Manual Reference Pages - TOP (1)
top - display and update information about the top cpu processes
Description Of Memory
Physical Memory Stats
ZFS ARC Stats
-abCHIijnPqStuvz ] [
-dcount ] [
-mio|cpu ] [
-ofield ] [
-stime ] [
-Jjail ] [
-Uusername ] [
Top displays the top
processes on the system and periodically updates this information.
If standard output is an intelligent terminal (see below) then
as many processes as will fit on the terminal screen are displayed
by default. Otherwise, a good number of them are shown (around 20).
Raw cpu percentage is used to rank the processes. If
number is given, then the top
number processes will be displayed instead of the default.
Top makes a distinction between terminals that support advanced capabilities
and those that do not. This
distinction affects the choice of defaults for certain options. In the
remainder of this document, an intelligent terminal is one that
supports cursor addressing, clear screen, and clear to end of line.
Conversely, a dumb terminal is one that does not support such
features. If the output of
top is redirected to a file, it acts as if it were being run on a dumb
-Uusername Show only those processes owned by
username. This option currently only accepts usernames and will not understand
Toggle CPU display mode.
By default top displays the weighted CPU percentage in the WCPU column
(this is the same value that
displays as CPU).
-C flag is passed it toggles between raw cpu mode
and weighted cpu mode, showing the CPU or
the WCPU column respectively.
Show system processes in the display. Normally, system processes such as
the pager and the swapper are not shown. This option makes them visible.
Display command names derived from the argv vector, rather than real
executable name. Its useful when you want to watch applications, that
puts their status information there. If the real name differs from argv,
it will be displayed in parenthesis.
Use batch mode. In this mode, all input from the terminal is
ignored. Interrupt characters (such as ^C and ^\) still have an effect.
This is the default on a dumb terminal, or when the output is not a terminal.
Display each thread for a multithreaded process individually.
By default a single summary line is displayed for each process.
Use interactive mode. In this mode, any input is immediately
read for processing. See the section on Interactive Mode
for an explanation of
which keys perform what functions. After the command is processed, the
screen will immediately be updated, even if the command was not
understood. This mode is the default when standard output is an
Do not display idle processes.
By default, top displays both active and idle processes.
Do not display the
Display either cpu or io statistics. Default is cpu.
Use non-interactive mode. This is identical to batch
Display per-cpu CPU usage statistics.
top to -20 so that it will run faster. This can be used when the system is
being very sluggish to improve the possibility of discovering the problem.
This option can only be used by root.
Do not take the time to map uid numbers to usernames. Normally,
top will read as much of the file /etc/passwd as is necessary to map
all the user id numbers it encounters into login names. This option
disables all that, while possibly decreasing execution time. The uid
numbers are displayed instead of the names.
Write version number information to stderr then exit immediately.
No other processing takes place when this option is used. To see current
revision information while top is running, use the help command ?.
Do not display the system idle process.
count displays, then exit. A display is considered to be one update of the
screen. This option allows the user to select the number of displays he
wants to see before
top automatically exits. For intelligent terminals, no upper limit
is set. The default is 1 for dumb terminals.
Set the delay between screen updates to
time seconds. The default delay between updates is 2 seconds.
Sort the process display area on the specified field. The field name is
the name of the column as seen in the output, but in lower case. Likely
values are cpu, size, res, and time,
but may vary on different operating systems. Note that
not all operating systems support this option.
Show only those processes owned by
jail. This may be either the
name of the jail.
0 to limit to host processes.
Using this option implies the
number fields can be specified as infinite, indicating that they can
stretch as far as possible. This is accomplished by using any proper
prefix of the keywords
The default for
count on an intelligent terminal is, in fact,
The environment variable
TOP is examined for options before the command line is scanned. This enables
a user to set his or her own defaults. The number of processes to display
can also be specified in the environment variable
TOP. The options
-z are actually toggles. A second specification of any of these options
will negate the first. Thus a user who has the environment variable
TOP set to -I may use the command top -I to see idle processes.
top is running in interactive mode, it reads commands from the
terminal and acts upon them accordingly. In this mode, the terminal is
put in CBREAK, so that a character will be
processed as soon as it is typed. Almost always, a key will be
top is between displays; that is, while it is waiting for
time seconds to elapse. If this is the case, the command will be
processed and the display will be updated immediately thereafter
(reflecting any changes that the command may have specified). This
happens even if the command was incorrect. If a key is pressed while
top is in the middle of updating the display, it will finish the update and
then process the command. Some commands require additional information,
and the user will be prompted accordingly. While typing this information
in, the users erase and kill keys (as set up by the command
stty) are recognized, and a newline terminates the input.
These commands are currently recognized (^L refers to control-L):
Redraw the screen.
h or ?
Display a summary of the commands (help screen). Version information
is included in this display.
Change the number of displays to show (prompt for new number).
Remember that the next display counts as one, so typing
d1 will make
top show one final display and then immediately exit.
Toggle the display between cpu and io modes.
n or # ||
Change the number of processes to display (prompt for new number).
Change the number of seconds to delay between displays
(prompt for new number).
Toggle the display of system processes.
Toggle the display of process titles.
Send a signal (kill by default) to a list of processes. This
acts similarly to the command
Change the priority (the nice) of a list of processes.
This acts similarly to the command
Display only processes owned by a specific username (prompt for username).
If the username specified is simply +, then processes belonging
to all users will be displayed.
Change the order in which the display is sorted. This command is not
available on all systems. The sort key names vary from system to system
but usually include: cpu, res, size,
time. The default is cpu.
Display a list of system errors (if any) generated by the last
Toggle the display of threads.
I) Toggle the display of idle processes.
Toggle the display of
Display only processes owned by a specific jail (prompt for jail).
If the jail specified is simply +, then processes belonging
to all jails and the host will be displayed.
This will also enable the display of JID.
Toggle the display of per-CPU statistics.
Toggle the display of the
Toggle the display of the system idle process.
The actual display varies depending on the specific variant of Unix
that the machine is running. This description may not exactly match
what is seen by top running on this particular machine. Differences
are listed at the end of this manual entry.
The top few lines of the display show general information
about the state of the system, including
the last process id assigned to a process (on most systems),
the three load averages,
the current time,
the number of existing processes,
the number of processes in each state
(sleeping, running, starting, zombies, and stopped),
and a percentage of time spent in each of the processor states
(user, nice, system, and idle).
It also includes information about physical and virtual memory allocation.
The remainder of the screen displays information about individual
processes. This display is similar in spirit to
but it is not exactly the same. PID is the process id,
JID, when displayed, is the
ID corresponding to the process,
USERNAME is the name of the processs owner (if
-u is specified, a UID column will be substituted for USERNAME),
PRI is the current priority of the process,
NICE is the nice amount (in the range -20 to 20),
SIZE is the total size of the process (text, data, and stack),
RES is the current amount of resident memory (both SIZE and RES are
given in kilobytes),
STATE is the current state (one of START, RUN
(shown as CPUn on SMP systems), SLEEP, STOP,
ZOMB, WAIT, LOCK or the event on which the
C is the processor number on which the process is executing
(visible only on SMP systems),
TIME is the number of system and user cpu seconds that the process has used,
WCPU, when displayed, is the weighted cpu percentage (this is the same
displays as CPU),
CPU is the raw percentage and is the field that is sorted to determine
the order of the processes, and
COMMAND is the name of the command that the process is currently running
(if the process is swapped out, this column is marked <swapped>).
If a process is in the SLEEP or LOCK state,
the state column will report the name of the event or lock on which the
process is waiting.
Lock names are prefixed with an asterisk * while sleep events
William LeFebvre, EECS Department, Northwestern University
TOP user-configurable defaults for options.
/dev/kmem kernel memory
/dev/mem physical memory
/etc/passwd used to map uid numbers to user names
/boot/kernel/kernel system image
Dont shoot me, but the default for
-I has changed once again. So many people were confused by the fact that
top wasnt showing them all the processes that I have decided to make the
default behavior show idle processes, just like it did in version 2.
But to appease folks who cant stand that behavior, I have added the
ability to set default options in the environment variable
TOP (see the OPTIONS section). Those who want the behavior that version
3.0 had need only set the environment variable
TOP to -I.
The command name for swapped processes should be tracked down, but this
would make the program run slower.
things can change while
top is collecting information for an update. The picture it gives is only a
close approximation to reality.
DESCRIPTION OF MEMORY
Mem: 9220K Active, 1M Inact, 3284K Wired, 1M Cache, 2M Buf, 1320K Free
ARC: 2048K Total, 342K MRU, 760K MFU, 272K Anon, 232K Header, 442K Other
Swap: 91M Total, 79M Free, 13% Inuse, 80K In, 104K Out
Physical Memory Stats
number of bytes active
number of bytes inactive
number of bytes wired down, including BIO-level cached file data pages
number of clean bytes caching data that are available for
number of bytes used for BIO-level disk caching
number of bytes free
ZFS ARC Stats
These stats are only displayed when the ARC is in use.
number of wired bytes used for the ZFS ARC
number of ARC bytes holding most recently used data
number of ARC bytes holding most frequently used data
number of ARC bytes holding in flight data
number of ARC bytes holding headers
miscellaneous ARC bytes
total available swap usage
total free swap usage
bytes paged in from swap devices (last interval)
bytes paged out to swap devices (last interval)
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