|*||Illegal characters are replaced by underscores. The illegal characters are ;+=,\"*\\<>/?:|.|
|*||Extra dots, which cannot be interpreted as a main name/extension separator are removed|
|*||A ~n number is generated,|
|*||The name is shortened so as to fit in the 8+3 limitation|
|The initial Unix-style file name (whether long or short) is also called the primary name, and the derived short name is also called the secondary name.|
mcopy /etc/motd a:Reallylongname
Mtools creates a VFAT entry for Reallylongname, and uses REALLYLO as a short name. Reallylongname is the primary name, and REALLYLO is the secondary name.
mcopy /etc/motd a:motd
Motd fits into the DOS filename limits. Mtools doesnt need to derivate another name. Motd is the primary name, and there is no secondary name.
|In a nutshell: The primary name is the long name, if one exists, or the short name if there is no long name.|
|Although VFAT is much more flexible than FAT, there are still names that are not acceptable, even in VFAT. There are still some illegal characters left (\"*\\<>/?:|), and device names are still reserved.|
Unix name Long name Reason for the change --------- ---------- --------------------- prn prn-1 PRN is a device name ab:c ab_c-1 illegal character
|As you see, the following transformations happen if a long name is illegal:|
|*||Illegal characters are replaces by underscores,|
|*||A -n number is generated,|
When writing a file to disk, its long name or short name may collide with an already existing file or directory. This may happen for all commands which create new directory entries, such as mcopy, mmd, mren, mmove. When a name clash happens, mtools asks you what it should do. It offers several choices:
Note that for command line switches lower/upper differentiates between primary/secondary name whereas for interactive choices, lower/upper differentiates between just-this-time/always.
overwrite Overwrites the existing file. It is not possible to overwrite a directory with a file. rename Renames the newly created file. Mtools prompts for the new filename autorename Renames the newly created file. Mtools chooses a name by itself, without prompting skip Gives up on this file, and moves on to the next (if any) To chose one of these actions, type its first letter at the prompt. If you use a lower case letter, the action only applies for this file only, if you use an upper case letter, the action applies to all files, and you wont be prompted again. You may also chose actions (for all files) on the command line, when invoking mtools: -D o Overwrites primary names by default. -D O Overwrites secondary names by default. -D r Renames primary name by default. -D R Renames secondary name by default. -D a Autorenames primary name by default. -D A Autorenames secondary name by default. -D s Skip primary name by default. -D S Skip secondary name by default. -D m Ask user what to do with primary name. -D M Ask user what to do with secondary name.
The primary name is the name as displayed in Windows 95 or Windows NT: i.e. the long name if it exists, and the short name otherwise. The secondary name is the "hidden" name, i.e. the short name if a long name exists.
By default, the user is prompted if the primary name clashes, and the secondary name is autorenamed.
If a name clash occurs in a Unix directory, mtools only asks whether to overwrite the file, or to skip it.
The VFAT filesystem is able to remember the case of the filenames. However, filenames which differ only in case are not allowed to coexist in the same directory. For example if you store a file called LongFileName on a VFAT filesystem, mdir shows this file as LongFileName, and not as Longfilename. However, if you then try to add LongFilename to the same directory, it is refused, because case is ignored for clash checks.
The VFAT filesystem allows to store the case of a filename in the attribute byte, if all letters of the filename are the same case, and if all letters of the extension are the same case too. Mtools uses this information when displaying the files, and also to generate the Unix filename when mcopying to a Unix directory. This may have unexpected results when applied to files written using an pre-7.0 version of DOS: Indeed, the old style filenames map to all upper case. This is different from the behavior of the old version of mtools which used to generate lower case Unix filenames.
Mtools supports a number of formats which allow to store more data on disk as usual. Due to different operating system abilities, these formats are not supported on all OSes. Mtools recognizes these formats transparently where supported.
In order to format these disks, you need to use an operating system specific tool. For Linux, suitable floppy tools can be found in the fdutils package at the following locations~:
See the manpages included in that package for further detail: Use superformat to format all formats except XDF, and use xdfcopy to format XDF.
The oldest method of fitting more data on a disk is to use more sectors and more cylinders. Although the standard format uses 80 cylinders and 18 sectors (on a 3 1/2 high density disk), it is possible to use up to 83 cylinders (on most drives) and up to 21 sectors. This method allows to store up to 1743K on a 3 1/2 HD disk. However, 21 sector disks are twice as slow as the standard 18 sector disks because the sectors are packed so close together that we need to interleave them. This problem doesnt exist for 20 sector formats.
These formats are supported by numerous DOS shareware utilities such as fdformat and vgacopy. In his infinite hybris, Bill Gate$ believed that he invented this, and called it ooDMF disksI, or ooWindows formatted disksI. But in reality, it has already existed years before! Mtools supports these formats on Linux, on SunOs and on the DELL Unix PC.
By using bigger sectors it is possible to go beyond the capacity which can be obtained by the standard 512-byte sectors. This is because of the sector header. The sector header has the same size, regardless of how many data bytes are in the sector. Thus, we save some space by using fewer, but bigger sectors. For example, 1 sector of 4K only takes up header space once, whereas 8 sectors of 512 bytes have also 8 headers, for the same amount of useful data.
This method allows to store up to 1992K on a 3 1/2 HD disk.
Mtools supports these formats only on Linux.
The 2m format was originally invented by Ciriaco Garcia de Celis. It also uses bigger sectors than usual in order to fit more data on the disk. However, it uses the standard format (18 sectors of 512 bytes each) on the first cylinder, in order to make these disks easyer to handle by DOS. Indeed this method allows to have a standard sized bootsector, which contains a description of how the rest of the disk should be read.
However, the drawback of this is that the first cylinder can hold less data than the others. Unfortunately, DOS can only handle disks where each track contains the same amount of data. Thus 2m hides the fact that the first track contains less data by using a shadow FAT. (Usually, DOS stores the FAT in two identical copies, for additional safety. XDF stores only one copy, and it tells DOS that it stores two. Thus the same that would be taken up by the second FAT copy is saved.) This also means that your should never use a 2m disk to store anything else than a DOS fs.
Mtools supports these format only on Linux.
XDF is a high capacity format used by OS/2. It can hold 1840 K per disk. Thats lower than the best 2m formats, but its main advantage is that it is fast: 600 milliseconds per track. Thats faster than the 21 sector format, and almost as fast as the standard 18 sector format. In order to access these disks, make sure mtools has been compiled with XDF support, and set the use_xdf variable for the drive in the configuration file. See section Compiling mtools, and oomisc variablesI, for details on how to do this. Fast XDF access is only available for Linux kernels which are more recent than 1.1.34.
Mtools supports this format only on Linux.
Caution / Attention distributors: If mtools is compiled on a Linux kernel more recent than 1.3.34, it wont run on an older kernel. However, if it has been compiled on an older kernel, it still runs on a newer kernel, except that XDF access is slower. It is recommended that distribution authors only include mtools binaries compiled on kernels older than 1.3.34 until 2.0 comes out. When 2.0 will be out, mtools binaries compiled on newer kernels may (and should) be distributed. Mtools binaries compiled on kernels older than 1.3.34 wont run on any 2.1 kernel or later.
All the Mtools commands return 0 on success, 1 on utter failure, or 2 on partial failure. All the Mtools commands perform a few sanity checks before going ahead, to make sure that the disk is indeed an MS-DOS disk (as opposed to, say an ext2 or minix disk). These checks may reject partially corrupted disks, which might otherwise still be readable. To avoid these checks, set the MTOOLS_SKIP_CHECK environmental variable or the corresponding configuration file variable (see section global variables)
An unfortunate side effect of not guessing the proper device (when multiple disk capacities are supported) is an occasional error message from the device driver. These can be safely ignored.
The fat checking code chokes on 1.72 Mb disks mformatted with pre-2.0.7 mtools. Set the environmental variable MTOOLS_FAT_COMPATIBILITY (or the corresponding configuration file variable, ooglobal variablesI) to bypass the fat checking.
floppyd_installtest mattrib mbadblocks mcd mcopy mdel mdeltree mdir mdu mformat minfo mkmanifest mlabel mmd mmount mmove mrd mren mtoolstest mtype