any pattern in FILE
  exclude files that match PATTERN
-x, --one-file-system
  skip directories on different file systems
--help display this help and exit
  output version information and exit
Display values are in units of the first available SIZE from --block-size, and the DU_BLOCK_SIZE, BLOCK_SIZE and BLOCKSIZE environment variables. Otherwise, units default to 1024 bytes (or 512 if POSIXLY_CORRECT is set).

The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000).


PATTERN is a shell pattern (not a regular expression). The pattern ? matches any one character, whereas * matches any string (composed of zero, one or multiple characters). For example, *.o will match any files whose names end in .o. Therefore, the command
du --exclude=\(aq*.o\(aq
will skip all files and subdirectories ending in .o (including the file .o itself).


Written by Torbjorn Granlund, David MacKenzie, Paul Eggert, and Jim Meyering.


GNU coreutils online help: <>
Report du translation bugs to <>


Copyright © 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


Full documentation at: <>
or available locally via: info \(aq(coreutils) du invocation\(aq
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GNU coreutils 8.25 DU (1) January 2016

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