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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  SGMLS (1)

NAME

sgmls - a validating SGML parser

An SGML System Conforming to International Standard ISO 8879 —
Standard Generalized Markup Language

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Bugs
Origin

SYNOPSIS

sgmls [ -deglprsuv ] [ -cfile ] [ -ffile ] [ -iname ] [ -mfile ] [ -xflags ] [ -yflags ] [ filename... ]

DESCRIPTION

Sgmls parses and validates the SGML document entity in filename... and prints on the standard output a simple ASCII representation of its Element Structure Information Set. (This is the information set which a structure-controlled conforming SGML application should act upon.) Note that the document entity may be spread amongst several files; for example, the SGML declaration, document type declaration and document instance set could each be in a separate file. If no filenames are specified, then sgmls will read the document entity from the standard input. A filename of - can also be used to refer to the standard input.

The following options are available:
-cfile Report any capacity limits that are exceeded and write a report of capacity usage to file. The report is in the format of a RACT result. RACT is the Reference Application for Capacity Testing defined in the Proposed American National Standard Conformance Testing for Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGL) Systems (X3.190-199X), Draft July 1991.
-d Warn about duplicate entity declarations.
-e Describe open entities in error messages. Error messages always include the position of the most recently opened external entity.
-ffile Redirect errors to file.
-g Show the GIs of open elements in error messages.
-iname Pretend that
<!ENTITY % name sINCLUDEs>
occurs at the start of the document type declaration subset in the SGML document entity. Since repeated definitions of an entity are ignored, this definition will take precedence over any other definitions of this entity in the document type declaration. Multiple -i options are allowed. If the SGML declaration replaces the reserved name INCLUDE then the new reserved name will be the replacement text of the entity. Typically the document type declaration will contain
<!ENTITY % name sIGNOREs>
and will use %name; in the status keyword specification of a marked section declaration. In this case the effect of the option will be to cause the marked section not to be ignored.
-l Output L commands giving the current line number and filename.
-mfile Map public identifiers and entity names to system identifiers using the catalog entry file file. Multiple -m options are allowed. Catalog entry files specified with the -m option will be searched before the defaults.
-p Parse only the prolog. Sgmls will exit after parsing the document type declaration. Implies -s.
-r Warn about defaulted references.
-s Suppress output. Error messages will still be printed.
-u Warn about undefined elements: elements used in the DTD but not defined.
-v Print the version number.
-xflags
-yflags Enable debugging output; -x applies to the document body, -y to the prolog. Each character in the flags argument enables tracing of a particular activity.
t Trace state transitions.
a Trace attribute activity.
c Trace context checking.
d Trace declaration parsing.
e Trace entities.
g Trace groups.
i Trace IDs.
m Trace marked sections.
n Trace notations.

    Entity Manager

An external entity resides in one or more files. The entity manager component of sgmls maps a sequence of files into an entity in three sequential stages:
1. each carriage return character is turned into a non-SGML character;
2. each newline character is turned into a record end character, and at the same time a record start character is inserted at the beginning of each line;
3. the files are concatenated.
A system identifier is interpreted as a list of filenames separated by A filename of - can be used to refer to the standard input.
If a system identifier is not specified, then the entity manager can generate one using catalog entry files in the format defined in the SGML Open Draft Technical Resolution on Entity Management. A catalog entry file contains a sequence of entries in one of the following four forms:
PUBLIC pubid sysid
  This specifies that sysid should be used as the system identifier if the the public identifier is pubid. Sysid is a system identifier as defined in ISO 8879 and pubid is a public identifier as defined in ISO 8879.
ENTITY name sysid
  This specifies that sysid should be used as the system identifier if the entity is a general entity whose name is name.
ENTITY %name sysid
  This specifies that sysid should be used as the system identifier if the entity is a parameter entity whose name is name. Note that there is no space between the % and the name.
DOCTYPE name sysid
  This specifies that sysid should be used as the system identifier if the entity is an entity declared in a document type declaration whose document type name is name.
The last two forms are extensions to the SGML Open format. The delimiters can be omitted from the sysid provided it does not contain any white space. Comments are allowed between parameters delimited by -- as in SGML. The environment variable SGML_CATALOG_FILES contains a list of catalog entry files. These will be searched after any catalog entry files specified using the -m option. If this environment variable is not set, then a system dependent list of catalog entry files will be used. A match in a catalog entry file for a PUBLIC entry will take precedence over a match in the same file for an ENTITY or DOCTYPE entry. A filename in a system identifier in a catalog entry file is interpreted relative to the directory containing the catalog entry file.
If no match can be found in a catalog entry file, then the entity manager will attempt to generate a filename using the public identifier (if there is one) and other information available to it. Notation identifiers are not subject to this treatment. This process is controlled by the environment variable SGML_PATH; this contains a list of filename templates. A filename template is a filename that may contain substitution fields; a substitution field is a % character followed by a single letter that indicates the value of the substitution. The value of a substitution can either be a string or it can be null. The entity manager transforms the list of filename templates into a list of filenames by substituting for each substitution field and discarding any template that contained a substitution field whose value was null. It then uses the first resulting filename that exists and is readable. Substitution values are transformed before being used for substitution: firstly, any names that were subject to upper case substitution are folded to lower case; secondly, space characters are mapped to underscores and slashes are mapped to percents. the characters +,./:=? and space characters are deleted. The value of the %S field is not transformed. The values of substitution fields are as follows:
%% A single %.
%D The entity’s data content notation. This substitution will succeed only for external data entities.
%N The entity, notation or document type name.
%P The public identifier if there was a public identifier, otherwise null.
%S The system identifier if there was a system identifier otherwise null.
%X (This is provided mainly for compatibility with ARCSGML.) A three-letter string chosen as follows:

tab(&); c|c|c s c|c|c s c|c|c|c c|c|c|c l|lB|lB|lB. &&With public identifier &&_ &No public&Device&Device &identifier&independent&dependent _ Data or subdocument entity&nsd&pns&vns General SGML text entity&gml&pge&vge Parameter entity&spe&ppe&vpe Document type definition&dtd&pdt&vdt Link process definition&lpd&plp&vlp

The device dependent version is selected if the public text class allows a public text display version but no public text display version was specified.

%Y The type of thing for which the filename is being generated:

tab(&); l lB. SGML subdocument entity&sgml Data entity&data General text entity&text Parameter entity&parm Document type definition&dtd Link process definition&lpd

The value of the following substitution fields will be null unless a valid formal public identifier was supplied.
%A Null if the text identifier in the formal public identifier contains an unavailable text indicator, otherwise the empty string.
%C The public text class, mapped to lower case.
%E The public text designating sequence (escape sequence) if the public text class is CHARSET, otherwise null.
%I The empty string if the owner identifier in the formal public identifier is an ISO owner identifier, otherwise null.
%L The public text language, mapped to lower case, unless the public text class is CHARSET, in which case null.
%O The owner identifier (with the +// or -// prefix stripped.)
%R The empty string if the owner identifier in the formal public identifier is a registered owner identifier, otherwise null.
%T The public text description.
%U The empty string if the owner identifier in the formal public identifier is an unregistered owner identifier, otherwise null.
%V The public text display version. This substitution will be null if the public text class does not allow a display version or if no version was specified. If an empty version was specified, a value of default will be used.
Normally if the external identifier for an entity includes a system identifier, the entity manager will use the specified system identifier and not attempt to generate one. If, however, SGML_PATH uses the %S field, then the entity manager will first search for a matching entry in the catalog entry files. If a match is found, then this will be used instead of the specified system identifier. Otherwise, if the specified system identifier does not contain any the entity manager will use SGML_PATH to generate a filename. Otherwise the entity manager will use the specified system identifier.

    System declaration

The system declaration for sgmls is as follows:

tab(&); c1 s1 s1 s1 s1 s1 s1 s1 s c s s s s s s s s l l s s s s s s s l l s s s s s s s l l s s s s s s s l l l s s s s s s c s s s s s s s s l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l s s s s s s s l l l s s s s s s l l l s s s s s s c s s s s s s s s l l l l l l l l l. SYSTEM "ISO 8879:1986" CHARSET BASESET&"ISO 646-1983//CHARSET &International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/5 4/0" DESCSET&0 128 0 CAPACITY&PUBLIC&"ISO 8879:1986//CAPACITY Reference//EN" FEATURES MINIMIZE&DATATAG&NO&OMITTAG&YES&RANK&NO&SHORTTAG&YES LINK&SIMPLE&NO&IMPLICIT&NO&EXPLICIT&NO OTHER&CONCUR&NO&SUBDOC&YES 1&FORMAL&YES SCOPE&DOCUMENT SYNTAX&PUBLIC&"ISO 8879:1986//SYNTAX Reference//EN" SYNTAX&PUBLIC&"ISO 8879:1986//SYNTAX Core//EN" VALIDATE &GENERAL&YES&MODEL&YES&EXCLUDE&YES&CAPACITY&YES &NONSGML&YES&SGML&YES&FORMAL&YES c s s s s s s s s l l l l l l l l l. SDIF &PACK&NO&UNPACK&NO

Exceeding a capacity limit will be ignored unless the -c option is given.

The memory usage of sgmls is not a function of the capacity points used by a document; however, sgmls can handle capacities significantly greater than the reference capacity set.

In some environments, higher values may be supported for the SUBDOC parameter.

Documents that do not use optional features are also supported. For example, if FORMAL NO is specified in the SGML declaration, public identifiers will not be required to be valid formal public identifiers.

Certain parts of the concrete syntax may be changed:

The shunned character numbers can be changed.

Eight bit characters can be assigned to LCNMSTRT, UCNMSTRT, LCNMCHAR and UCNMCHAR.

Uppercase substitution can be performed or not performed both for entity names and for other names.

Either short reference delimiters assigned by the reference delimiter set or no short reference delimiters are supported.

The reserved names can be changed.

The quantity set can be increased within certain limits subject to there being sufficient memory available. The upper limit on  NAMELEN is 239. The upper limits on  ATTCNT,  ATTSPLEN,  BSEQLEN,  ENTLVL,  LITLEN,  PILEN,  TAGLEN, and  TAGLVL are more than thirty times greater than the reference limits. The upper limit on  GRPCNT,  GRPGTCNT, and  GRPLVL is 253.  NORMSEP cannot be changed.  DTAGLEN are  DTEMPLEN irrelevant since sgmls does not support the  DATATAG feature.

    SGML declaration

The SGML declaration may be omitted, the following declaration will be implied:

tab(&); c1 s1 s1 s1 s1 s1 s1 s1 s c s s s s s s s s l l s s s s s s s. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" CHARSET BASESET&"ISO 646-1983//CHARSET &International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/5 4/0" DESCSET&  0  9 UNUSED &  9  2  9 & 11  2 UNUSED & 13  1 13 & 14 18 UNUSED & 32 95 32 &127  1 UNUSED l l l s s s s s s l l s s s s s s s l l l s s s s s s c s s s s s s s s l l l l l l l l l. CAPACITY&PUBLIC&"ISO 8879:1986//CAPACITY Reference//EN" SCOPE&DOCUMENT SYNTAX&PUBLIC&"ISO 8879:1986//SYNTAX Reference//EN" FEATURES MINIMIZE&DATATAG&NO&OMITTAG&YES&RANK&NO&SHORTTAG&YES LINK&SIMPLE&NO&IMPLICIT&NO&EXPLICIT&NO OTHER&CONCUR&NO&SUBDOC&YES 99999999&FORMAL&YES c s s s s s s s s. APPINFO NONE>

with the exception that characters 128 through 254 will be assigned to DATACHAR.

Sgmls identifies base character sets using the designating sequence in the public identifier. The following designating sequences are recognized:

tab(&); c c c c c c c c c ^ c c c c ^ l n n n l. Designating&ISO&Minimum&Number&Description Escape&Registration&Character&of& Sequence&Number&Number&Characters& _ ESC 2/5 4/0&-&0&128&full set of ISO 646 IRV ESC 2/8 4/0&2&33&94&G0 set of ISO 646 IRV ESC 2/8 4/2&6&33&94&G0 set of ASCII ESC 2/13 4/1&100&32&96&G1 set of ISO 8859-1 ESC 2/1 4/0&1&0&32&C0 set of ISO 646 ESC 2/2 4/3&77&0&32&C1 set of ISO 6429 ESC 2/5 2/15 3/0&-&0&256&the system character set

When one of the G0 sets is used as a base set, the characters SPACE and DELETE are treated as occurring at positions 32 and 127 respectively; although these characters are not part of the character sets designated by the escape sequences, this mimics the behaviour of ISO 2022 with respect to these code positions.

    Output format

The output is a series of lines. Lines can be arbitrarily long. Each line consists of an initial command character and one or more arguments. Arguments are separated by a single space, but when a command takes a fixed number of arguments the last argument can contain spaces. There is no space between the command character and the first argument. Arguments can contain the following escape sequences.
\\ A \.
\n A record end character.
\| Internal SDATA entities are bracketed by these.
\nnn The character whose code is nnn octal.
A record start character will be represented by \012. Most applications will need to ignore \012 and translate \n into newline.
The possible command characters and arguments are as follows:
(gi The start of an element whose generic identifier is gi. Any attributes for this element will have been specified with A commands.
)gi The end an element whose generic identifier is gi.
-data Data.
&name A reference to an external data entity name; name will have been defined using an E command.
?pi A processing instruction with data pi.
Aname val
  The next element to start has an attribute name with value val which takes one of the following forms:
IMPLIED
  The value of the attribute is implied.
CDATA data
  The attribute is character data. This is used for attributes whose declared value is CDATA.
NOTATION nname
  The attribute is a notation name; nname will have been defined using a N command. This is used for attributes whose declared value is NOTATION.
ENTITY name...
  The attribute is a list of general entity names. Each entity name will have been defined using an I, E or S command. This is used for attributes whose declared value is ENTITY or ENTITIES.
TOKEN token...
  The attribute is a list of tokens. This is used for attributes whose declared value is anything else.
Dename name val
  This is the same as the A command, except that it specifies a data attribute for an external entity named ename. Any D commands will come after the E command that defines the entity to which they apply, but before any & or A commands that reference the entity.
Nnname
  nname. Define a notation This command will be preceded by a p command if the notation was declared with a public identifier, and by a s command if the notation was declared with a system identifier. A notation will only be defined if it is to be referenced in an E command or in an A command for an attribute with a declared value of NOTATION.
Eename typ nname
  Define an external data entity named ename with type typ (CDATA, NDATA or SDATA) and notation not. This command will be preceded by one or more f commands giving the filenames generated by the entity manager from the system and public identifiers, by a p command if a public identifier was declared for the entity, and by a s command if a system identifier was declared for the entity. not will have been defined using a N command. Data attributes may be specified for the entity using D commands. An external data entity will only be defined if it is to be referenced in a & command or in an A command for an attribute whose declared value is ENTITY or ENTITIES.
Iename typ text
  Define an internal data entity named ename with type typ (CDATA or SDATA) and entity text text. An internal data entity will only be defined if it is referenced in an A command for an attribute whose declared value is ENTITY or ENTITIES.
Sename
  Define a subdocument entity named ename. This command will be preceded by one or more f commands giving the filenames generated by the entity manager from the system and public identifiers, by a p command if a public identifier was declared for the entity, and by a s command if a system identifier was declared for the entity. A subdocument entity will only be defined if it is referenced in a { command or in an A command for an attribute whose declared value is ENTITY or ENTITIES.
ssysid
  This command applies to the next E, S or N command and specifies the associated system identifier.
ppubid
  This command applies to the next E, S or N command and specifies the associated public identifier.
ffilename
  This command applies to the next E or S command and specifies an associated filename. There will be more than one f command for a single E or S command if the system identifier used a
{ename
  The start of the SGML subdocument entity ename; ename will have been defined using a S command.
}ename
  The end of the SGML subdocument entity ename.
Llineno file
 
Llineno
  Set the current line number and filename. The filename argument will be omitted if only the line number has changed. This will be output only if the -l option has been given.
#text An APPINFO parameter of text was specified in the SGML declaration. This is not strictly part of the ESIS, but a structure-controlled application is permitted to act on it. No # command will be output if APPINFO NONE was specified. A # command will occur at most once, and may be preceded only by a single L command.
C This command indicates that the document was a conforming SGML document. If this command is output, it will be the last command. An SGML document is not conforming if it references a subdocument entity that is not conforming.

BUGS

Some non-SGML characters in literals are counted as two characters for the purposes of quantity and capacity calculations.

SEE ALSO

The SGML Handbook, Charles F. Goldfarb
ISO 8879 (Standard Generalized Markup Language), International Organization for Standardization

ORIGIN

ARCSGML was written by Charles F. Goldfarb.

Sgmls was derived from ARCSGML by James Clark (jjc@jclark.com), to whom bugs should be reported.

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