|-A, --catenate, --concatenate|
Append archive to the end of another archive. The arguments are
treated as the names of archives to append. All archives must be of
the same format as the archive they are appended to, otherwise the
resulting archive might be unusable with non-GNU implementations of
tar. Notice also that when more than one archive is given, the
members from archives other than the first one will be accessible in
the resulting archive only if using the -i
Compressed archives cannot be concatenated.
|Create a new archive. Arguments supply the names of the files to be archived. Directories are archived recursively, unless the --no-recursion option is given.|
|-d, --diff, --compare|
|Find differences between archive and file system. The arguments are optional and specify archive members to compare. If not given, the current working directory is assumed.|
Delete from the archive. The arguments supply names of the archive
members to be removed. At least one argument must be given.
This option does not operate on compressed archives. There is no short option equivalent.
|Append files to the end of an archive. Arguments have the same meaning as for -c (--create).|
|-t, --list||List the contents of an archive. Arguments are optional. When given, they specify the names of the members to list.|
Test the archive volume label and exit. When used without arguments,
it prints the volume label (if any) and exits with status 0.
When one or more command line arguments are given.
tar compares the volume label with each argument. It exits with code
0 if a match is found, and with code 1 otherwise. No
output is displayed, unless used together with the -v
There is no short option equivalent for this option.
|Append files which are newer than the corresponding copy in the archive. Arguments have the same meaning as with -c and -r options.|
|-x, --extract, --get|
|Extract files from an archive. Arguments are optional. When given, they specify names of the archive members to be extracted.|
|Show built-in defaults for various tar options and exit. No arguments are allowed.|
|-?, --help||Display a short option summary and exit. No arguments allowed.|
|--usage||Display a list of available options and exit. No arguments allowed.|
|Print program version and copyright information and exit.|
--check-device Check device numbers when creating incremental archives (default). -g, --listed-incremental=FILE Handle new GNU-format incremental backups. FILE is the name of a snapshot file, where tar stores additional information which is used to decide which files changed since the previous incremental dump and, consequently, must be dumped again. If FILE does not exist when creating an archive, it will be created and all files will be added to the resulting archive (the level 0 dump). To create incremental archives of non-zero level N, create a copy of the snapshot file created during the level N-1, and use it as FILE.
When listing or extracting, the actual contents of FILE is not inspected, it is needed only due to syntactical requirements. It is therefore common practice to use /dev/null in its place.
-G, --incremental Handle old GNU-format incremental backups. --ignore-failed-read Do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files. --level=NUMBER Set dump level for created listed-incremental archive. Currently only --level=0 is meaningful: it instructs tar to truncate the snapshot file before dumping, thereby forcing a level 0 dump. -n, --seek Assume the archive is seekable. Normally tar determines automatically whether the archive can be seeked or not. This option is intended for use in cases when such recognition fails. It takes effect only if the archive is open for reading (e.g. with --list or --extract options). --no-check-device Do not check device numbers when creating incremental archives. --no-seek Assume the archive is not seekable. --occurrence[=N] Process only the Nth occurrence of each file in the archive. This option is valid only when used with one of the following subcommands: --delete, --diff, --extract or --list and when a list of files is given either on the command line or via the -T option. The default N is 1. --restrict Disable the use of some potentially harmful options. --sparse-version=MAJOR[.MINOR] Set version of the sparse format to use (implies --sparse). This option implies --sparse. Valid argument values are 0.0, 0.1, and 1.0. For a detailed discussion of sparse formats, refer to the GNU Tar Manual, appendix D, "Sparse Formats". Using info reader, it can be accessed running the following command: info tar Sparse Formats. -S, --sparse Handle sparse files efficiently. Some files in the file system may have segments which were actually never written (quite often these are database files created by such systems as DBM). When given this option, tar attempts to determine if the file is sparse prior to archiving it, and if so, to reduce the resulting archive size by not dumping empty parts of the file.
These options control tar actions when extracting a file over an existing copy on disk.
-k, --keep-old-files Dont replace existing files when extracting. --keep-newer-files Dont replace existing files that are newer than their archive copies. --no-overwrite-dir Preserve metadata of existing directories. --one-top-level[=DIR] Extract all files into DIR, or, if used without argument, into a subdirectory named by the base name of the archive (minus standard compression suffixes recognizable by --auto-compress). --overwrite Overwrite existing files when extracting. --overwrite-dir Overwrite metadata of existing directories when extracting (default). --recursive-unlink Recursively remove all files in the directory prior to extracting it. --remove-files Remove files from disk after adding them to the archive. -U, --unlink-first Remove each file prior to extracting over it. -W, --verify Verify the archive after writing it.
Ignore subprocess exit codes.
Treat non-zero exit codes of children as error (default). -O, --to-stdout Extract files to standard output. --to-command=COMMAND Pipe extracted files to COMMAND. The argument is the pathname of an external program, optionally with command line arguments. The program will be invoked and the contents of the file being extracted supplied to it on its standard output. Additional data will be supplied via the following environment variables:
TAR_FILETYPE Type of the file. It is a single letter with the following meaning:
f Regular file d Directory l Symbolic link h Hard link b Block device c Character device
Currently only regular files are supported.
TAR_MODE File mode, an octal number. TAR_FILENAME The name of the file. TAR_REALNAME Name of the file as stored in the archive. TAR_UNAME Name of the file owner. TAR_GNAME Name of the file owner group. TAR_ATIME Time of last access. It is a decimal number, representing seconds since the Epoch. If the archive provides times with nanosecond precision, the nanoseconds are appended to the timestamp after a decimal point. TAR_MTIME Time of last modification. TAR_CTIME Time of last status change. TAR_SIZE Size of the file. TAR_UID UID of the file owner. TAR_GID GID of the file owner.
Additionally, the following variables contain information about tar operation mode and the archive being processed:
TAR_VERSION GNU tar version number. TAR_ARCHIVE The name of the archive tar is processing. TAR_BLOCKING_FACTOR Current blocking factor, i.e. number of 512-byte blocks in a record. TAR_VOLUME Ordinal number of the volume tar is processing (set if reading a multi-volume archive). TAR_FORMAT Format of the archive being processed. One of: gnu, oldgnu, posix, ustar, v7. TAR_SUBCOMMAND A short option (with a leading dash) describing the operation tar is executing.
--atime-preserve[=METHOD] Preserve access times on dumped files, either by restoring the times after reading (METHOD=replace, this is the default) or by not setting the times in the first place (METHOD=system) --delay-directory-restore Delay setting modification times and permissions of extracted directories until the end of extraction. Use this option when extracting from an archive which has unusual member ordering. --group=NAME Force NAME as group for added files. --mode=CHANGES Force symbolic mode CHANGES for added files. --mtime=DATE-OR-FILE Set mtime for added files. DATE-OR-FILE is either a date/time in almost arbitrary formate, or the name of an existing file. In the latter case the mtime of that file will be used. -m, --touch Dont extract file modified time. --no-delay-directory-restore Cancel the effect of the prior --delay-directory-restore option. --no-same-owner Extract files as yourself (default for ordinary users). --no-same-permissions Apply the users umask when extracting permissions from the archive (default for ordinary users). --numeric-owner Always use numbers for user/group names. --owner=NAME Force NAME as owner for added files. -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions extract information about file permissions (default for superuser) --preserve Same as both -p and -s. --same-owner Try extracting files with the same ownership as exists in the archive (default for superuser). -s, --preserve-order, --same-order Sort names to extract to match archive --sort=ORDER When creating an archive, sort directory entries according to ORDER, which is one of none, name, or inode.
The default is --sort=none, which stores archive members in the same order as returned by the operating system.
Using --sort=name ensures the member ordering in the created archive is uniform and reproducible.
Using --sort=inode reduces the number of disk seeks made when creating the archive and thus can considerably speed up archivation. This sorting order is supported only if the underlying system provides the necessary information.
-f, --file=ARCHIVE Use archive file or device ARCHIVE. If this option is not given, tar will first examine the environment variable TAPE. If it is set, its value will be used as the archive name. Otherwise, tar will assume the compiled-in default. The default value can be inspected either using the --show-defaults option, or at the end of the tar --help output.
An archive name that has a colon in it specifies a file or device on a remote machine. The part before the colon is taken as the machine name or IP address, and the part after it as the file or device pathname, e.g.:
An optional username can be prefixed to the hostname, placing a @ sign between them.
The remote mashine should have the rmt(8) command installed. If its pathname does not match tars default, you can inform tar about the correct pathname using the --rmt-command option.
--force-local Archive file is local even if it has a colon. -F, --info-script=COMMAND, --new-volume-script=COMMAND Run COMMAND at the end of each tape (implies -M). The command can include arguments. When started, it will inherit tars environment plus the following variables:
TAR_VERSION GNU tar version number. TAR_ARCHIVE The name of the archive tar is processing. TAR_BLOCKING_FACTOR Current blocking factor, i.e. number of 512-byte blocks in a record. TAR_VOLUME Ordinal number of the volume tar is processing (set if reading a multi-volume archive). TAR_FORMAT Format of the archive being processed. One of: gnu, oldgnu, posix, ustar, v7. TAR_SUBCOMMAND A short option (with a leading dash) describing the operation tar is executing. TAR_FD File descriptor which can be used to communicate the new volume name to tar.
If the info script fails, tar exits; otherwise, it begins writing the next volume.
-L, --tape-length= Change tape after writing Nx1024 bytes. If N is followed by a size suffix (see the subsection Size suffixes below), the suffix specifies the multiplicative factor to be used instead of 1024.
This option implies -M.
-M, --multi-volume Create/list/extract multi-volume archive. --rmt-command=COMMAND Use COMMAND instead of rmt when accessing remote archives. See the description of the -f option, above. --rsh-command=COMMAND Use COMMAND instead of rsh when accessing remote archives. See the description of the -f option, above. --volno-file=FILE When this option is used in conjunction with --multi-volume, tar will keep track of which volume of a multi-volume archive it is working in FILE.
-b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS Set record size to BLOCKSx512 bytes. -B, --read-full-records When listing or extracting, accept incomplete input records after end-of-file marker. -i, --ignore-zeros Ignore zeroed blocks in archive. Normally two consecutive 512-blocks filled with zeroes mean EOF and tar stops reading after encountering them. This option instructs it to read further and is useful when reading archives created with the -A option. --record-size=NUMBER Set record size. NUMBER is the number of bytes per record. It must be multiple of 512. It can can be suffixed with a size suffix, e.g. --record-size=10K, for 10 Kilobytes. See the subsection Size suffixes, for a list of valid suffixes.
-H, --format=FORMAT Create archive of the given format. Valid formats are:
gnu GNU tar 1.13.x format oldgnu GNU format as per tar <= 1.12. pax, posix POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format. ustar POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format. v7 Old V7 tar format. --old-archive, --portability Same as --format=v7. --pax-option=keyword[[:]=value][,keyword[[:]=value]]... Control pax keywords when creating PAX archives (-H pax). This option is equivalent to the -o option of the pax(1) utility. --posix Same as --format=posix. -V, --label=TEXT Create archive with volume name TEXT. If listing or extracting, use TEXT as a globbing pattern for volume name.
-a, --auto-compress Use archive suffix to determine the compression program. -I, --use-compress-program=COMMAND Filter data through COMMAND. It must accept the -d option, for decompression. The argument can contain command line options. -j, --bzip2 Filter the archive through bzip2(1). -J, --xz Filter the archive through xz(1). --lzip Filter the archive through lzip(1). --lzma Filter the archive through lzma(1). --lzop Filter the archive through lzop(1). --no-auto-compress Do not use archive suffix to determine the compression program. -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip Filter the archive through gzip(1). -Z, --compress, --uncompress Filter the archive through compress(1).
--add-file=FILE Add FILE to the archive (useful if its name starts with a dash). --backup[=CONTROL] Backup before removal. The CONTROL argument, if supplied, controls the backup policy. Its valid values are:
none, off Never make backups. t, numbered Make numbered backups. nil, existing Make numbered backups if numbered backups exist, simple backups otherwise. never, simple Always make simple backups
If CONTROL is not given, the value is taken from the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. If it is not set, existing is assumed.
-C, --directory=DIR Change to directory DIR. --exclude=PATTERN Exclude files matching PATTERN, a glob(3)-style wildcard pattern. --exclude-backups Exclude backup and lock files. --exclude-caches Exclude contents of directories containing file CACHEDIR.TAG, except for the tag file itself. --exclude-caches-all Exclude directories containing file CACHEDIR.TAG and the file itself. --exclude-caches-under Exclude everything under directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG --exclude-ignore=FILE Before dumping a directory, see if it contains FILE. If so, read exclusion patterns from this file. The patterns affect only the directory itself. --exclude-ignore-recursive=FILE Same as --exclude-ignore, except that patterns from FILE affect both the directory and all its subdirectories. --exclude-tag=FILE Exclude contents of directories containing FILE, except for FILE itself. --exclude-tag-all=FILE Exclude directories containing FILE. --exclude-tag-under=FILE Exclude everything under directories containing FILE. --exclude-vcs Exclude version control system directories. --exclude-vcs-ignores Exclude files that match patterns read from VCS-specific ignore files. Supported files are: .cvsignore, .gitignore, .bzrignore, and .hgignore. -h, --dereference Follow symlinks; archive and dump the files they point to. --hard-dereference Follow hard links; archive and dump the files they refer to. -K, --starting-file=MEMBER Begin at the given member in the archive. --newer-mtime=DATE Work on files whose data changed after the DATE. If DATE starts with / or . it is taken to be a file name; the mtime of that file is used as the date. --no-null Disable the effect of the previous --null option. --no-recursion Avoid descending automatically in directories. --no-unquote Do not unquote input file or member names. --null Instruct subsequent -T options to read null-terminated names, disable handling of the -C option read from the file. -N, --newer=DATE, --after-date=DATE Only store files newer than DATE. If DATE starts with / or . it is taken to be a file name; the ctime of that file is used as the date. --one-file-system Stay in local file system when creating archive. -P, --absolute-names Dont strip leading slashes from file names when creating archives. --recursion Recurse into directories (default). --suffix=STRING Backup before removal, override usual suffix. Default suffix is ~, unless overridden by environment variable SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. -T, --files-from=FILE Get names to extract or create from FILE. --unquote Unquote file or member names (default). -X, --exclude-from=FILE Exclude files matching patterns listed in FILE.
--strip-components=NUMBER Strip NUMBER leading components from file names on extraction. --transform=EXPRESSIONR, --xform=EXPRESSION Use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file names.
These options affect both exclude and include patterns.
--anchored Patterns match file name start. --ignore-case Ignore case. --no-anchored Patterns match after any / (default for exclusion). --no-ignore-case Case sensitive matching (default). --no-wildcards Verbatim string matching. --no-wildcards-match-slash Wildcards do not match /. --wildcards Use wildcards (default for exclusion). --wildcards-match-slash Wildcards match / (default for exclusion).
--checkpoint[=N] Display progress messages every Nth record (default 10). --checkpoint-action=ACTION Run ACTION on each checkpoint. --full-time Print file time to its full resolution. --index-file=FILE Send verbose output to FILE. -l, --check-links Print a message if not all links are dumped. --no-quote-chars=STRING Disable quoting for characters from STRING. --quote-chars=STRING Additionally quote characters from STRING. --quoting-style=STYLE Set quoting style for file and member names. Valid values for STYLE are literal, shell, shell-always, c, c-maybe, escape, locale, clocale. -R, --block-number Show block number within archive with each message. --show-omitted-dirs When listing or extracting, list each directory that does not match search criteria. --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names Show file or archive names after transformation by --strip and --transform options. --totals[=SIGNAL] Print total bytes after processing the archive. If SIGNAL is given, print total bytes when this signal is delivered. Allowed signals are: SIGHUP, SIGQUIT, SIGINT, SIGUSR1, and SIGUSR2. The SIG prefix can be omitted. --utc Print file modification times in UTC. -v, --verbose Verbosely list files processed. --warning=KEYWORD Enable or disable warning messages identified by KEYWORD. The messages are suppressed if KEYWORD is prefixed with no- and enabled otherwise.
Multiple --warning messages accumulate.
Keywords controlling general tar operation:
all Enable all warning messages. This is the default. none Disable all warning messages. filename-with-nuls "%s: file name read contains nul character" alone-zero-block "A lone zero block at %s" Keywords applicable for tar --create: cachedir "%s: contains a cache directory tag %s; %s" file-shrank "%s: File shrank by %s bytes; padding with zeros" xdev "%s: file is on a different filesystem; not dumped" file-ignored "%s: Unknown file type; file ignored"
"%s: socket ignored"
"%s: door ignored"
file-unchanged "%s: file is unchanged; not dumped" ignore-archive "%s: file is the archive; not dumped" file-removed "%s: File removed before we read it" file-changed "%s: file changed as we read it" Keywords applicable for tar --extract: timestamp "%s: implausibly old time stamp %s"
"%s: time stamp %s is %s s in the future"
contiguous-cast "Extracting contiguous files as regular files" symlink-cast "Attempting extraction of symbolic links as hard links" unknown-cast "%s: Unknown file type %c, extracted as normal file" ignore-newer "Current %s is newer or same age" unknown-keyword "Ignoring unknown extended header keyword %s" decompress-program Controls verbose description of failures occurring when trying to run alternative decompressor programs. This warning is disabled by default (unless --verbose is used). A common example of what you can get when using this warning is:
$ tar --warning=decompress-program -x -f archive.Z tar (child): cannot run compress: No such file or directory tar (child): trying gzip
This means that tar first tried to decompress archive.Z using compress, and, when that failed, switched to gzip.
record-size "Record size = %lu blocks" Keywords controlling incremental extraction: rename-directory "%s: Directory has been renamed from %s"
"%s: Directory has been renamed"
new-directory "%s: Directory is new" xdev "%s: directory is on a different device: not purging" bad-dumpdir "Malformed dumpdir: X never used" -w, --interactive, --confirmation Ask for confirmation for every action.
-o When creating, same as --old-archive. When extracting, same as --no-same-owner.
Suffix Units Byte Equivalent b Blocks SIZE x 512 B Kilobytes SIZE x 1024 c Bytes SIZE G Gigabytes SIZE x 1024^3 K Kilobytes SIZE x 1024 k Kilobytes SIZE x 1024 M Megabytes SIZE x 1024^2 P Petabytes SIZE x 1024^5 T Terabytes SIZE x 1024^4 w Words SIZE x 2
Tar exit code indicates whether it was able to successfully perform the requested operation, and if not, what kind of error occurred.
If a subprocess that had been invoked by tar exited with a nonzero exit code, tar itself exits with that code as well. This can happen, for example, if a compression option (e.g. -z) was used and the external compressor program failed. Another example is rmt failure during backup to a remote device.
0 Successful termination. 1 Some files differ. If tar was invoked with the --compare (--diff, -d) command line option, this means that some files in the archive differ from their disk counterparts. If tar was given one of the --create, --append or --update options, this exit code means that some files were changed while being archived and so the resulting archive does not contain the exact copy of the file set. 2 Fatal error. This means that some fatal, unrecoverable error occurred.
bzip2(1), compress(1), gzip(1), lzma(1), lzop(1), rmt(8), symlink(7), tar(5), xz(1).
Complete tar manual: run info tar or use emacs(1) info mode to read it.
Online copies of GNU tar documentation in various formats can be found at:
Report bugs to <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Copyright © 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
|TAR||TAR (1)||February 22, 2014|