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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  HCS12MEM (1)

NAME

hcs12mem - Freescale S12 MCU family memory reader/writer

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Options

SYNOPSIS

hcs12mem [ option | filename ] ...

DESCRIPTION

hcs12mem is a tool for operating on Freescale S12 MCU’s internal memories (EEPROM and FLASH). It can:

- load any program into S12 RAM and execute it,

- erase, read, write EEPROM, set EEPROM protection,

- erase, read, write FLASH,

- secure and unsecure whole MCU.

SUPPORTED INTERFACES

hcs12mem can communicate with the target device using BDM link or serial port.

BDM POD

Using BDM link requires special interface device - so called BDM POD. Supported BDM PODs are:
tbdml - Daniel Malik’s TBDML (Turbo BDM Light USB POD), see http://www.freegeeks.org
bdm12pod - Kevin Ross’s BDM12 POD, see http://www.kevinro.com
podex-bug - original Marek Peca’s PODEX (with firmware bugs that significantly slow the communication down), see http://www.duch.cz/podex/
podex - PODEX with improved firmware, with my fixes for memory access bugs found in original design, see http://cml.mfk.net.pl/podex
podex-25 - special PODEX version dedicated for fixed 25MHz target (especially MC9S12NE64), see http://cml.mfk.net.pl/podex
BOOTLOADER (Freescale’s LRAE via serial port)

hcs12mem supports operations on target memory using Freescale’s LRAE (Load RAM And Execute) bootloader, using serial port connection (SCI0 on target hardware). Prior to all operations, presence of LRAE bootloader is required in target’s FLASH memory. LRAE is available for a wide selection of S12 MCUs. Source code, S-record files and description can be obtained from Freescale as Application Note - AN2546. This bootloader is supposedly loaded into new S12 MCUs as last stage of factory processing, thus some "fresh" parts straight from Freescale should have this bootloader already in FLASH memory.

MONITOR (Freescale’s serial monitor - AN2548)

hcs12mem supports operations on target memory using Freescale’s serial monitor (AN2548). This monitor uses serial port connection (SCI0 on target hardware). Prior to all operations, presence of serial monitor is required in target’s FLASH memory. Monitor is available for a wide selection of S12 MCUs. Source code, S-record files and description can be obtained from Freescale as Application Note - AN2548. Port of the source code to GNU tools is available, see "SEE ALSO" section.

SUPPORTED MCUs

Support for various S12 derivatives is dependent on target device connection.

BDM

hcs12mem running via BDM supports almost all S12 derivatives (not all are tested, though, especially parts with multiple FLASH blocks are not tested):

<MC9S12> A32, A64, A128, A256, A512, C32, C64, C96, C128, GC16, GC32, GC64, GC96, GC128, D32, D64, D128, D256, D512, E32, E64, E128, E256, H128, H256, UF32, NE64.

LRAE BOOTLOADER

hcs12mem using LRAE supports all derivatives that can run LRAE, according to AN2546 (maybe some others too, if LRAE can work on them):

<MC9S12> A32, A64, A128, A256, A512, C32, C128, D32, D64, D128, D256, D512, E128.

SERIAL MONITOR

hcs12mem using serial monitor supports all derivatives that can run serial monitor. AN2548 has variants of serial monitor for the following targets (compiling dedicated version for other target is easy):

<MC9S12> C32, D32, D64, D128, D256, D512, E128, H256.

My port to GNU tools adds support for A64 and NE64.

OPTIONS

-h, --help
  Show usage info.
-q, --quiet
  Be quiet (no progress/status messages).
-f, --force
  Force operation, if questionable.
-i <interface>, --interface <interface>
  Use given interface for target connection. Supported ones are:
lrae - Freescale’s LRAE (Load RAM And Execute) boot loader (AN2546)
sm - Freescale’s serial monitor (AN2548)
tbdml - Daniel Malik’s TBDML (Turbo BDM Light) USB POD
bdm12pod - original Kevin Ross’s BDM12 POD
podex - PODEX with firmware bugfixes
podex-bug - original Marek Peca’s PODEX (with memory access bugs)
podex-25 - special PODEX version dedicated for 25MHz target
See more below in SUPPORTED INTERFACES section.
This option is mandatory and must be specified exactly once.
-p <port>, --port <port>
  Use given serial port for target connection. Port is a path to device special file, typically /dev/something
-b <bps>, --baud <bps>
  Use given baud rate for serial port connection. This is optional, and must correspond with target interface baud rate. Value is specified in bits-per-second, for example 115200, 9600, etc.
-t <target>, --target <target>
  Use given target description. Target description is a file with some key-value pairs, determining configuration. target can be specified in two ways: direct file name (this file is used as target description), or target nick name (target description file name is created by appending .doc to the target argument, then looked up in program’s data directory).
For example, -t some_file_name.dat will treat this file as target description, and -t some_other_target will look for /usr/local/share/hcs12mem/some_other_target.dat file, if that’s where program data files are located.
-o <freq>, --osc <freq>
  Specify target device oscillator frequency, if interface requires it and cannot auto-detect it. freq can be specified directly as value in Hz, or suffix [k|kHz|M|MHz] can be used, for example these all are equivalent: -o 8000000, -o 8000kHz, -o 8MHz
-j <addr>, --start-address <addr>
  Use this start address for program loaded into RAM, if this address is not specified by S-record file.
-a <type>, --flash-address <type>
  Use address type when reading/writing S-record file:
non-banked - FLASH linear area within 64kB, without banking
banked-linear - Freescale banked linear format
banked-ppage - banked format with PPAGE value as MSB
This selection refers to addresses within S-record file.
When not specified, non-banked addressing is used.
-e, --include-erased
  Include erased areas of memory in written S-record file (default is to skip 0xff blocks). Using this option, one gets S-record file with every byte defined to explicit value.
-s <size>, --srecord-size <size>
  Specify size of single S-record written to file, default: 16.
-v, --verify
  Verify result of all erase/write operations.
Following options can be specified multiple times, any of them, processing is according to occurence order:
-R, --reset <file>
  Reset target into normal mode.
-U, --unsecure
  Unsecure secured microcontroller. This means erasing EEPROM and FLASH memories as part of the process !
-S, --secure
  Secure the microcontroller. This means disabling access to EEPROM and FLASH memories, any further access requires unsecuring first.
-X <file>, --ram-run <file>
  Load S-record file into RAM and execute. Addresses of data to load must correspond to target MCU RAM area. Program is run from address supplied in apropriate S-record, it can be overriden using -j option.
-A, --eeprom-erase
  Erase internal MCU EEPROM memory.
-B <file>, --eeprom-read <file>
  Read internal MCU EEPROM memory contents into S-record file
-C <file>, --eeprom-write <file>
  Write internal MCU EEPROM memory contents from S-record file
-D <range>, --eeprom-protect <range>
  Write EEPROM protection byte, range can be one of the following: <all|64B|128B|192B|256B|320B|384B|448B|512B>
all - protects whole EEPROM array
xxxB - protects last xxx bytes of EEPROM array
-E, --flash-erase
  Erase entire FLASH memory, leave security byte in unprogrammed state (0xff) thus leaving whole MCU in secured state.
-F, --flash-erase-unsecure
  Erase entire FLASH memory, then program security byte to unsecured state. This leaves MCU in usecured state with FLASH memory in erased state, except security byte with value 0xfe.
-G <file>, --flash-read <file>
  Read FLASH memory contents into S-record file.
-H <file>, --flash-write <file>
  Write FLASH memory contents from S-record file.
Options specific for particular interfaces:
-Z, --keep-lrae
  Option applicable for LRAE bootloader only - when erasing FLASH memory, keep LRAE in memory (do not erase FLASH area containing LRAE image). Default is to bulk erase whole memory, thus erasing LRAE.
-Y, --tbdml-bulk
  Option applicable for TBDML USB POD only - use bulk USB transfers, which are violating USB specification, but give better data transfer rates. Check if it works for you and use it if you feel good about it. Known to work under FreeBSD and MS Windows, linux unfortunatelly rejects bulk transfers, but Your Mileage May Vary.

EXAMPLES

There are some common options that must be specified in most cases: interface type, interface port, target type, target oscillator frequency (if interface requires it and cannot auto-detect). Almost every call requires these, so for clarity they will be stated only once as an example, and omitted in the following examples, substituted by [-ipto] symbol.

BDM

Depending on the interface in use, different options are required:

TBDML - interface type and target type are required, no port specification is required (USB bus is assumed), no target frequency is required (TBDML can auto-detect it), but it can be overriden with -o option, if auto-detection fails and TBDML is unable to connect the target.

BDM12, PODEX - required are: interface type, target type, interface connection port and target frequency.

Two examples of these options for TBDML and PODEX follows: first example - interface is PODEX, serial port for PODEX attachment is /dev/uart0, target is MC9S12A64 MCU operating at 16MHz; second example - interface is TBDML (assumed connection via USB), target is MC9S12A64 MCU, operating frequency is auto-detected. hcs12mem call usually requires some more action commands to do something specific, but such call with these options only is convenient for verifying target communication - it initializes the target, displays all the info and quits:

hcs12mem -i podex -p /dev/uart0 -t mc9s12a64 -o 16MHz

hcs12mem -i tbdml -t mc9s12a64

Unsecure secured microcontroller:

hcs12mem [-ipto] --unsecure

Secure unsecured microcontroller:

hcs12mem [-ipto] --secure

Load some code into target RAM and execute:

hcs12mem [-ipto] --ram-run some_code.s19

Read EEPROM contents:

hcs12mem [-ipto] --eeprom-read eeprom_data.s19

Set EEPROM protection:

hcs12mem [-ipto] --eeprom-protect all

Read data from FLASH memory and write it to S-record file, use Freescale banked linear addresses, write all erased 0xff’s to output file (default is to skip them):

hcs12mem [-ipto] -e --flash-address banked-linear --flash-read flash_data.s19

Write data from S-record file to FLASH memory (non-banked flat addressing, option -a non-banked assumed by default):

hcs12mem [-ipto] --flash-write flash_data.s19

Action options can be specified multiple times, they are executed in specified order, for example - erase FLASH, write program into FLASH and reset target, thus immediatelly starting program execution:

hcs12mem [-ipto] --flash-erase --flash-write program.s19 --reset

LRAE BOOTLOADER (AN2546)

Using LRAE serial bootloader, we specify following common options:

hcs12mem -i lrae -p /dev/uart0 -t mc9s12a64 -o 16MHz

Baud rate for serial connection is automatically calculated by hcs12mem, using supplied oscillator frequency as reference. You can override auto-selected baud rate with -b <baud> option, if some other speed is preferred.

Load your program into target RAM, and execute it:

hcs12mem [-ipto] --ram-run program.s19

Write your program into target FLASH, keeping LRAE in FLASH:

hcs12mem [-ipto] --flash-erase --keep-lrae --flash-write program.s19

Bulk erase FLASH memory, load LRAE and your program:

hcs12mem [-ipto] --flash-erase --flash-write lrae.s19 --flash-write program.s19

NOTES: reloading FLASH program using LRAE is tricky, because when your program is loaded into FLASH, LRAE is not running anymore. Thus, if you want to reuse LRAE, your program must have a way to enter LRAE on request, for example push button tested as very first thing in your program or something like that. Also, every hcs12mem call using LRAE requires preceding manual target reset.

Writing program destined to be loaded into FLASH memory in coexistence with LRAE bootloader has special requirements (memory layout, MCU initialization), see Application Note AN2546 for more details.

SERIAL MONITOR (AN2548)

Using serial monitor, we specify following common options (oscillator frequency is not required):

hcs12mem -i sm -p /dev/uart0 -t mc9s12a64

Baud rate for serial connection is 115200bps by default. If you have special version of serial monitor compiled with some other settings, you can override auto-selected baud rate with -b <baud> option.

Using serial monitor, there’s no way to erase it, except via BDM, and:

- erasing FLASH erases only parts of memory outside serial monitor (--flash-erase and --flash-erase-unsecure do the same)

- erasing FLASH erases also EEPROM ! (this is how serial monitor implements this)

- securing and unsecuring MCU is not supported

Erase EEPROM, write some initial data and protect upper 256 bytes of EEPROM:

hcs12mem [-ipto] --eeprom-erase --eeprom-write eeprom.s19 --eeprom-protect 256B

Erase FLASH (EEPROM gets erased too), write your program and reset target (thus starting your program):

hcs12mem [-ipt] --flash-erase --flash-write program.s19 --reset

Writing program destined to be loaded into FLASH memory in coexistence with serial monitor has special requirements (memory layout, MCU initialization), see Application Note AN2548 for more details.

BUGS, NOTES, TODO

FLASH write verify is not implemented yet.

MCUs with more that single FLASH block are barely tested.

SEE ALSO

http://www.freescale.com - Freescale’s web page, all S12 MCU info

http://cml.mfk.net.pl/hcs12mem - hcs12mem web page

http://cml.mfk.net.pl/podex - improved PODEX web page

http://www.duch.cz/podex/ - original PODEX web page

http://www.kevinro.com - Kevin Ross’s BDM12 POD web page

http://www.freegeeks.org - Daniel Malik’s TBDML

http://cml.mfk.net.pl/an2548 - my port of Freescale’s serial monitor (AN2548) to GNU tools

COPYRIGHT

(C) 2005,2006,2007 Michal Konieczny <mk@cml.mfk.net.pl>

hcs12mem is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License. You are welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under the conditions of the GNU General Public License.

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