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# Manual Reference Pages  -  KSH93 (1)

### NAME

sh, rsh, pfsh - shell, the standard/restricted command and programming language ksh, rksh, pfksh - KornShell, a standard/restricted command and programming language ksh93, rksh93, pfksh93 - KornShell, a standard/restricted command and programming language

### CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Definitions.
Commands.
Variable Assignments.
Aliasing.
Tilde Substitution.
Command Substitution.
Arithmetic Substitution.
Process Substitution.
Parameter Expansion.
Field Splitting.
File Name Generation.
Quoting.
Arithmetic Evaluation.
Prompting.
Conditional Expressions.
Input/Output.
Environment.
Functions.
Discipline Functions.
Name Spaces.
Type Variables.
Jobs.
Signals.
Execution.
Command Re-entry.
In-line Editing Options.
Key Bindings.
Emacs Editing Mode.
Vi Editing Mode.
Built-in Commands.
Invocation.
Exit Status
Files
Caveats

### SYNOPSIS

sh ksh ksh93 [ ±abcefhikmnoprstuvxBCDP ] [ -R file ] [ ±o option ] ... [ - ] [ arg ... ]
rsh rksh rksh93 [ ±abcefhikmnoprstuvxBCD ] [ -R file ] [ ±o option ] ... [ - ] [ arg ... ]

### DESCRIPTION

is a command and programming language that executes commands read from a terminal or a file. is a restricted version of the command interpreter it is used to set up login names and execution environments whose capabilities are more controlled than those of the standard shell. is a profile shell version of the command interpreter it is used to to execute commands with the attributes specified by the user’s profiles (see pfexec(1)). See Invocation below for the meaning of arguments to the shell.

#### Definitions.

A metacharacter is one of the following characters:

; & ( ) | < > new-line space tab

A blank is a tab or a space. An identifier is a sequence of letters, digits, or underscores starting with a letter or underscore. Identifiers are used as components of variable names. A vname is a sequence of one or more identifiers separated by a . and optionally preceded by a .. Vnames are used as function and variable names. A word is a sequence of characters from the character set defined by the current locale, excluding non-quoted metacharacters.

A command is a sequence of characters in the syntax of the shell language. The shell reads each command and carries out the desired action either directly or by invoking separate utilities. A built-in command is a command that is carried out by the shell itself without creating a separate process. Some commands are built-in purely for convenience and are not documented here. Built-ins that cause side effects in the shell environment and built-ins that are found before performing a path search (see Execution below) are documented here. For historical reasons, some of these built-ins behave differently than other built-ins and are called special built-ins.

#### Commands.

A simple-command is a list of variable assignments (see Variable Assignments below) or a sequence of blank separated words which may be preceded by a list of variable assignments (see Environment below). The first word specifies the name of the command to be executed. Except as specified below, the remaining words are passed as arguments to the invoked command. The command name is passed as argument 0 (see exec(2)). The value of a simple-command is its exit status; 0-255 if it terminates normally; 256+signum if it terminates abnormally (the name of the signal corresponding to the exit status can be obtained via the -l option of the kill built-in utility).

A pipeline is a sequence of one or more commands separated by |. The standard output of each command but the last is connected by a pipe(2) to the standard input of the next command. Each command, except possibly the last, is run as a separate process; the shell waits for the last command to terminate. The exit status of a pipeline is the exit status of the last command unless the pipefail option is enabled. Each pipeline can be preceded by the reserved word ! which causes the exit status of the pipeline to become 0 if the exit status of the last command is non-zero, and 1 if the exit status of the last command is 0.

A list is a sequence of one or more pipelines separated by ;, &, |&, &&, or ||, and optionally terminated by ;, &, or |&. Of these five symbols, ;, &, and |& have equal precedence, which is lower than that of && and ||. The symbols && and || also have equal precedence. A semicolon (;) causes sequential execution of the preceding pipeline; an ampersand (&) causes asynchronous execution of the preceding pipeline (i.e., the shell does not wait for that pipeline to finish). The symbol |& causes asynchronous execution of the preceding pipeline with a two-way pipe established to the parent shell; the standard input and output of the spawned pipeline can be written to and read from by the parent shell by applying the redirection operators <& and >& with arg p to commands and by using -p option of the built-in commands read and print described later. The symbol && (||) causes the list following it to be executed only if the preceding pipeline returns a zero (non-zero) value. One or more new-lines may appear in a list instead of a semicolon, to delimit a command. The first item of the first pipeline of a list that is a simple command not beginning with a redirection, and not occurring within a while, until, or if list, can be preceded by a semicolon. This semicolon is ignored unless the showme option is enabled as described with the set built-in below.

A command is either a simple-command or one of the following. Unless otherwise stated, the value returned by a command is that of the last simple-command executed in the command.
for vname [ in word ... ] ;do list ;done
Each time a for command is executed, vname is set to the next word taken from the in word list. If in word ... is omitted, then the for command executes the do list once for each positional parameter that is set starting from 1 (see Parameter Expansion below). Execution ends when there are no more words in the list.
for (( [expr1] ; [expr2] ; [expr3] )) ;do list ;done
The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see Arithmetic evaluation below). The arithmetic expression expr2 is repeatedly evaluated until it evaluates to zero and when non-zero, list is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 evaluated. If any expression is omitted, then it behaves as if it evaluated to 1.
select vname [ in word ... ] ;do list ;done
A select command prints on standard error (file descriptor 2) the set of words, each preceded by a number. If in word ... is omitted, then the positional parameters starting from 1 are used instead (see Parameter Expansion below). The PS3 prompt is printed and a line is read from the standard input. If this line consists of the number of one of the listed words, then the value of the variable vname is set to the word corresponding to this number. If this line is empty, the selection list is printed again. Otherwise the value of the variable vname is set to null. The contents of the line read from standard input is saved in the variable REPLY. The list is executed for each selection until a break or end-of-file is encountered. If the REPLY variable is set to null by the execution of list, then the selection list is printed before displaying the PS3 prompt for the next selection.
case word in [ [(]pattern [ | pattern ] ... ) list ;; ] ... esac
A case command executes the list associated with the first pattern that matches word. The form of the patterns is the same as that used for file-name generation (see File Name Generation below). The ;; operator causes execution of case to terminate. If ;& is used in place of ;; the next subsequent list, if any, is executed.
if list ;then list [
;elif list ;then list ] ... [ ;else list ] ;fi The list following if is executed and, if it returns a zero exit status, the list following the first then is executed. Otherwise, the list following elif is executed and, if its value is zero, the list following the next then is executed. Failing each successive elif list, the else list is executed. If the if list has non-zero exit status and there is no else list, then the if command returns a zero exit status.
while list ;do list ;done
until list ;do list ;done
A while command repeatedly executes the while list and, if the exit status of the last command in the list is zero, executes the do list; otherwise the loop terminates. If no commands in the do list are executed, then the while command returns a zero exit status; until may be used in place of while to negate the loop termination test.
((expression))
The expression is evaluated using the rules for arithmetic evaluation described below. If the value of the arithmetic expression is non-zero, the exit status is 0, otherwise the exit status is 1.
(list)
Execute list in a separate environment. Note, that if two adjacent open parentheses are needed for nesting, a space must be inserted to avoid evaluation as an arithmetic command as described above.
{ list;}
list is simply executed. Note that unlike the metacharacters ( and ), { and } are reserved words and must occur at the beginning of a line or after a ; in order to be recognized.
[[ expression ]]
Evaluates expression and returns a zero exit status when expression is true. See Conditional Expressions below, for a description of expression.
function varname { list ;}
varname () { list ;}
Define a function which is referenced by varname. A function whose varname contains a . is called a discipline function and the portion of the varname preceding the last . must refer to an existing variable. The body of the function is the list of commands between { and }. A function defined with the function varname syntax can also be used as an argument to the . special built-in command to get the equivalent behavior as if the varname() syntax were used to define it. (See Functions below.)
namespace identifier { list ;}
Defines or uses the name space identifier and runs the commands in list in this name space. (See Name Spaces below.)
& [ name [ arg... ] ]
Causes subsequent list commands terminated by & to be placed in the background job pool name. If name is omitted a default unnamed pool is used. Commands in a named background pool may be executed remotely.
time [ pipeline ]
If pipeline is omitted the user and system time for the current shell and completed child processes is printed on standard error. Otherwise, pipeline is executed and the elapsed time as well as the user and system time are printed on standard error. The TIMEFORMAT variable may be set to a format string that specifies how the timing information should be displayed. See Shell Variables below for a description of the TIMEFORMAT variable.
The following reserved words are recognized as reserved only when they are the first word of a command and are not quoted:

if then else elif fi case esac for while until do done { } function select time [[ ]] !

#### Variable Assignments.

One or more variable assignments can start a simple command or can be arguments to the typeset, enum, export, or readonly special built-in commands as well as to other declaration commands created as types. The syntax for an assignment is of the form:
varname=word
varname[word]=word
No space is permitted between varname and the = or between = and word.
varname=(assign_list)
No space is permitted between varname and the =. The variable varname is unset before the assignment. An assign_list can be one of the following:

 word ... Indexed array assignment. [word]=word ... Associative array assignment. If preceded by typeset -a this will create an indexed array instead. assignment ... Compound variable assignment. This creates a compound variable varname with sub-variables of the form varname.name, where name is the name portion of assignment. The value of varname will contain all the assignment elements. Additional assignments made to sub-variables of varname will also be displayed as part of the value of varname. If no assignments are specified, varname will be a compound variable allowing subsequence child elements to be defined. typeset [options] assignment ... Nested variable assignment. Multiple assignments can be specified by separating each of them with a ;. The previous value is unset before the assignment. Other declaration commands such as readonly, enum, and other declaration commands can be used in place of typeset. . filename Include the assignment commands contained in filename.
In addition, a += can be used in place of the = to signify adding to or appending to the previous value. When += is applied to an arithmetic type, word is evaluated as an arithmetic expression and added to the current value. When applied to a string variable, the value defined by word is appended to the value. For compound assignments, the previous value is not unset and the new values are appended to the current ones provided that the types are compatible.

The right hand side of a variable assignment undergoes all the expansion listed below except word splitting, brace expansion, and file name generation. When the left hand side is an assignment is a compound variable and the right hand is the name of a compound variable, the compound variable on the right will be copied or appended to the compound variable on the left.

A word beginning with # causes that word and all the following characters up to a new-line to be ignored.

#### Aliasing.

The first word of each command is replaced by the text of an alias if an alias for this word has been defined. An alias name consists of any number of characters excluding metacharacters, quoting characters, file expansion characters, parameter expansion and command substitution characters, the characters / and =. The replacement string can contain any valid shell script including the metacharacters listed above. The first word of each command in the replaced text, other than any that are in the process of being replaced, will be tested for aliases. If the last character of the alias value is a blank then the word following the alias will also be checked for alias substitution. Aliases can be used to redefine built-in commands but cannot be used to redefine the reserved words listed above. Aliases can be created and listed with the alias command and can be removed with the unalias command.

Aliasing is performed when scripts are read, not while they are executed. Therefore, for an alias to take effect, the alias definition command has to be executed before the command which references the alias is read.

The following aliases are compiled into the shell but can be unset or redefined:

 autoload='typeset -fu' command='command ' compound='typeset -C' fc=hist float='typeset -lE' functions='typeset -f' hash='alias -t --' history='hist -l' integer='typeset -li' nameref='typeset -n' nohup='nohup ' r='hist -s' redirect='command exec' source='command .' stop='kill -s STOP' suspend='kill -s STOP ' times='{ { time;} 2>&1;}' type='whence -v'

An arithmetic expression enclosed in double parentheses preceded by a dollar sign ( $(()) ) is replaced by the value of the arithmetic expression within the double parentheses. #### Process Substitution. Each command argument of the form <(list) or >(list) will run process list asynchronously connected to some file in /dev/fd if this directory exists, or else a fifo a temporary directory. The name of this file will become the argument to the command. If the form with > is selected then writing on this file will provide input for list. If < is used, then the file passed as an argument will contain the output of the list process. For example, paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) | tee >(process1) >(process2) cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively, pastes the results together, and sends it to the processes process1 and process2, as well as putting it onto the standard output. Note that the file, which is passed as an argument to the command, is a UNIX pipe(2) so programs that expect to lseek(2) on the file will not work. Process substitution of the form <(list) can also be used with the < redirection operator which causes the output of list to be standard input or the input for whatever file descriptor is specified. #### Parameter Expansion. A parameter is a variable, one or more digits, or any of the characters *, @, #, ?, -,$, and !\^. A variable is denoted by a vname. To create a variable whose vname contains a ., a variable whose vname consists of everything before the last . must already exist. A variable has a value and zero or more attributes. Variables can be assigned values and attributes by using the typeset special built-in command. The attributes supported by the shell are described later with the typeset special built-in command. Exported variables pass values and attributes to the environment.

The shell supports both indexed and associative arrays. An element of an array variable is referenced by a subscript. A subscript for an indexed array is denoted by an arithmetic expression (see Arithmetic evaluation below) between a [ and a ]. To assign values to an indexed array, use vname=(value ...) or set -A vname value ... . The value of all non-negative subscripts must be in the range of 0 through 4,194,303. A negative subscript is treated as an offset from the maximum current index +1 so that -1 refers to the last element. Indexed arrays can be declared with the -a option to typeset. Indexed arrays need not be declared. Any reference to a variable with a valid subscript is legal and an array will be created if necessary.

An associative array is created with the -A option to typeset. A subscript for an associative array is denoted by a string enclosed between [ and ].

Referencing any array without a subscript is equivalent to referencing the array with subscript 0.

The value of a variable may be assigned by writing:

vname=value [ vname=value ] ...

or

vname[subscript]=value [ vname[subscript]=value ] ...

Note that no space is allowed before or after the =.

Attributes assigned by the typeset special built-in command apply to all elements of the array. An array element can be a simple variable, a compound variable or an array variable. An element of an indexed array can be either an indexed array or an associative array. An element of an associative array can also be either. To refer to an array element that is part of an array element, concatenate the subscript in brackets. For example, to refer to the foobar element of an associative array that is defined as the third element of the indexed array, use ${vname[3][foobar]} A nameref is a variable that is a reference to another variable. A nameref is created with the -n attribute of typeset. The value of the variable at the time of the typeset command becomes the variable that will be referenced whenever the nameref variable is used. The name of a nameref cannot contain a .. When a variable or function name contains a ., and the portion of the name up to the first . matches the name of a nameref, the variable referred to is obtained by replacing the nameref portion with the name of the variable referenced by the nameref. If a nameref is used as the index of a for loop, a name reference is established for each item in the list. A nameref provides a convenient way to refer to the variable inside a function whose name is passed as an argument to a function. For example, if the name of a variable is passed as the first argument to a function, the command typeset -n var=$1

inside the function causes references and assignments to var to be references and assignments to the variable whose name has been passed to the function.

If any of the floating point attributes, -E, -F, or -X, or the integer attribute, -i, is set for vname, then the value is subject to arithmetic evaluation as described below.

Positional parameters, parameters denoted by a number, may be assigned values with the set special built-in command. Parameter $0 is set from argument zero when the shell is invoked. The character$ is used to introduce substitutable parameters.
${parameter} The shell reads all the characters from${ to the matching } as part of the same word even if it contains braces or metacharacters. The value, if any, of the parameter is substituted. The braces are required when parameter is followed by a letter, digit, or underscore that is not to be interpreted as part of its name, when the variable name contains a .. The braces are also required when a variable is subscripted unless it is part of an Arithmetic Expression or a Conditional Expression. If parameter is one or more digits then it is a positional parameter. A positional parameter of more than one digit must be enclosed in braces. If parameter is * or @, then all the positional parameters, starting with $1, are substituted (separated by a field separator character). If an array vname with last subscript * @, or for index arrays of the form sub1 .. sub2. is used, then the value for each of the elements between sub1 and sub2 inclusive (or all elements for * and @) is substituted, separated by the first character of the value of IFS.${#parameter}
If parameter is * or @, the number of positional parameters is substituted. Otherwise, the length of the value of the parameter is substituted.
${#vname[*]}${#vname[@]}
The number of elements in the array vname is substituted.
${@vname} Expands to the type name (See Type Variables below) or attributes of the variable referred to by vname.${!vname}
Expands to the name of the variable referred to by vname. This will be vname except when vname is a name reference.
${!vname[subscript]} Expands to name of the subscript unless subscript is *, @. or of the form sub1 .. sub2. When subscript is *, the list of array subscripts for vname is generated. For a variable that is not an array, the value is 0 if the variable is set. Otherwise it is null. When subscript is @, same as above, except that when used in double quotes, each array subscript yields a separate argument. When subscript is of the form sub1 .. sub2 it expands to the list of subscripts between sub1 and sub2 inclusive using the same quoting rules as @.${!prefix*}
Expands to the names of the variables whose names begin with prefix.
${parameter:-word} If parameter is set and is non-null then substitute its value; otherwise substitute word.${parameter:=word}
If parameter is not set or is null then set it to word; the value of the parameter is then substituted. Positional parameters may not be assigned to in this way.
${parameter:?word} If parameter is set and is non-null then substitute its value; otherwise, print word and exit from the shell (if not interactive). If word is omitted then a standard message is printed.${parameter:+word}
If parameter is set and is non-null then substitute word; otherwise substitute nothing.
In the above, word is not evaluated unless it is to be used as the substituted string, so that, in the following example, pwd is executed only if d is not set or is null:

print ${d:-$(pwd)}
If the colon ( : ) is omitted from the above expressions, then the shell only checks whether parameter is set or not.
${parameter:offset:length}${parameter:offset}
Expands to the portion of the value of parameter starting at the character (counting from 0) determined by expanding offset as an arithmetic expression and consisting of the number of characters determined by the arithmetic expression defined by length. In the second form, the remainder of the value is used. If A negative offset counts backwards from the end of parameter. Note that one or more blanks is required in front of a minus sign to prevent the shell from interpreting the operator as :-. If parameter is * or @, or is an array name indexed by * or @, then offset and length refer to the array index and number of elements respectively. A negative offset is taken relative to one greater than the highest subscript for indexed arrays. The order for associate arrays is unspecified.
${parameter#pattern}${parameter##pattern}
If the shell pattern matches the beginning of the value of parameter, then the value of this expansion is the value of the parameter with the matched portion deleted; otherwise the value of this parameter is substituted. In the first form the smallest matching pattern is deleted and in the second form the largest matching pattern is deleted. When parameter is @, *, or an array variable with subscript @ or *, the substring operation is applied to each element in turn.
${parameter%pattern}${parameter%%pattern}
If the shell pattern matches the end of the value of parameter, then the value of this expansion is the value of the parameter with the matched part deleted; otherwise substitute the value of parameter. In the first form the smallest matching pattern is deleted and in the second form the largest matching pattern is deleted. When parameter is @, *, or an array variable with subscript @ or *, the substring operation is applied to each element in turn.
${parameter/pattern/string}${parameter//pattern/string}
${parameter/#pattern/string}${parameter/%pattern/string}
Expands parameter and replaces the longest match of pattern with the given string. Each occurrence of \n in string is replaced by the portion of parameter that matches the n-th sub-pattern. In the first form, only the first occurrence of pattern is replaced. In the second form, each match for pattern is replaced by the given string. The third form restricts the pattern match to the beginning of the string while the fourth form restricts the pattern match to the end of the string. When string is null, the pattern will be deleted and the / in front of string may be omitted. When parameter is @, *, or an array variable with subscript @ or *, the substitution operation is applied to each element in turn. In this case, the string portion of word will be re-evaluated for each element.
The following parameters are automatically set by the shell:

 # The number of positional parameters in decimal. - Options supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set command. ? The decimal value returned by the last executed command. $The process number of this shell. _ Initially, the value of _ is an absolute pathname of the shell or script being executed as passed in the environment. Subsequently it is assigned the last argument of the previous command. This parameter is not set for commands which are asynchronous. This parameter is also used to hold the name of the matching MAIL file when checking for mail. While defining a compound variable or a type, _ is initialized as a reference to the compound variable or type. When a discipline function is invoked, _ is initialized as a reference to the variable associated with the call to this function. Finally when _ is used as the name of the first variable of a type definition, the new type is derived from the type of the first variable (See Type Variables below.). ! The process id or the pool name and job number of the last background command invoked or the most recent job put in the background with the bg built-in command. Background jobs started in a named pool will be in the form pool.number where pool is the pool name and number is the job number within that pool. .sh.command When processing a DEBUG trap, this variable contains the current command line that is about to run. .sh.edchar This variable contains the value of the keyboard character (or sequence of characters if the first character is an ESC, ascii 033) that has been entered when processing a KEYBD trap (see Key Bindings below). If the value is changed as part of the trap action, then the new value replaces the key (or key sequence) that caused the trap. .sh.edcol The character position of the cursor at the time of the most recent KEYBD trap. .sh.edmode The value is set to ESC when processing a KEYBD trap while in vi insert mode. (See Vi Editing Mode below.) Otherwise, .sh.edmode is null when processing a KEYBD trap. .sh.edtext The characters in the input buffer at the time of the most recent KEYBD trap. The value is null when not processing a KEYBD trap. .sh.file The pathname of the file than contains the current command. .sh.fun The name of the current function that is being executed. .sh.level Set to the current function depth. This can be changed inside a DEBUG trap and will set the context to the specified level. .sh.lineno Set during a DEBUG trap to the line number for the caller of each function. .sh.match An indexed array which stores the most recent match and sub-pattern matches after conditional pattern matches that match and after variables expansions using the operators #, %, or /. The 0-th element stores the complete match and the i-th. element stores the i-th submatch. The .sh.match variable becomes unset when the variable that has expanded is assigned a new value. .sh.math Used for defining arithmetic functions (see Arithmetic evaluation below). and stores the list of user defined arithmetic functions. .sh.name Set to the name of the variable at the time that a discipline function is invoked. .sh.subscript Set to the name subscript of the variable at the time that a discipline function is invoked. .sh.subshell The current depth for subshells and command substitution. .sh.value Set to the value of the variable at the time that the set or append discipline function is invoked. When a user defined arithmetic function is invoked, the value of .sh.value is saved and .sh.value is set to long double precision floating point. .sh.value is restored when the function returns. .sh.version Set to a value that identifies the version of this shell. KSH_VERSION A name reference to .sh.version. LINENO The current line number within the script or function being executed. OLDPWD The previous working directory set by the cd command. OPTARG The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts built-in command. OPTIND The index of the last option argument processed by the getopts built-in command. PPID The process number of the parent of the shell. PWD The present working directory set by the cd command. RANDOM Each time this variable is referenced, a random integer, uniformly distributed between 0 and 32767, is generated. The sequence of random numbers can be initialized by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM. REPLY This variable is set by the select statement and by the read built-in command when no arguments are supplied. SECONDS Each time this variable is referenced, the number of seconds since shell invocation is returned. If this variable is assigned a value, then the value returned upon reference will be the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since the assignment. SHLVL An integer variable the is incremented each time the shell is invoked and is exported. If SHLVL is not in the environment when the shell is invoked, it is set to 1. The following variables are used by the shell: CDPATH The search path for the cd command. COLUMNS If this variable is set, the value is used to define the width of the edit window for the shell edit modes and for printing select lists. EDITOR If the VISUAL variable is not set, the value of this variable will be checked for the patterns as described with VISUAL below and the corresponding editing option (see Special Command set below) will be turned on. ENV If this variable is set, then parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution are performed on the value to generate the pathname of the script that will be executed when the shell is invoked interactively (see Invocation below). This file is typically used for alias and function definitions. The default value is$HOME/.kshrc. On systems that support a system wide /etc/ksh.kshrc initialization file, if the filename generated by the expansion of ENV begins with /./ or ././ the system wide initialization file will not be executed.
FCEDIT Obsolete name for the default editor name for the hist command. FCEDIT is not used when HISTEDIT is set.
FIGNORE A pattern that defines the set of filenames that will be ignored when performing filename matching.
FPATH The search path for function definitions. The directories in this path are searched for a file with the same name as the function or command when a function with the -u attribute is referenced and when a command is not found. If an executable file with the name of that command is found, then it is read and executed in the current environment. Unlike PATH, the current directory must be represented explicitly by . rather than by adjacent : characters or a beginning or ending :.
HISTCMD Number of the current command in the history file.
HISTEDIT Name for the default editor name for the hist command.
HISTFILE If this variable is set when the shell is invoked, then the value is the pathname of the file that will be used to store the command history (see Command Re-entry below).
HISTSIZE If this variable is set when the shell is invoked, then the number of previously entered commands that are accessible by this shell will be greater than or equal to this number. The default is 512.
HOME The default argument (home directory) for the cd command.
IFS Internal field separators, normally space, tab, and new-line that are used to separate the results of command substitution or parameter expansion and to separate fields with the built-in command read. The first character of the IFS variable is used to separate arguments for the "$*" substitution (see Quoting below). Each single occurrence of an IFS character in the string to be split, that is not in the isspace character class, and any adjacent characters in IFS that are in the isspace character class, delimit a field. One or more characters in IFS that belong to the isspace character class, delimit a field. In addition, if the same isspace character appears consecutively inside IFS, this character is treated as if it were not in the isspace class, so that if IFS consists of two tab characters, then two adjacent tab characters delimit a null field. JOBMAX This variable defines the maximum number running background jobs that can run at a time. When this limit is reached, the shell will wait for a job to complete before staring a new job. LANG This variable determines the locale category for any category not specifically selected with a variable starting with LC_ or LANG. LC_ALL This variable overrides the value of the LANG variable and any other LC_ variable. LC_COLLATE This variable determines the locale category for character collation information. LC_CTYPE This variable determines the locale category for character handling functions. It determines the character classes for pattern matching (see File Name Generation below). LC_NUMERIC This variable determines the locale category for the decimal point character. LINES If this variable is set, the value is used to determine the column length for printing select lists. Select lists will print vertically until about two-thirds of LINES lines are filled. MAIL If this variable is set to the name of a mail file and the MAILPATH variable is not set, then the shell informs the user of arrival of mail in the specified file. MAILCHECK This variable specifies how often (in seconds) the shell will check for changes in the modification time of any of the files specified by the MAILPATH or MAIL variables. The default value is 600 seconds. When the time has elapsed the shell will check before issuing the next prompt. MAILPATH A colon ( : ) separated list of file names. If this variable is set, then the shell informs the user of any modifications to the specified files that have occurred within the last MAILCHECK seconds. Each file name can be followed by a ? and a message that will be printed. The message will undergo parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution with the variable$_ defined as the name of the file that has changed. The default message is you have mail in $_. PATH The search path for commands (see Execution below). The user may not change PATH if executing under (except in .profile). PS1 The value of this variable is expanded for parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution to define the primary prompt string which by default is ‘‘$’’. The character ! in the primary prompt string is replaced by the command number (see Command Re-entry below). Two successive occurrences of ! will produce a single ! when the prompt string is printed.
PS2 Secondary prompt string, by default ‘‘> ’’.
PS3 Selection prompt string used within a select loop, by default ‘‘#? ’’.
PS4 The value of this variable is expanded for parameter evaluation, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution and precedes each line of an execution trace. By default, PS4 is ‘‘+ ’’. In addition when PS4 is unset, the execution trace prompt is also ‘‘+ ’’.
SHELL The pathname of the shell is kept in the environment. At invocation, if the basename of this variable is rsh, rksh, or krsh, then the shell becomes restricted. If it is pfsh or pfksh, then the shell becomes a profile shell (see pfexec(1)).
TIMEFORMAT The value of this parameter is used as a format string specifying how the timing information for pipelines prefixed with the time reserved word should be displayed. The % character introduces a format sequence that is expanded to a time value or other information. The format sequences and their meanings are as follows.

 %% A literal %. %[p][l]R The elapsed time in seconds. %[p][l]U The number of CPU seconds spent in user mode. %[p][l]S The number of CPU seconds spent in system mode. %P The CPU percentage, computed as (U + S) / R.

The brackets denote optional portions. The optional p is a digit specifying the precision, the number of fractional digits after a decimal point. A value of 0 causes no decimal point or fraction to be output. At most three places after the decimal point can be displayed; values of p greater than 3 are treated as 3. If p is not specified, the value 3 is used.
The optional l specifies a longer format, including hours if greater than zero, minutes, and seconds of the form HHhMMmSS.FFs. The value of p determines whether or not the fraction is included.
All other characters are output without change and a trailing newline is added. If unset, the default value, $’\nreal\t%2lR\nuser\t%2lU\nsys %2lS’, is used. If the value is null, no timing information is displayed. TMOUT If set to a value greater than zero, TMOUT will be the default timeout value for the read built-in command. The select compound command terminates after TMOUT seconds when input is from a terminal. Otherwise, the shell will terminate if a line is not entered within the prescribed number of seconds while reading from a terminal. (Note that the shell can be compiled with a maximum bound for this value which cannot be exceeded.) VISUAL If the value of this variable matches the pattern *[Vv][Ii]*, then the vi option (see Special Command set below) is turned on. If the value matches the pattern *gmacs* , the gmacs option is turned on. If the value matches the pattern *macs*, then the emacs option will be turned on. The value of VISUAL overrides the value of EDITOR. The shell gives default values to PATH, PS1, PS2, PS3, PS4, MAILCHECK, FCEDIT, TMOUT and IFS, while HOME, SHELL, ENV, and MAIL are not set at all by the shell (although HOME is set by login(1)). On some systems MAIL and SHELL are also set by login(1). #### Field Splitting. After parameter expansion and command substitution, the results of substitutions are scanned for the field separator characters (those found in IFS ) and split into distinct fields where such characters are found. Explicit null fields ("" or '') are retained. Implicit null fields (those resulting from parameters that have no values or command substitutions with no output) are removed. If the braceexpand (-B) option is set then each of the fields resulting from IFS are checked to see if they contain one or more of the brace patterns {*,*}, {l1..l2} , {n1..n2} , {n1..n2% fmt} , {n1..n2 ..n3} , or {n1..n2 ..n3%fmt} , where * represents any character, l1,l2 are letters and n1,n2,n3 are signed numbers and fmt is a format specified as used by printf. In each case, fields are created by prepending the characters before the { and appending the characters after the } to each of the strings generated by the characters between the { and }. The resulting fields are checked to see if they have any brace patterns. In the first form, a field is created for each string between { and ,, between , and ,, and between , and }. The string represented by * can contain embedded matching { and } without quoting. Otherwise, each { and } with * must be quoted. In the seconds form, l1 and l2 must both be either upper case or both be lower case characters in the C locale. In this case a field is created for each character from l1 thru l2. In the remaining forms, a field is created for each number starting at n1 and continuing until it reaches n2 incrementing n1 by n3. The cases where n3 is not specified behave as if n3 where 1 if n1<=n2 and -1 otherwise. If forms which specify %fmt any format flags, widths and precisions can be specified and fmt can end in any of the specifiers cdiouxX. For example, {a,z}{1..5..3%02d}{b..c}x expands to the 8 fields, a01bx, a01cx, a04bx, a04cx, z01bx, z01cx, z04bx and z4cx. #### File Name Generation. Following splitting, each field is scanned for the characters *, ?, (, and [ unless the -f option has been set. If one of these characters appears, then the word is regarded as a pattern. Each file name component that contains any pattern character is replaced with a lexicographically sorted set of names that matches the pattern from that directory. If no file name is found that matches the pattern, then that component of the filename is left unchanged unless the pattern is prefixed with ~(N) in which case it is removed as described below. If FIGNORE is set, then each file name component that matches the pattern defined by the value of FIGNORE is ignored when generating the matching filenames. The names . and .. are also ignored. If FIGNORE is not set, the character . at the start of each file name component will be ignored unless the first character of the pattern corresponding to this component is the character . itself. Note, that for other uses of pattern matching the / and . are not treated specially.  * Matches any string, including the null string. When used for filename expansion, if the globstar option is on, two adjacent *’s by itself will match all files and zero or more directories and subdirectories. If followed by a / then only directories and subdirectories will match. ? Matches any single character. [...] Matches any one of the enclosed characters. A pair of characters separated by - matches any character lexically between the pair, inclusive. If the first character following the opening [ is a ! or ^ then any character not enclosed is matched. A - can be included in the character set by putting it as the first or last character. Within [ and ], character classes can be specified with the syntax [:class:] where class is one of the following classes defined in the ANSI-C standard: (Note that word is equivalent to alnum plus the character _.) alnum alpha blank cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper word xdigit Within [ and ], an equivalence class can be specified with the syntax [=c=] which matches all characters with the same primary collation weight (as defined by the current locale) as the character c. Within [ and ], [.symbol.] matches the collating symbol symbol. A pattern-list is a list of one or more patterns separated from each other with a & or |. A & signifies that all patterns must be matched whereas | requires that only one pattern be matched. Composite patterns can be formed with one or more of the following sub-patterns:  ?(pattern-list) Optionally matches any one of the given patterns. *(pattern-list) Matches zero or more occurrences of the given patterns. +(pattern-list) Matches one or more occurrences of the given patterns. {n}(pattern-list) Matches n occurrences of the given patterns. {m,n}(pattern-list) Matches from m to n occurrences of the given patterns. If m is omitted, 0 will be used. If n is omitted at least m occurrences will be matched. @(pattern-list) Matches exactly one of the given patterns. !(pattern-list) Matches anything except one of the given patterns. By default, each pattern, or sub-pattern will match the longest string possible consistent with generating the longest overall match. If more than one match is possible, the one starting closest to the beginning of the string will be chosen. However, for each of the above compound patterns a - can be inserted in front of the ( to cause the shortest match to the specified pattern-list to be used. When pattern-list is contained within parentheses, the backslash character \ is treated specially even when inside a character class. All ANSI-C character escapes are recognized and match the specified character. In addition the following escape sequences are recognized:  \d Matches any character in the digit class. \D Matches any character not in the digit class. \s Matches any character in the space class. \S Matches any character not in the space class. \w Matches any character in the word class. \W Matches any character not in the word class. A pattern of the form %(pattern-pair(s)) is a sub-pattern that can be used to match nested character expressions. Each pattern-pair is a two character sequence which cannot contain & or |. The first pattern-pair specifies the starting and ending characters for the match. Each subsequent pattern-pair represents the beginning and ending characters of a nested group that will be skipped over when counting starting and ending character matches. The behavior is unspecified when the first character of a pattern-pair is alpha-numeric except for the following:  D Causes the ending character to terminate the search for this pattern without finding a match. E Causes the ending character to be interpreted as an escape character. L Causes the ending character to be interpreted as a quote character causing all characters to be ignored when looking for a match. Q Causes the ending character to be interpreted as a quote character causing all characters other than any escape character to be ignored when looking for a match. Thus, %({}Q"E\), matches characters starting at { until the matching } is found not counting any { or } that is inside a double quoted string or preceded by the escape character \. Without the {} this pattern matches any C language string. Each sub-pattern in a composite pattern is numbered, starting at 1, by the location of the ( within the pattern. The sequence \n, where n is a single digit and \n comes after the n-th. sub-pattern, matches the same string as the sub-pattern itself. Finally a pattern can contain sub-patterns of the form ~(options:pattern-list), where either options or :pattern-list can be omitted. Unlike the other compound patterns, these sub-patterns are not counted in the numbered sub-patterns. :pattern-list must be omitted for options F, G, N , and V below. If options is present, it can consist of one or more of the following:  + Enable the following options. This is the default. - Disable the following options. E The remainder of the pattern uses extended regular expression syntax like the egrep(1) command. F The remainder of the pattern uses fgrep(1) expression syntax. G The remainder of the pattern uses basic regular expression syntax like the grep(1) command. K The remainder of the pattern uses shell pattern syntax. This is the default. N This is ignored. However, when it is the first letter and is used with file name generation, and no matches occur, the file pattern expands to the empty string. X The remainder of the pattern uses augmented regular expression syntax like the xgrep(1) command. P The remainder of the pattern uses perl(1) regular expression syntax. Not all perl regular expression syntax is currently implemented. V The remainder of the pattern uses System V regular expression syntax. i Treat the match as case insensitive. g File the longest match (greedy). This is the default. l Left anchor the pattern. This is the default for K style patterns. r Right anchor the pattern. This is the default for K style patterns. If both options and :pattern-list are specified, then the options apply only to pattern-list. Otherwise, these options remain in effect until they are disabled by a subsequent ~(...) or at the end of the sub-pattern containing ~(...). #### Quoting. Each of the metacharacters listed earlier (see Definitions above) has a special meaning to the shell and causes termination of a word unless quoted. A character may be quoted (i.e., made to stand for itself) by preceding it with a \. The pair \new-line is removed. All characters enclosed between a pair of single quote marks ('') that is not preceded by a$ are quoted. A single quote cannot appear within the single quotes. A single quoted string preceded by an unquoted $is processed as an ANSI-C string except for the following:  \0 Causes the remainder of the string to be ignored. \E Equivalent to the escape character (ascii 033), \e Equivalent to the escape character (ascii 033), \cx Expands to the character control-x. \C[.name.] Expands to the collating element name. Inside double quote marks (""), parameter and command substitution occur and \ quotes the characters \, , ", and$. A $in front of a double quoted string will be ignored in the "C" or "POSIX" locale, and may cause the string to be replaced by a locale specific string otherwise. The meaning of$* and $@ is identical when not quoted or when used as a variable assignment value or as a file name. However, when used as a command argument, "$*" is equivalent to "$1d$2d...", where d is the first character of the IFS variable, whereas "$@" is equivalent to "$1" "$2" .... Inside grave quote marks (), \ quotes the characters \, , and$. If the grave quotes occur within double quotes, then \ also quotes the character ".

The special meaning of reserved words or aliases can be removed by quoting any character of the reserved word. The recognition of function names or built-in command names listed below cannot be altered by quoting them.

#### Arithmetic Evaluation.

The shell performs arithmetic evaluation for arithmetic substitution, to evaluate an arithmetic command, to evaluate an indexed array subscript, and to evaluate arguments to the built-in commands shift and let. Evaluations are performed using double precision floating point arithmetic or long double precision floating point for systems that provide this data type. Floating point constants follow the ANSI-C programming language floating point conventions. The floating point constants Nan and Inf can be use to represent "not a number" and infinity respectively. Integer constants follow the ANSI-C programming language integer constant conventions although only single byte character constants are recognized and character casts are not recognized. In addition constants can be of the form [base#]n where base is a decimal number between two and sixty-four representing the arithmetic base and n is a number in that base. The digits above 9 are represented by the lower case letters, the upper case letters, @, and _ respectively. For bases less than or equal to 36, upper and lower case characters can be used interchangeably.

An arithmetic expression uses the same syntax, precedence, and associativity of expression as the C language. All the C language operators that apply to floating point quantities can be used. In addition, the operator ** can be used for exponentiation. It has higher precedence than multiplication and is left associative. In addition, when the value of an arithmetic variable or sub-expression can be represented as a long integer, all C language integer arithmetic operations can be performed. Variables can be referenced by name within an arithmetic expression without using the parameter expansion syntax. When a variable is referenced, its value is evaluated as an arithmetic expression.

Any of the following math library functions that are in the C math library can be used within an arithmetic expression:

abs acos acosh asin asinh atan atan2 atanh cbrt ceil copysign cos cosh erf erfc exp exp2 expm1 fabs fpclassify fdim finite floor fma fmax fmod j0 j1 jn hypot ilogb int isfinite isinf isnan isnormal issubnormal issubordered iszero lgamma log log10 log2 logb nearbyint nextafter nexttoward pow rint round scalb signbit sin sinh sqrt tan tanh tgamma trunc y0 y1 yn
In addition, arithmetic functions can be define as shell functions with a variant of the function name syntax,
function .sh.math.name ident ... { list ;}
where name is the function name used in the arithmetic expression and each identifier, ident is a name reference to the long double precision floating point argument. The value of .sh.value when the function returns is the value of this function. User defined functions can take up to 3 arguments and override C math library functions.
An internal representation of a variable as a double precision floating point can be specified with the -E [n], -F [n], or -X [n] option of the typeset special built-in command. The -E option causes the expansion of the value to be represented using scientific notation when it is expanded. The optional option argument n defines the number of significant figures. The -F option causes the expansion to be represented as a floating decimal number when it is expanded. The -X option cause the expansion to be represented using the %a format defined by ISO C-99. The optional option argument n defines the number of places after the decimal (or radix) point in this case.

An internal integer representation of a variable can be specified with the -i [n] option of the typeset special built-in command. The optional option argument n specifies an arithmetic base to be used when expanding the variable. If you do not specify an arithmetic base, base 10 will be used.

Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each assignment to a variable with the -E, -F, -X, or -i attribute. Assigning a floating point number to a variable whose type is an integer causes the fractional part to be truncated.

#### Prompting.

When used interactively, the shell prompts with the value of PS1 after expanding it for parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution, before reading a command. In addition, each single ! in the prompt is replaced by the command number. A !! is required to place ! in the prompt. If at any time a new-line is typed and further input is needed to complete a command, then the secondary prompt (i.e., the value of PS2) is issued.

#### Conditional Expressions.

A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command to test attributes of files and to compare strings. Field splitting and file name generation are not performed on the words between [[ and ]]. Each expression can be constructed from one or more of the following unary or binary expressions:
 string True, if string is not null. -a file Same as -e below. This is obsolete. -b file True, if file exists and is a block special file. -c file True, if file exists and is a character special file. -d file True, if file exists and is a directory. -e file True, if file exists. -f file True, if file exists and is an ordinary file. -g file True, if file exists and it has its setgid bit set. -k file True, if file exists and it has its sticky bit set. -n string True, if length of string is non-zero. -o ?option True, if option named option is a valid option name. -o option True, if option named option is on. -p file True, if file exists and is a fifo special file or a pipe. -r file True, if file exists and is readable by current process. -s file True, if file exists and has size greater than zero. -t fildes True, if file descriptor number fildes is open and associated with a terminal device. -u file True, if file exists and it has its setuid bit set. -v name True, if variable name is a valid variable name and is set. -w file True, if file exists and is writable by current process. -x file True, if file exists and is executable by current process. If file exists and is a directory, then true if the current process has permission to search in the directory. -z string True, if length of string is zero. -L file True, if file exists and is a symbolic link. -h file True, if file exists and is a symbolic link. -N file True, if file exists and the modification time is greater than the last access time. -O file True, if file exists and is owned by the effective user id of this process. -G file True, if file exists and its group matches the effective group id of this process. -R name True if variable name is a name reference. -S file True, if file exists and is a socket. file1 -nt file2 True, if file1 exists and file2 does not, or file1 is newer than file2. file1 -ot file2 True, if file2 exists and file1 does not, or file1 is older than file2. file1 -ef file2 True, if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file. string == pattern True, if string matches pattern. Any part of pattern can be quoted to cause it to be matched as a string. With a successful match to a pattern, the .sh.match array variable will contain the match and sub-pattern matches. string = pattern Same as == above, but is obsolete. string != pattern True, if string does not match pattern. When the string matches the pattern the .sh.match array variable will contain the match and sub-pattern matches. string =~ ere True if string matches the pattern ~(E)ere where ere is an extended regular expression. string1 < string2 True, if string1 comes before string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. string1 > string2 True, if string1 comes after string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. The following obsolete arithmetic comparisons are also permitted: exp1 -eq exp2 True, if exp1 is equal to exp2. exp1 -ne exp2 True, if exp1 is not equal to exp2. exp1 -lt exp2 True, if exp1 is less than exp2. exp1 -gt exp2 True, if exp1 is greater than exp2. exp1 -le exp2 True, if exp1 is less than or equal to exp2. exp1 -ge exp2 True, if exp1 is greater than or equal to exp2. In each of the above expressions, if file is of the form /dev/fd/n, where n is an integer, then the test is applied to the open file whose descriptor number is n. A compound expression can be constructed from these primitives by using any of the following, listed in decreasing order of precedence. (expression) True, if expression is true. Used to group expressions. ! expression True if expression is false. expression1 && expression2 True, if expression1 and expression2 are both true. expression1 || expression2 True, if either expression1 or expression2 is true.

#### Input/Output.

Before a command is executed, its input and output may be redirected using a special notation interpreted by the shell. The following may appear anywhere in a simple-command or may precede or follow a command and are not passed on to the invoked command. Command substitution, parameter expansion, and arithmetic substitution occur before word or digit is used except as noted below. File name generation occurs only if the shell is interactive and the pattern matches a single file. Field splitting is not performed.

In each of the following redirections, if file is of the form /dev/sctp/host/port, /dev/tcp/host/port, or /dev/udp/host/port, where host is a hostname or host address, and port is a service given by name or an integer port number, then the redirection attempts to make a tcp, sctp or udp connection to the corresponding socket.

No intervening space is allowed between the characters of redirection operators.
<word Use file word as standard input (file descriptor 0).
>word Use file word as standard output (file descriptor 1). If the file does not exist then it is created. If the file exists, and the noclobber option is on, this causes an error; otherwise, it is truncated to zero length.
>|word Same as >, except that it overrides the noclobber option.
>;word Write output to a temporary file. If the command completes successfully rename it to word, otherwise, delete the temporary file. >;word cannot be used with the exec(2). built-in.
>>word Use file word as standard output. If the file exists, then output is appended to it (by first seeking to the end-of-file); otherwise, the file is created.
<>word Open file word for reading and writing as standard output.
<>;word The same as <>word except that if the command completes successfully, word is truncated to the offset at command completion. <>;word cannot be used with the exec(2). built-in.

#### In-line Editing Options.

Normally, each command line entered from a terminal device is simply typed followed by a new-line (‘RETURN’ or ‘LINE FEED’). If either the emacs, gmacs, or vi option is active, the user can edit the command line. To be in either of these edit modes set the corresponding option. An editing option is automatically selected each time the VISUAL or EDITOR variable is assigned a value ending in either of these option names.

The editing features require that the user’s terminal accept ‘RETURN’ as carriage return without line feed and that a space (‘ ’) must overwrite the current character on the screen.

Unless the multiline option is on, the editing modes implement a concept where the user is looking through a window at the current line. The window width is the value of COLUMNS if it is defined, otherwise 80. If the window width is too small to display the prompt and leave at least 8 columns to enter input, the prompt is truncated from the left. If the line is longer than the window width minus two, a mark is displayed at the end of the window to notify the user. As the cursor moves and reaches the window boundaries the window will be centered about the cursor. The mark is a > (<, *) if the line extends on the right (left, both) side(s) of the window.

The search commands in each edit mode provide access to the history file. Only strings are matched, not patterns, although a leading ^ in the string restricts the match to begin at the first character in the line.

Each of the edit modes has an operation to list the files or commands that match a partially entered word. When applied to the first word on the line, or the first word after a ;, |, &, or (, and the word does not begin with ~ or contain a /, the list of aliases, functions, and executable commands defined by the PATH variable that could match the partial word is displayed. Otherwise, the list of files that match the given word is displayed. If the partially entered word does not contain any file expansion characters, a * is appended before generating these lists. After displaying the generated list, the input line is redrawn. These operations are called command name listing and file name listing, respectively. There are additional operations, referred to as command name completion and file name completion, which compute the list of matching commands or files, but instead of printing the list, replace the current word with a complete or partial match. For file name completion, if the match is unique, a / is appended if the file is a directory and a space is appended if the file is not a directory. Otherwise, the longest common prefix for all the matching files replaces the word. For command name completion, only the portion of the file names after the last / are used to find the longest command prefix. If only a single name matches this prefix, then the word is replaced with the command name followed by a space. When using a tab for completion that does not yield a unique match, a subsequent tab will provide a numbered list of matching alternatives. A specific selection can be made by entering the selection number followed by a tab.

#### Key Bindings.

The KEYBD trap can be used to intercept keys as they are typed and change the characters that are actually seen by the shell. This trap is executed after each character (or sequence of characters when the first character is ESC) is entered while reading from a terminal. The variable .sh.edchar contains the character or character sequence which generated the trap. Changing the value of .sh.edchar in the trap action causes the shell to behave as if the new value were entered from the keyboard rather than the original value.

#### Search Edit Commands

These commands access your command history.
 [count]k Fetch previous command. Each time k is entered the previous command back in time is accessed. [count]- Equivalent to k. [count][A If cursor is at the end of the line it is equivalent to / with string^ set to the contents of the current line. Otherwise, it is equivalent to k. [count]j Fetch next command. Each time j is entered the next command forward in time is accessed. [count]+ Equivalent to j. [count][B Equivalent to j. [count]G The command number count is fetched. The default is the least recent history command. /string Search backward through history for a previous command containing string. String is terminated by a ‘RETURN’ or ‘NEW LINE’. If string is preceded by a ^, the matched line must begin with string. If string is null, the previous string will be used. ?string Same as / except that search will be in the forward direction. n Search for next match of the last pattern to / or ? commands. N Search for next match of the last pattern to / or ?, but in reverse direction.

#### Text Modification Edit Commands

These commands will modify the line.

#### Built-in Commands.

The following simple-commands are executed in the shell process. Input/Output redirection is permitted. Unless otherwise indicated, the output is written on file descriptor 1 and the exit status, when there is no syntax error, is zero. Except for :, true, false, echo, newgrp, and login, all built-in commands accept -- to indicate end of options. They also interpret the option --man as a request to display the man page onto standard error and -? as a help request which prints a usage message on standard error. Commands that are preceded by one or two † symbols are special built-in commands and are treated specially in the following ways:
1. Variable assignment lists preceding the command remain in effect when the command completes.
2. I/O redirections are processed after variable assignments.
3. Errors cause a script that contains them to abort.
4. They are not valid function names.
5. Words following a command preceded by †† that are in the format of a variable assignment are expanded with the same rules as a variable assignment. This means that tilde substitution is performed after the = sign and field splitting and file name generation are not performed. These are called declaration built-ins.
: [ arg ... ]
The command only expands parameters.
. name [ arg ... ]
If name is a function defined with the function name reserved word syntax, the function is executed in the current environment (as if it had been defined with the name() syntax.) Otherwise if name refers to a file, the file is read in its entirety and the commands are executed in the current shell environment. The search path specified by PATH is used to find the directory containing the file. If any arguments arg are given, they become the positional parameters while processing the . command and the original positional parameters are restored upon completion. Otherwise the positional parameters are unchanged. The exit status is the exit status of the last command executed.
†† alias [ -ptx ] [ name[ =value ] ] ...
alias with no arguments prints the list of aliases in the form name=value on standard output. The -p option causes the word alias to be inserted before each one. When one or more arguments are given, an alias is defined for each name whose value is given. A trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias substitution. The obsolete -t option is used to set and list tracked aliases. The value of a tracked alias is the full pathname corresponding to the given name. The value becomes undefined when the value of PATH is reset but the alias remains tracked. Without the -t option, for each name in the argument list for which no value is given, the name and value of the alias is printed. The obsolete -x option has no effect. The exit status is non-zero if a name is given, but no value, and no alias has been defined for the name.
bg [ job... ]
This command is only on systems that support job control. Puts each specified job into the background. The current job is put in the background if job is not specified. See Jobs for a description of the format of job.
break [ n ]
Exit from the enclosing for, while, until, or select loop, if any. If n is specified, then break n levels.
builtin [ -ds ] [ -f file ] [ name ... ]
If name is not specified, and no -f option is specified, the built-ins are printed on standard output. The -s option prints only the special built-ins. Otherwise, each name represents the pathname whose basename is the name of the built-in. The entry point function name is determined by prepending b_ to the built-in name. A built-in specified by a pathname will only be executed when that pathname would be found during the path search. Built-ins found in libraries loaded via the .paths file will be associate with the pathname of the directory containing the .paths file.
The ISO C/C++ prototype is b_mycommand(int argc, char *argv[], void *context) for the builtin command mycommand where argv is array an of argc elements and context is an optional pointer to a Shell_t structure as described in <ast/shell.h>.

Special built-ins cannot be bound to a pathname or deleted. The -d option deletes each of the given built-ins. On systems that support dynamic loading, the -f option names a shared library containing the code for built-ins. The shared library prefix and/or suffix, which depend on the system, can be omitted. Once a library is loaded, its symbols become available for subsequent invocations of builtin. Multiple libraries can be specified with separate invocations of the builtin command. Libraries are searched in the reverse order in which they are specified. When a library is loaded, it looks for a function in the library whose name is lib_init() and invokes this function with an argument of 0.

cd [ -LP ] [ arg ]
cd [ -LP ] old new
This command can be in either of two forms. In the first form it changes the current directory to arg. If arg is - the directory is changed to the previous directory. The shell variable HOME is the default arg. The variable PWD is set to the current directory. The shell variable CDPATH defines the search path for the directory containing arg. Alternative directory names are separated by a colon (:). The default path is <null> (specifying the current directory). Note that the current directory is specified by a null path name, which can appear immediately after the equal sign or between the colon delimiters anywhere else in the path list. If arg begins with a / then the search path is not used. Otherwise, each directory in the path is searched for arg.

The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the current directory name, PWD, and tries to change to this new directory.

By default, symbolic link names are treated literally when finding the directory name. This is equivalent to the -L option. The -P option causes symbolic links to be resolved when determining the directory. The last instance of -L or -P on the command line determines which method is used.

The cd command may not be executed by

command [ -pvxV ] name [ arg ... ]
Without the -v or -V options, command executes name with the arguments given by arg. The -p option causes a default path to be searched rather than the one defined by the value of PATH. Functions will not be searched for when finding name. In addition, if name refers to a special built-in, none of the special properties associated with the leading daggers will be honored. (For example, the predefined alias redirect='command exec' prevents a script from terminating when an invalid redirection is given.) With the -x option, if command execution would result in a failure because there are too many arguments, errno E2BIG, the shell will invoke command name multiple times with a subset of the arguments on each invocation. Arguments that occur prior to the first word that expands to multiple arguments and after the last word that expands to multiple arguments will be passed on each invocation. The exit status will be the maximum invocation exit status. With the -v option, command is equivalent to the built-in whence command described below. The -V option causes command to act like whence -v.
continue [ n ]
Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, or select loop. If n is specified, then resume at the n-th enclosing loop.
disown [ job... ]
Causes the shell not to send a HUP signal to each given job, or all active jobs if job is omitted, when a login shell terminates.
echo [ arg ... ]
When the first arg does not begin with a -, and none of the arguments contain a \, then echo prints each of its arguments separated by a space and terminated by a new-line. Otherwise, the behavior of echo is system dependent and print or printf described below should be used. See echo(1) for usage and description.
†† enum [ -i ] type[=(value ...) ]
Creates a declaration command named type that is an integer type that allows one of the specified values as enumeration names. If =(value ...) is omitted, then type must be an indexed array variable with at least two elements and the values are taken from this array variable. If -i is specified the values are case insensitive.
eval [ arg ... ]
The arguments are read as input to the shell and the resulting command(s) executed.
exec [ -c ] [ -a name ] [ arg ... ]
If arg is given, the command specified by the arguments is executed in place of this shell without creating a new process. The -c option causes the environment to be cleared before applying variable assignments associated with the exec invocation. The -a option causes name rather than the first arg, to become argv[0] for the new process. Input/output arguments may appear and affect the current process. If arg is not given, the effect of this command is to modify file descriptors as prescribed by the input/output redirection list. In this case, any file descriptor numbers greater than 2 that are opened with this mechanism are closed when invoking another program.
exit [ n ]
Causes the shell to exit with the exit status specified by n. The value will be the least significant 8 bits of the specified status. If n is omitted, then the exit status is that of the last command executed. An end-of-file will also cause the shell to exit except for a shell which has the ignoreeof option (see set below) turned on.
†† export [ -p ] [ name[=value] ] ...
If name is not given, the names and values of each variable with the export attribute are printed with the values quoted in a manner that allows them to be re-input. The export command is the same as typeset -x except that if you use export within a function, no local variable is created. The -p option causes the word export to be inserted before each one. Otherwise, the given names are marked for automatic export to the environment of subsequently-executed commands.
false Does nothing, and exits 1. Used with until for infinite loops.
fg [ job... ]
This command is only on systems that support job control. Each job specified is brought to the foreground and waited for in the specified order. Otherwise, the current job is brought into the foreground. See Jobs for a description of the format of job.
getconf [ name [ pathname ] ]
Prints the current value of the configuration parameter given by name. The configuration parameters are defined by the IEEE POSIX 1003.1 and IEEE POSIX 1003.2 standards. (See pathconf(2) and sysconf(2).) The pathname argument is required for parameters whose value depends on the location in the file system. If no arguments are given, getconf prints the names and values of the current configuration parameters. The pathname / is used for each of the parameters that requires pathname.
getopts [ -a name ] optstring vname [ arg ... ]
Checks arg for legal options. If arg is omitted, the positional parameters are used. An option argument begins with a + or a -. An option not beginning with + or - or the argument -- ends the options. Options beginning with + are only recognized when optstring begins with a +. optstring contains the letters that getopts recognizes. If a letter is followed by a :, that option is expected to have an argument. The options can be separated from the argument by blanks. The option -? causes getopts to generate a usage message on standard error. The -a argument can be used to specify the name to use for the usage message, which defaults to $0. getopts places the next option letter it finds inside variable vname each time it is invoked. The option letter will be prepended with a + when arg begins with a +. The index of the next arg is stored in OPTIND. The option argument, if any, gets stored in OPTARG. A leading : in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of an invalid option in OPTARG, and to set vname to ? for an unknown option and to : when a required option argument is missing. Otherwise, getopts prints an error message. The exit status is non-zero when there are no more options. There is no way to specify any of the options :, +, -, ?, [, and ]. The option # can only be specified as the first option. hist [ -e ename ] [ -nlr ] [ first [ last ] ] hist -s [ old\=new ] [ command ] In the first form, a range of commands from first to last is selected from the last HISTSIZE commands that were typed at the terminal. The arguments first and last may be specified as a number or as a string. A string is used to locate the most recent command starting with the given string. A negative number is used as an offset to the current command number. If the -l option is selected, the commands are listed on standard output. Otherwise, the editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these keyboard commands. If ename is not supplied, then the value of the variable HISTEDIT is used. If HISTEDIT is not set, then FCEDIT (default /bin/ed) is used as the editor. When editing is complete, the edited command(s) is executed if the changes have been saved. If last is not specified, then it will be set to first. If first is not specified, the default is the previous command for editing and -16 for listing. The option -r reverses the order of the commands and the option -n suppresses command numbers when listing. In the second form, command is interpreted as first described above and defaults to the last command executed. The resulting command is executed after the optional substitution old=new is performed. jobs [ -lnp ] [ job ... ] Lists information about each given job; or all active jobs if job is omitted. The -l option lists process ids in addition to the normal information. The -n option only displays jobs that have stopped or exited since last notified. The -p option causes only the process group to be listed. See Jobs for a description of the format of job. kill [ -s signame ] job ... kill [ -n signum ] job ... kill -Ll [ sig ... ] Sends either the TERM (terminate) signal or the specified signal to the specified jobs or processes. Signals are either given by number with the -n option or by name with the -s option (as given in <signal.h>, stripped of the prefix ‘‘SIG’’ with the exception that SIGCLD is named CHLD). For backward compatibility, the n and s can be omitted and the number or name placed immediately after the -. If the signal being sent is TERM (terminate) or HUP (hangup), then the job or process will be sent a CONT (continue) signal if it is stopped. The argument job can be the process id of a process that is not a member of one of the active jobs. See Jobs for a description of the format of job. In the third form, kill -l, or kill -L, if sig is not specified, the signal names are listed. The -l option list only the signal names. -L options lists each signal name and corresponding number. Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed. For each sig that is a number, the signal name corresponding to the least significant 8 bits of sig is listed. let arg ... Each arg is a separate arithmetic expression to be evaluated. let only recognizes octal constants starting with 0 when the set option letoctal is on. See Arithmetic Evaluation above, for a description of arithmetic expression evaluation. The exit status is 0 if the value of the last expression is non-zero, and 1 otherwise. newgrp [ arg ... ] Equivalent to exec /bin/newgrp arg .... print [ -CRenprsv ] [ -u unit] [ -f format ] [ arg ... ] With no options or with option - or --, each arg is printed on standard output. The -f option causes the arguments to be printed as described by printf. In this case, any e, n, r, R options are ignored. Otherwise, unless the -C, -R, -r, or -v are specified, the following escape conventions will be applied:  \a The alert character (ascii 07). \b The backspace character (ascii 010). \c Causes print to end without processing more arguments and not adding a new-line. \f The formfeed character (ascii 014). \n The new-line character (ascii 012). \r The carriage return character (ascii 015). \t The tab character (ascii 011). \v The vertical tab character (ascii 013). \E The escape character (ascii 033). \\ The backslash character \. \0x The character defined by the 1, 2, or 3-digit octal string given by x. The -R option will print all subsequent arguments and options other than -n. The -e causes the above escape conventions to be applied. This is the default behavior. It reverses the effect of an earlier -r. The -p option causes the arguments to be written onto the pipe of the process spawned with |& instead of standard output. The -v option treats each arg as a variable name and writes the value in the printf %B format. The -C option treats each arg as a variable name and writes the value in the printf %#B format. The -s option causes the arguments to be written onto the history file instead of standard output. The -u option can be used to specify a one digit file descriptor unit number unit on which the output will be placed. The default is 1. If the option -n is used, no new-line is added to the output. printf format [ arg ... ] The arguments arg are printed on standard output in accordance with the ANSI-C formatting rules associated with the format string format. If the number of arguments exceeds the number of format specifications, the format string is reused to format remaining arguments. The following extensions can also be used:  %b A %b format can be used instead of %s to cause escape sequences in the corresponding arg to be expanded as described in print. %B A %B option causes each of the arguments to be treated as variable names and the binary value of variable will be printed. The alternate flag # causes a compound variable to be output on a single line. This is most useful for compound variables and variables whose attribute is -b. %H A %H format can be used instead of %s to cause characters in arg that are special in HTML and XML to be output as their entity name. The alternate flag # formats the output for use as a URI. %P A %P format can be used instead of %s to cause arg to be interpreted as an extended regular expression and be printed as a shell pattern. %R A %R format can be used instead of %s to cause arg to be interpreted as a shell pattern and to be printed as an extended regular expression. %q A %q format can be used instead of %s to cause the resulting string to be quoted in a manner than can be reinput to the shell. When q is preceded by the alternative format specifier, #, the string is quoted in manner suitable as a field in a .csv format file. %(date-format)T A %(date-format)T format can be use to treat an argument as a date/time string and to format the date/time according to the date-format as defined for the date(1) command. %Z A %Z format will output a byte whose value is 0. %d The precision field of the %d format can be followed by a . and the output base. In this case, the # flag character causes base# to be prepended. # The # flag, when used with the %d format without an output base, displays the output in powers of 1000 indicated by one of the following suffixes: k M G T P E, and when used with the %i format displays the output in powers of 1024 indicated by one of the following suffixes: Ki Mi Gi Ti Pi Ei. = The = flag centers the output within the specified field width. L The L flag, when used with the %c or %s formats, treats precision as character width instead of byte count. , The , flag, when used with the %d or %f formats, separates groups of digits with the grouping delimiter (, on groups of 3 in the C locale.) pwd [ -LP ] Outputs the value of the current working directory. The -L option is the default; it prints the logical name of the current directory. If the -P option is given, all symbolic links are resolved from the name. The last instance of -L or -P on the command line determines which method is used. read [ -ACSprsv ] [ -d delim] [ -n n] [ [ -N n] [ [ -t timeout] [ -u unit] [ vname?prompt ] [ vname ... ] The shell input mechanism. One line is read and is broken up into fields using the characters in IFS as separators. The escape character, \, is used to remove any special meaning for the next character and for line continuation. The -d option causes the read to continue to the first character of delim rather than new-line. The -n option causes at most n bytes to read rather a full line but will return when reading from a slow device as soon as any characters have been read. The -N option causes exactly n to be read unless an end-of-file has been encountered or the read times out because of the -t option. In raw mode, -r, the \ character is not treated specially. The first field is assigned to the first vname, the second field to the second vname, etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last vname. When vname has the binary attribute and -n or -N is specified, the bytes that are read are stored directly into the variable. If the -v is specified, then the value of the first vname will be used as a default value when reading from a terminal device. The -A option causes the variable vname to be unset and each field that is read to be stored in successive elements of the indexed array vname. The -C option causes the variable vname to be read as a compound variable. Blanks will be ignored when finding the beginning open parenthesis. The -S option causes the line to be treated like a record in a .csv format file so that double quotes can be used to allow the delimiter character and the new-line character to appear within a field. The -p option causes the input line to be taken from the input pipe of a process spawned by the shell using |&. If the -s option is present, the input will be saved as a command in the history file. The option -u can be used to specify a one digit file descriptor unit unit to read from. The file descriptor can be opened with the exec special built-in command. The default value of unit n is 0. The option -t is used to specify a timeout in seconds when reading from a terminal or pipe. If vname is omitted, then REPLY is used as the default vname. An end-of-file with the -p option causes cleanup for this process so that another can be spawned. If the first argument contains a ?, the remainder of this word is used as a prompt on standard error when the shell is interactive. The exit status is 0 unless an end-of-file is encountered or read has timed out. †† readonly [ -p ] [ vname[=value] ] ... If vname is not given, the names and values of each variable with the readonly attribute is printed with the values quoted in a manner that allows them to be re-inputted. The -p option causes the word readonly to be inserted before each one. Otherwise, the given vnames are marked readonly and these names cannot be changed by subsequent assignment. When defining a type, if the value of a readonly sub-variable is not defined the value is required when creating each instance. return [ n ] Causes a shell function or . script to return to the invoking script with the exit status specified by n. The value will be the least significant 8 bits of the specified status. If n is omitted, then the return status is that of the last command executed. If return is invoked while not in a function or a . script, then it behaves the same as exit. set [ ±BCGabefhkmnoprstuvx ] [ ±o [ option ] ] ... [ ±A vname ] [ arg ... ] The options for this command have meaning as follows: -A Array assignment. Unset the variable vname and assign values sequentially from the arg list. If +A is used, the variable vname is not unset first. -B Enable brace pattern field generation. This is the default behavior. -B Enable brace group expansion. On by default. -C Prevents redirection > from truncating existing files. Files that are created are opened with the O_EXCL mode. Requires >| to truncate a file when turned on. -G Causes the pattern ** by itself to match files and zero or more directories and sub-directories when used for file name generation. If followed by a / only directories and sub-directories are matched. -a All subsequent variables that are defined are automatically exported. -b Prints job completion messages as soon as a background job changes state rather than waiting for the next prompt. -e Unless contained in a || or && command, or the command following an if while or until command or in the pipeline following !, if a command has a non-zero exit status, execute the ERR trap, if set, and exit. This mode is disabled while reading profiles. -f Disables file name generation. -h Each command becomes a tracked alias when first encountered. -k (Obsolete). All variable assignment arguments are placed in the environment for a command, not just those that precede the command name. -m Background jobs will run in a separate process group and a line will print upon completion. The exit status of background jobs is reported in a completion message. On systems with job control, this option is turned on automatically for interactive shells. -n Read commands and check them for syntax errors, but do not execute them. Ignored for interactive shells. -o The following argument can be one of the following option names:  allexport Same as -a. errexit Same as -e. bgnice All background jobs are run at a lower priority. This is the default mode. braceexpand Same as -B. emacs Puts you in an emacs style in-line editor for command entry. globstar Same as -G. gmacs Puts you in a gmacs style in-line editor for command entry. ignoreeof The shell will not exit on end-of-file. The command exit must be used. keyword Same as -k. letoctal The let command allows octal constants starting with 0. markdirs All directory names resulting from file name generation have a trailing / appended. monitor Same as -m. multiline The built-in editors will use multiple lines on the screen for lines that are longer than the width of the screen. This may not work for all terminals. noclobber Same as -C. noexec Same as -n. noglob Same as -f. nolog Do not save function definitions in the history file. notify Same as -b. nounset Same as -u. pipefail A pipeline will not complete until all components of the pipeline have completed, and the return value will be the value of the last non-zero command to fail or zero if no command has failed. showme When enabled, simple commands or pipelines preceded by a semicolon (;) will be displayed as if the xtrace option were enabled but will not be executed. Otherwise, the leading ; will be ignored. privileged Same as -p. verbose Same as -v. trackall Same as -h. vi Puts you in insert mode of a vi style in-line editor until you hit the escape character 033. This puts you in control mode. A return sends the line. viraw Each character is processed as it is typed in vi mode. xtrace Same as -x. If no option name is supplied, then the current option settings are printed. -p Disables processing of the$HOME/.profile file and uses the file /etc/suid_profile instead of the ENV file. This mode is on whenever the effective uid (gid) is not equal to the real uid (gid). Turning this off causes the effective uid and gid to be set to the real uid and gid.
-r Enables the restricted shell. This option cannot be unset once set.
-s Sort the positional parameters lexicographically.
-t (Obsolete). Exit after reading and executing one command.
-u Treat unset parameters as an error when substituting.
-v Print shell input lines as they are read.
-x Print commands and their arguments as they are executed.
-- Do not change any of the options; useful in setting $1 to a value beginning with -. If no arguments follow this option then the positional parameters are unset. As an obsolete feature, if the first arg is - then the -x and -v options are turned off and the next arg is treated as the first argument. Using + rather than - causes these options to be turned off. These options can also be used upon invocation of the shell. The current set of options may be found in$-. Unless -A is specified, the remaining arguments are positional parameters and are assigned, in order, to $1$2 .... If no arguments are given, then the names and values of all variables are printed on the standard output.
shift [ n ]
The positional parameters from $n+1 ... are renamed$1 ... , default n is 1. The parameter n can be any arithmetic expression that evaluates to a non-negative number less than or equal to $#. sleep seconds Suspends execution for the number of decimal seconds or fractions of a second given by seconds. trap [ -p ] [ action ] [ sig ] ... The -p option causes the trap action associated with each trap as specified by the arguments to be printed with appropriate quoting. Otherwise, action will be processed as if it were an argument to eval when the shell receives signal(s) sig. Each sig can be given as a number or as the name of the signal. Trap commands are executed in order of signal number. Any attempt to set a trap on a signal that was ignored on entry to the current shell is ineffective. If action is omitted and the first sig is a number, or if action is -, then the trap(s) for each sig are reset to their original values. If action is the null string then this signal is ignored by the shell and by the commands it invokes. If sig is ERR then action will be executed whenever a command has a non-zero exit status. If sig is DEBUG then action will be executed before each command. The variable .sh.command will contain the contents of the current command line when action is running. If the exit status of the trap is 2 the command will not be executed. If the exit status of the trap is 255 and inside a function or a dot script, the function or dot script will return. If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside the body of a function defined with the function name syntax, then the command action is executed after the function completes. If sig is 0 or EXIT for a trap set outside any function then the command action is executed on exit from the shell. If sig is KEYBD, then action will be executed whenever a key is read while in emacs, gmacs, or vi mode. The trap command with no arguments prints a list of commands associated with each signal number. An exit or return without an argument in a trap action will preserve the exit status of the command that invoked the trap. true Does nothing, and exits 0. Used with while for infinite loops. †† typeset [ ±ACHSfblmnprtux ] [ ±EFLRXZi[n] ] [ +-M [ mapname ] ] [ -T [ tname=(assign_list) ] ] [ -h str ] [ -a [type] ] [ vname[=value ] ] ... Sets attributes and values for shell variables and functions. When invoked inside a function defined with the function name syntax, a new instance of the variable vname is created, and the variable’s value and type are restored when the function completes. The following list of attributes may be specified:  -A Declares vname to be an associative array. Subscripts are strings rather than arithmetic expressions. -C causes each vname to be a compound variable. value names a compound variable it is copied into vname. Otherwise, it unsets each vname. -a Declares vname to be an indexed array. If type is specified, it must be the name of an enumeration type created with the enum command and it allows enumeration constants to be used as subscripts. -E Declares vname to be a double precision floating point number. If n is non-zero, it defines the number of significant figures that are used when expanding vname. Otherwise, ten significant figures will be used. -F Declares vname to be a double precision floating point number. If n is non-zero, it defines the number of places after the decimal point that are used when expanding vname. Otherwise ten places after the decimal point will be used. -H This option provides UNIX to host-name file mapping on non-UNIX machines. -L Left justify and remove leading blanks from value. If n is non-zero, it defines the width of the field, otherwise it is determined by the width of the value of first assignment. When the variable is assigned to, it is filled on the right with blanks or truncated, if necessary, to fit into the field. The -R option is turned off. -M Use the character mapping mapping defined by wctrans(3). such as tolower and toupper when assigning a value to each of the specified operands. When mapping is specified and there are not operands, all variables that use this mapping are written to standard output. When mapping is omitted and there are no operands, all mapped variables are written to standard output. -R Right justify and fill with leading blanks. If n is non-zero, it defines the width of the field, otherwise it is determined by the width of the value of first assignment. The field is left filled with blanks or truncated from the end if the variable is reassigned. The -L option is turned off. -S When used within the assign_list of a type definition, it causes the specified sub-variable to be shared by all instances of the type. When used inside a function defined with the function reserved word, the specified variables will have function static scope. Otherwise, the variable is unset prior to processing the assignment list. -T If followed by tname, it creates a type named by tname using the compound assignment assign_list to tname. Otherwise, it writes all the type definitions to standard output. -X Declares vname to be a double precision floating point number and expands using the %a format of ISO-C99. If n is non-zero, it defines the number of hex digits after the radix point that is used when expanding vname. The default is 10. -Z Right justify and fill with leading zeros if the first non-blank character is a digit and the -L option has not been set. Remove leading zeros if the -L option is also set. If n is non-zero, it defines the width of the field, otherwise it is determined by the width of the value of first assignment. -f The names refer to function names rather than variable names. No assignments can be made and the only other valid options are -S, -t, -u and -x. The -S can be used with discipline functions defined in a type to indicate that the function is static. For a static function, the same method will be used by all instances of that type no matter which instance references it. In addition, it can only use value of variables from the original type definition. These discipline functions cannot be redefined in any type instance. The -t option turns on execution tracing for this function. The -u option causes this function to be marked undefined. The FPATH variable will be searched to find the function definition when the function is referenced. If no options other than -f is specified, then the function definition will be displayed on standard output. If +f is specified, then a line containing the function name followed by a shell comment containing the line number and path name of the file where this function was defined, if any, is displayed. The exit status can be used to determine whether the function is defined so that typeset -f .sh.math.name will return 0 when math function name is defined and non-zero otherwise. -b The variable can hold any number of bytes of data. The data can be text or binary. The value is represented by the base64 encoding of the data. If -Z is also specified, the size in bytes of the data in the buffer will be determined by the size associated with the -Z. If the base64 string assigned results in more data, it will be truncated. Otherwise, it will be filled with bytes whose value is zero. The printf format %B can be used to output the actual data in this buffer instead of the base64 encoding of the data. -h Used within type definitions to add information when generating information about the sub-variable on the man page. It is ignored when used outside of a type definition. When used with -f the information is associated with the corresponding discipline function. -i Declares vname to be represented internally as integer. The right hand side of an assignment is evaluated as an arithmetic expression when assigning to an integer. If n is non-zero, it defines the output arithmetic base, otherwise the output base will be ten. -l Used with -i, -E or -F, to indicate long integer, or long float. Otherwise, all upper-case characters are converted to lower-case. The upper-case option, -u, is turned off. Equivalent to -M tolower . -m moves or renames the variable. The value is the name of a variable whose value will be moved to vname. The original variable will be unset. Cannot be used with any other options. -n Declares vname to be a reference to the variable whose name is defined by the value of variable vname. This is usually used to reference a variable inside a function whose name has been passed as an argument. Cannot be used with any other options. -p The name, attributes and values for the given vnames are written on standard output in a form that can be used as shell input. If +p is specified, then the values are not displayed. -r The given vnames are marked readonly and these names cannot be changed by subsequent assignment. -t Tags the variables. Tags are user definable and have no special meaning to the shell. -u When given along with -i, specifies unsigned integer. Otherwise, all lower-case characters are converted to upper-case. The lower-case option, -l, is turned off. Equivalent to -M toupper . -x The given vnames are marked for automatic export to the environment of subsequently-executed commands. Variables whose names contain a . cannot be exported. The -i attribute cannot be specified along with -R, -L, -Z, or -f. Using + rather than - causes these options to be turned off. If no vname arguments are given, a list of vnames (and optionally the values) of the variables is printed. (Using + rather than - keeps the values from being printed.) The -p option causes typeset followed by the option letters to be printed before each name rather than the names of the options. If any option other than -p is given, only those variables which have all of the given options are printed. Otherwise, the vnames and attributes of all variables that have attributes are printed. ulimit [ -HSacdfmnpstv ] [ limit ] Set or display a resource limit. The available resource limits are listed below. Many systems do not support one or more of these limits. The limit for a specified resource is set when limit is specified. The value of limit can be a number in the unit specified below with each resource, or the value unlimited. The -H and -S options specify whether the hard limit or the soft limit for the given resource is set. A hard limit cannot be increased once it is set. A soft limit can be increased up to the value of the hard limit. If neither the H nor S option is specified, the limit applies to both. The current resource limit is printed when limit is omitted. In this case, the soft limit is printed unless H is specified. When more than one resource is specified, then the limit name and unit is printed before the value.  -a Lists all of the current resource limits. -c The number of 512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps. -d The number of K-bytes on the size of the data area. -f The number of 512-byte blocks on files that can be written by the current process or by child processes (files of any size may be read). -m The number of K-bytes on the size of physical memory. -n The number of file descriptors plus 1. -p The number of 512-byte blocks for pipe buffering. -s The number of K-bytes on the size of the stack area. -t The number of CPU seconds to be used by each process. -v The number of K-bytes for virtual memory. If no option is given, -f is assumed. umask [ -S ] [ mask ] The user file-creation mask is set to mask (see umask(2)). mask can either be an octal number or a symbolic value as described in chmod(1). If a symbolic value is given, the new umask value is the complement of the result of applying mask to the complement of the previous umask value. If mask is omitted, the current value of the mask is printed. The -S option causes the mode to be printed as a symbolic value. Otherwise, the mask is printed in octal. unalias [ -a ] name ... The aliases given by the list of names are removed from the alias list. The -a option causes all the aliases to be unset. unset [ -fnv ] vname ... The variables given by the list of vnames are unassigned, i.e., except for sub-variables within a type, their values and attributes are erased. For sub-variables of a type, the values are reset to the default value from the type definition. Readonly variables cannot be unset. If the -f option is set, then the names refer to function names. If the -v option is set, then the names refer to variable names. The -f option overrides -v. If -n is set and name is a name reference, then name will be unset rather than the variable that it references. The default is equivalent to -v. Unsetting LINENO, MAILCHECK, OPTARG, OPTIND, RANDOM, SECONDS, TMOUT, and _ removes their special meaning even if they are subsequently assigned to. wait [ job ... ] Wait for the specified job and report its termination status. If job is not given, then all currently active child processes are waited for. The exit status from this command is that of the last process waited for if job is specified; otherwise it is zero. See Jobs for a description of the format of job. whence [ -afpv ] name ... For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a command name. The -v option produces a more verbose report. The -f option skips the search for functions. The -p option does a path search for name even if name is an alias, a function, or a reserved word. The -p option turns off the -v option. The -a option is similar to the -v option but causes all interpretations of the given name to be reported. #### Invocation. If the shell is invoked by exec(2), and the first character of argument zero ($0) is -, then the shell is assumed to be a login shell and commands are read from /etc/profile and then from either .profile in the current directory or $HOME/.profile, if either file exists. Next, for interactive shells, commands are read from the file named by performing parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution on the value of the environment variable ENV if the file exists. If the -s option is not present and arg and a file by the name of arg exists, then it reads and executes this script. Otherwise, if the first arg does not contain a /, a path search is performed on the first arg to determine the name of the script to execute. The script arg must have execute permission and any setuid and setgid settings will be ignored. If the script is not found on the path, arg is processed as if it named a built-in command or function. Commands are then read as described below; the following options are interpreted by the shell when it is invoked:  -D Do not execute the script, but output the set of double quoted strings preceded by a$. These strings are needed for localization of the script to different locales. -E Reads the file named by the ENV variable or by $HOME/.kshrc if not defined after the profiles.  -c If the -c option is present, then commands are read from the first arg. Any remaining arguments become positional parameters starting at 0. -s If the -s option is present or if no arguments remain, then commands are read from the standard input. Shell output, except for the output of the Special Commands listed above, is written to file descriptor 2. -i If the -i option is present or if the shell input and output are attached to a terminal (as told by tcgetattr(2)), then this shell is interactive. In this case TERM is ignored (so that kill 0 does not kill an interactive shell) and INTR is caught and ignored (so that wait is ). In all cases, QUIT is ignored by the shell. -r If the -r option is present, the shell is a restricted shell. -D A list of all double quoted strings that are preceded by a$ will be printed on standard output and the shell will exit. This set of strings will be subject to language translation when the locale is not C or POSIX. No commands will be executed. -P If -P or -o profile is present, the shell is a profile shell (see pfexec(1)). -R filename The -R filename option is used to generate a cross reference database that can be used by a separate utility to find definitions and references for variables and commands.
The remaining options and arguments are described under the set command above. An optional - as the first argument is ignored. Rsh Rksh Rksh93 is used to set up login names and execution environments whose capabilities are more controlled than those of the standard shell. The actions of are identical to those of except that the following are disallowed:

Unsetting the restricted option.
changing directory (see cd(1)),
setting or unsetting the value or attributes of SHELL, ENV, FPATH, or PATH,
specifying path or command names containing /,
redirecting output (>, >|, <>, and >>).
using command -p to invoke a command.

The restrictions above are enforced after .profile and the ENV files are interpreted.

When a command to be executed is found to be a shell procedure, invokes sh invokes ksh invokes ksh93 to execute it. Thus, it is possible to provide to the end-user shell procedures that have access to the full power of the standard shell, while imposing a limited menu of commands; this scheme assumes that the end-user does not have write and execute permissions in the same directory.

The net effect of these rules is that the writer of the .profile has complete control over user actions, by performing guaranteed setup actions and leaving the user in an appropriate directory (probably not the login directory).

The system administrator often sets up a directory of commands (e.g., /usr/rbin) that can be safely invoked by

### EXIT STATUS

Errors detected by the shell, such as syntax errors, cause the shell to return a non-zero exit status. If the shell is being used non-interactively, then execution of the shell file is abandoned unless the error occurs inside a subshell in which case the subshell is abandoned. Otherwise, the shell returns the exit status of the last command executed (see also the exit command above). Run time errors detected by the shell are reported by printing the command or function name and the error condition. If the line number that the error occurred on is greater than one, then the line number is also printed in square brackets ([]) after the command or function name.

### FILES

 /etc/profile The system wide initialization file, executed for login shells. /etc/ksh.kshrc The system wide startup file, executed for interactive shells. $HOME/.profile The personal initialization file, executed for login shells after /etc/profile.$HOME/..kshrc Default personal initialization file, executed for interactive shells when ENV is not set. /etc/suid_profile Alternative initialization file, executed instead of the personal initialization file when the real and effective user or group id do not match. /dev/null NULL device

cat(1), cd(1), chmod(1), cut(1), egrep(1), echo(1), emacs(1), env(1), fgrep(1), gmacs(1), grep(1), newgrp(1), pfexec(1), stty(1), test(1), umask(1), vi(1), dup(2), exec(2), fork(2), getpwnam(3), ioctl(2), lseek(2), paste(1), pathconf(2), pipe(2), sysconf(2), umask(2), ulimit(2), wait(2), wctrans(3), rand(3), a.out(5), profile(5), environ(7).

Morris I. Bolsky and David G. Korn, The New KornShell Command and Programming Language, Prentice Hall, 1995.

POSIX - Part 2: Shell and Utilities, IEEE Std 1003.2-1992, ISO/IEC 9945-2, IEEE, 1993.

### CAVEATS

If a command is executed, and then a command with the same name is installed in a directory in the search path before the directory where the original command was found, the shell will continue to exec the original command. Use the -t option of the alias command to correct this situation.

Some very old shell scripts contain a ^ as a synonym for the pipe character |.

Using the hist built-in command within a compound command will cause the whole command to disappear from the history file.

The built-in command . file reads the whole file before any commands are executed. Therefore, alias and unalias commands in the file will not apply to any commands defined in the file.

Traps are not processed while a job is waiting for a foreground process. Thus, a trap on CHLD won’t be executed until the foreground job terminates.

It is a good idea to leave a space after the comma operator in arithmetic expressions to prevent the comma from being interpreted as the decimal point character in certain locales.

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