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Manual Reference Pages  -  RWTUC (1)

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NAME

rwtuc - Text Utility Converter - rwcut output to SiLK flows

CONTENTS

SYNOPSIS



  rwtuc [--fields=FIELDS] [--column-separator=CHAR]
        [--output-path=FILEPATH] [--bad-input-lines=FILEPATH]
        [--verbose] [--stop-on-error] [--no-titles] [--note-add=TEXT]
        [--note-file-add=FILE] [--compression-method=COMP_METHOD]
        [--site-config-file=FILENAME] [--saddress=IPADDR]
        [--daddress=IPADDR] [--sport=NUM] [--dport=NUM]
        [--protocol=NUM] [--packets=NUM] [--bytes=NUM]
        [--flags-all=TCPFLAGS] [--stime=TIME] [--duration=NUM]
        [--etime=TIME] [--sensor=SID] [--input-index=NUM]
        [--output-index=NUM] [--next-hop-ip=IPADDR]
        [--flags-initial=TCPFLAGS] [--flags-session=TCPFLAGS]
        [--attributes=ATTR] [--application=NUM] [--class=NAME]
        [--type=NAME] [--stime+msec=TIME] [--etime+msec=TIME]
        [--duration+msec=NUM] [--icmp-type=NUM] [--icmp-code=NUM]
        [FILES]

  rwtuc --help

  rwtuc --version



DESCRIPTION

rwtuc reads text files that have a format similar to that produced by rwcut(1) and attempts to create a SiLK Flow record for each line of input.

The fields which make up a single record should be separated by the pipe character (’|’); use the --column-separator switch to change this delimiter. Note that the space character will not work as delimiter since several fields (e.g., time, TCP-flags) may contain embedded spaces.

The fields to be read from each line can be specified with the --fields switch; if the switch is not provided, rwtuc treats the first line as a title and attempts to determine the fields from the title strings.

When --fields is specified, rwtuc still checks whether the first line contains title strings, and rwtuc skips the line if it determines it does. Specify the --no-titles switch to force rwtuc to treat the first line as record values to be parsed.

Command line switches exist which force a field to have a fixed value. These switches cause rwtuc to override the value read from the input file (if any) for those fields. See the Fixed Values section below for details.

The textual input is read from the files named on the command line; if no files are specified, rwtuc attempts to read the text from the standard input if it is not connected to a terminal. To force rwtuc to read input from the terminal, specify stdin or - as the input stream.

When the --output-path switch is not provided, output is sent to the standard output when it is not connected to a terminal.

By default, lines that cannot be parsed are silently ignored (unless rwtuc is attempting to determine the fields from the title line). When the --verbose switch is specified, problems parsing an input line will be reported to the standard error, and rwtuc will continue to process the input. The --stop-on-error switch is similar to the --verbose switch, except processing stops after the first error. Input lines that cause parse errors can be copied to another output stream with the --bad-input-lines switch. Each bad line will have the source file name and line number prepended to it, separated from each other and the source line by colons (’:’).

    Field Constraints

Due to the way SiLK Flow records are stored, certain field combinations cannot be supported, certain fields must appear together, and some fields may only be used on certain occasions:
o Only two of the three time-related values (start time, duration, end time) may be specified. When all three are specified, the end time is ignored. This affects the sTime,9, duration,10, and eTime,11 fields and the --stime, --duration, and --etime switches.
o Both ICMP type and ICMP code must be present when one is present. These may be set by a combination of the iType and iCode fields and the --icmp-type and --icmp-code switches. These values are ignored unless either the protocol is ICMP \fIs0(1) or the record contains IPv6 addresses and the protocol is ICMPv6 (58). The ICMP type and code are encoded in the destination port field (dPort,4 or --dport), and they overwrite the port value for ICMP and ICMPv6 flow records.
o Both initial TCP flags and session TCP flags must be present when one is present. These may be set by a combination of the initialFlags,26 and sessionFlags,27 fields and the --flags-initial and --flags-session switches. These fields are set to 0 for non-TCP flow records. When either field has a non-zero value, any value in the (ALL) TCP flags field (flags,8 or --flags-all) is overwritten for TCP flow records.
o If the silk.conf(5) file defines more than one class, both class and type must be present for the values to have any affect on the SiLK flow record. These may be set by a combination of the class and type fields and the --class and --type switches. If silk.conf defines a single class, that class is used by default. The class and type must map to a valid pair; use rwsiteinfo --fields=class,type to see the list of valid class/type pairs for your site.

OPTIONS

Option names may be abbreviated if the abbreviation is unique or is an exact match for an option. A parameter to an option may be specified as --arg=param or --arg param, though the first form is required for options that take optional parameters.
--fields=FIELDS FIELDS contains the list of fields (columns) to parse. FIELDS is a comma separated list of field-names, field-integers, and ranges of field-integers; a range is specified by separating the start and end of the range with a hyphen (-). Field-names are case insensitive.

A field is ignored when the fixed value switch that corresponds to that field is given on the command line (see Fixed Values).

The field names and their descriptions are:
ignore a field that rwtuc is to skip
sIP,1 source IP address in the canonical form: dotted-quad for IPv4 or hex-encoded for IPv6 (when SiLK has been compiled with IPv6 support). Integers from 0 to 4294967295 will be treated as an IPv4 address.
dIP,2 destination IP address in the same format as sIP,1
sPort,3 source port as an integer from 0 to 65535 inclusive
dPort,4 destination port as an integer from 0 to 65535 inclusive (cf. Field Constraints)
protocol,5 IP protocol as an integer from 0 to 255 inclusive
packets,pkts,6 packet count as an integer from 1 to 4294967295 inclusive
bytes,7 byte count as an integer from 1 to 4294967295 inclusive
flags,8 bitwise OR of TCP flags over all packets; the string may contain F, S, R, P, A, U, E, C in upper- or lowercase (cf. Field Constraints)
sTime,9 starting time of the flow, in the form YYYY/MM/DD[:hh[:mm[:ss[.sss]]]]. A T may be used in place of : to separate the day and hour fields. A floating point value between 536870912 and 4294967295 is also allowed and will be treated as seconds since the UNIX epoch.
duration,10 duration of flow as a floating point value from 0.0 to 4294967.295
eTime,11 end time of flow in the same form as sTime,9 (cf. Field Constraints)
sensor,12 router sensor name or ID as given in silk.conf
class class of router at collection point as given in silk.conf (cf. Field Constraints)
type type of router at collection point as given in silk.conf (cf. Field Constraints)

Many of our packed files do not store the following fields and their values will always be 0, but they are listed here for completeness:
in,13 router SNMP input interface or vlanId if packing tools were configured to capture it (see sensor.conf(5)); an integer from 0 to 65535
out,14 router SNMP output interface or postVlanId; an integer from 0 to 65535
nhIP,15 router next hop IP address in the same format as sIP,1

SiLK can store flows generated by enhanced collection software that provides more information than NetFlow v5. These flows may support some or all of these additional fields; for flows without this additional information, the field’s value is always 0.
initialFlags,26 TCP flags on first packet in the flow; same form as the flags,8 field (cf. Field Constraints)
sessionFlags,27 bitwise OR of TCP flags over all packets except the first in the flow; same form as the flags,8 field (cf. Field Constraints)
attribute,28 flow attributes set by the flow generator:
S all the packets in this flow record are exactly the same size
F flow generator saw additional packets in this flow following a packet with a FIN flag (excluding ACK packets)
T flow generator prematurely created a record for a long-running connection due to a timeout. (When the flow generator yaf(1) is run with the --silk switch, it will prematurely create a flow and mark it with T if the byte count of the flow cannot be stored in a 32-bit value.)
C flow generator created this flow as a continuation of long-running connection, where the previous flow for this connection met a timeout (or a byte threshold in the case of yaf).

Consider a long-running ssh session that exceeds the flow generator’s active timeout. (This is the active timeout since the flow generator creates a flow for a connection that still has activity). The flow generator will create multiple flow records for this ssh session, each spanning some portion of the total session. The first flow record will be marked with a T indicating that it hit the timeout. The second through next-to-last records will be marked with TC indicating that this flow both timed out and is a continuation of a flow that timed out. The final flow will be marked with a C, indicating that it was created as a continuation of an active flow.

application,29 guess as to the content of the flow, as an integer from 0 to 65535. Some software that generates flow records from packet data, such as yaf, will inspect the contents of the packets that make up a flow and use traffic signatures to label the content of the flow. SiLK calls this label the application; yaf refers to it as the appLabel. The application is the port number that is traditionally used for that type of traffic (see the /etc/services file on most UNIX systems). For example, traffic that the flow generator recognizes as FTP will have a value of 21, even if that traffic is being routed through the standard HTTP/web port (80).
iType ICMP type as an integer from 0 to 255 inclusive (cf. Field Constraints)
iCode ICMP code as an integer from 0 to 255 inclusive (cf. Field Constraints)

Fields may not be specified more than once.

--column-separator=CHAR Expect the character CHAR to used as the delimiter between columns instead of the default ’|’.
--output-path=FILEPATH Write the SiLK Flow records to FILEPATH. The strings stdout and stderr may be used for the standard output and standard error, respectively, as long as they are not connected to a terminal.
--bad-input-lines=FILEPATH Copy any lines which could not be parsed to FILEPATH. The strings stdout and stderr may be used for the standard output and standard error, respectively. Each bad line will be prepended by the source input file, a colon, the line number, and a colon. On exit, rwtuc will remove FILEPATH if all input lines were successfully parsed.
--verbose If an input line fails to parse, print a message describing the error to the standard error, and continue to process the input.
--stop-on-error If an input line fails to parse, print a message describing the error to the standard error and exit. The output file will contain any records successfully created prior to reading the bad input line.
--no-titles Treat the first line of input as record values to be parsed. When this switch is not provided, rwtuc skips the first line of input if it determines that the line contains the names of fields (titles). rwtuc exits with an error when --no-titles is given but --fields is not.
--note-add=TEXT Add the specified TEXT to the header of the output file as an annotation. This switch may be repeated to add multiple annotations to a file. To view the annotations, use the rwfileinfo(1) tool.
--note-file-add=FILENAME Open FILENAME and add the contents of that file to the header of the output file as an annotation. This switch may be repeated to add multiple annotations. Currently the application makes no effort to ensure that FILENAME contains text; be careful that you do not attempt to add a SiLK data file as an annotation.
--compression-method=COMP_METHOD Specify how to compress the output. When this switch is not given, output to the standard output or to named pipes is not compressed, and output to files is compressed using the default chosen when SiLK was compiled. The valid values for COMP_METHOD are determined by which external libraries were found when SiLK was compiled. To see the available compression methods and the default method, use the --help or --version switch. SiLK can support the following COMP_METHOD values when the required libraries are available.
none Do not compress the output using an external library.
zlib Use the zlib(3) library for compressing the output, and always compress the output regardless of the destination. Using zlib produces the smallest output files at the cost of speed.
lzo1x Use the lzo1x algorithm from the LZO real time compression library for compression, and always compress the output regardless of the destination. This compression provides good compression with less memory and CPU overhead.
best Use lzo1x if available, otherwise use zlib. Only compress the output when writing to a file.
--site-config-file=FILENAME Read the SiLK site configuration from the named file FILENAME. When this switch is not provided, rwtuc searches for the site configuration file in the locations specified in the FILES section.
--help Print the available options and exit.
--version Print the version number and information about how SiLK was configured, then exit the application.

    Fixed Values

The following switches can be used to set fields to fixed values. A value specified using one these switches overrides the field when it appears in the input, causing that column of input to be completely ignored.
--saddress=IPADDR Set the source address field to IPADDR for all records. IPADDR can be in canonical notation or an unsigned integer.
--daddress=IPADDR Set the destination address field to IPADDR for all records. IPADDR can be in canonical notation or an unsigned integer.
--sport=NUM Set the source port field to NUM for all records; a value between 0 and 65535.
--dport=NUM Set the destination port field to NUM for all records; a value between 0 and 65535. (cf. Field Constraints)
--protocol=NUM Set the protocol field to NUM for all records; a value between 0 and 255.
--packets=NUM Set the packets field to NUM for all records; the value must be non-zero.
--bytes=NUM Set the bytes field to NUM for all records; the value must be non-zero.
--flags-all=TCPFLAGS Set the TCP flags field to TCPFLAGS for all records. (cf. Field Constraints)
--stime=TIME Set the start time field to TIME for all records.
--duration=NUM Set the duration field to NUM for all records.
--etime=TIME Set the end time field to TIME for all records. (cf. Field Constraints)
--sensor=SID Set the sensor field to SID for all records. This can either be a sensor name or sensor ID.
--input-index=NUM Set the SNMP input index field to NUM for all records; a value between 0 and 65535.
--output-index=NUM Set the SNMP output index field to NUM for all records; a value between 0 and 65535.
--next-hop-ip=IPADDR Set the next-hop-ip field to IPADDR for all records. IPADDR can be in canonical notation or an unsigned integer.
--flags-initial=TCPFLAGS Set the initial TCP flags field to TCPFLAGS for all records. (cf. Field Constraints)
--flags-session=TCPFLAGS Set the session TCP flags field to TCPFLAGS for all records. (cf. Field Constraints)
--attributes=ATTR Set the attributes field to ATTR for all records.
--application=NUM Set the application field to NUM for all records; a value between 0 and 65535.
--class=NAME Set the class field to NAME for all records. (cf. Field Constraints)
--type=NAME Set the type field to NAME for all records. (cf. Field Constraints)
--icmp-type=NUM Set the ICMP type field to NUM for all ICMP or ICMPv6 flow records; a value between 0 and 255. (cf. Field Constraints)
--icmp-code=NUM Set the ICMP code field to NUM for all ICMP or ICMPv6 flow records; a value between 0 and 255. (cf. Field Constraints)
--stime+msec=TIME An alias for --stime. This switch is deprecated as of SiLK 3.6.0, and it will be removed in the SiLK 4.0 release.
--etime+msec=TIME An alias for --etime. This switch is deprecated as of SiLK 3.6.0, and it will be removed in the SiLK 4.0 release.
--duration+msec=NUM An alias for --duration. This is is deprecated as of SiLK 3.6.0, and it will be removed in the SiLK 4.0 release.

EXAMPLES

In the following examples, the dollar sign ($) represents the shell prompt. The text after the dollar sign represents the command line. Lines have been wrapped for improved readability, and the back slash (\) is used to indicate a wrapped line.

Using rwtuc to parse the output of rwcut(1) should produce the same output:



 $ rwcut data.rw > cut.txt
 $ md5 < cut.txt
 7e3d693cd2cba2510803935274e1debd
 $ rwtuc < cut.txt | rwcut | md5
 7e3d693cd2cba2510803935274e1debd



To swap the source IP and port with the destination IP and port in flows.rw and save the result in reverse.rw:



 $ rwcut --fields=dip,dport,sip,sport,5-15,20-29 flows.rw   \
   | rwtuc --fields=1-15,20-29 --output-path=reverse.rw



rwtuc can be used to obfuscate the flow data in myflows.rw to produce obflows.rw. Pipe the output from rwcut into a script that manipulates the IP addresses, then pipe that into rwtuc. Using the sed(1) script in priv.sed, the invocation is:



 $ rwcut --fields=1-10,13-15,26-29 myflows.rw               \
   | sed -f priv.sed                                        \
   | rwtuc --sensor=1 > obflows.rw



If the first line of input appears to contain titles, rwtuc will ignore it. In the first invocation below, rwtuc treats SP as an abbreviation for sPort and ignores the line. Use the --no-titles switch to force rwtuc to parse the line:



 $ echo SP | rwtuc --fields=flags | rwcut --fields=flags
    flags|
 $
 $ echo SP | rwtuc --fields=flags --no-titles | rwcut --fields=flags
    flags|
  S P    |
 $



By default, rwtuc silently ignores lines that it cannot parse. Use the --verbose flag to see error messages:



 $ echo sport | rwtuc --fields=flags --no-titles --verbose >/dev/null
 rwtuc: stdin:1: Invalid flags sport: Unexpected character o



ENVIRONMENT

SILK_CLOBBER The SiLK tools normally refuse to overwrite existing files. Setting SILK_CLOBBER to a non-empty value removes this restriction.
SILK_CONFIG_FILE This environment variable is used as the value for the --site-config-file when that switch is not provided.
SILK_DATA_ROOTDIR This environment variable specifies the root directory of data repository. As described in the FILES section, rwtuc may use this environment variable when searching for the SiLK site configuration file.
SILK_PATH This environment variable gives the root of the install tree. When searching for configuration files, rwtuc may use this environment variable. See the FILES section for details.
TZ When a SiLK installation is built to use the local timezone (to determine if this is the case, check the Timezone support value in the output from rwtuc --version), the value of the TZ environment variable determines the timezone in which rwtuc parses timestamps. If the TZ environment variable is not set, the default timezone is used. Setting TZ to 0 or the empty string causes timestamps to be parsed as UTC. The value of the TZ environment variable is ignored when the SiLK installation uses utc. For system information on the TZ variable, see tzset(3) or environ(7).

FILES

${SILK_CONFIG_FILE}
${SILK_DATA_ROOTDIR}/silk.conf
/data/silk.conf
${SILK_PATH}/share/silk/silk.conf
${SILK_PATH}/share/silk.conf
/usr/local/share/silk/silk.conf
/usr/local/share/silk.conf Possible locations for the SiLK site configuration file which are checked when the --site-config-file switch is not provided.

SEE ALSO

rwcut(1), rwfileinfo(1), rwsiteinfo(1), sensor.conf(5), silk(7), yaf(1), sed(1), zlib(3)
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SiLK 3.11.0.1 RWTUC (1) 2016-04-05

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