indicate last logins of users and ttys
utility will either list the
sessions of specified users
, in reverse time order, or list the
users logged in at a specified date and time. Each line of output contains the
user name, the tty from which the session was conducted, any hostname, the
start and stop times for the session, and the duration of the session. If the
session is still continuing or was cut short by a crash or shutdown,
will so indicate.
The following options are available:
- Generate output via
in a selection of different human and machine readable formats. See
for details on command line arguments.
- Specify the snapshot date and time. All users logged in at the snapshot
date and time will be reported. This may be used with the
-f option to derive the results from
stored utx.log files. When this
argument is provided, all other options except for
-n are ignored. The argument should be
in the form
where each pair of letters represents the following:
If the CC and
YY letter pairs are not specified, the
values default to the current year. If the
SS letter pair is not specified, the
value defaults to 0.
- The first two digits of the year (the century).
- The second two digits of the year. If
YY is specified, but
CC is not, a value for
YY between 69 and 99 results in a
CC value of 19. Otherwise, a
CC value of 20 is used.
- Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
- Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
- Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
- Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
- Second of the minute, from 0 to 60.
- Read the file file instead of the
- Host names may be names or internet
- Limit the report to maxrec lines.
- Report the duration of the login session in seconds, instead of the
default days, hours and minutes.
- Specify the tty. Tty names may be given
fully or abbreviated, for example, “
03” is equivalent to “
- Widen the duration field to show seconds, as well as the default days,
hours and minutes.
- Report the year in the session start time.
If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not specified, the
information which applies to any of the arguments is printed, e.g.,
last root -t console
” would list all of
's” sessions as well as all
sessions on the console terminal. If no users, hostnames or terminals are
prints a record of all
logins and logouts.
The pseudo-user reboot
logs in at reboots of
the system, thus “
” will give
an indication of mean time between reboot.
is interrupted, it indicates to what
date the search has progressed. If interrupted with a quit signal
indicates how far the search has
progressed and then continues.
- login data base
utility first appeared in
The original version was written by Howard P.
; Keith Bostic
rewrote it in
1986/87 to add functionality and to improve code quality.
support in August 2018.
If a login shell should terminate abnormally for some reason, it is likely that
a logout record will not be written to the
file. In this case,
will indicate the logout time as