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Manual Reference Pages  -  ZWRITE (1)


zwrite - write to another user via Zephyr


See Also


zwrite [ -a ] [ -d ] [ -v ] [ -q ] [ -t ] [ -u ] [ -o ] [ -n ] [ -l ] [ -C ] [ -O opcode ] [ -s signature ] [ -c class ] [ -i instance ] [ -r realm ] [ -f arg ] [ user ... ] [ -m message ]


Zwrite sends a message from you to another user through the zephyr(1) notification service. The user must have subscribed to messages of the appropriate class and instance using the zctl(1) program.

Zwrite understands the following options.
-a Causes zwrite to send the message authenticated, using Kerberos to perform the authentication. This is the default.
-d Causes zwrite to send the message unauthenticated.
-v Causes zwrite to print what type of message it is sending, and whether or not it was successful.
-q Forces zwrite to suppress information about whether or not the message was sent.
-t Prevents zwrite from expanding tabs in the message into appropriate spaces. Normally zwrite will expand any tabs it finds into the appropriate number of spaces to maintain separation based on 8-character tab stops.
-l Causes zwrite to ignore ‘.’ on a line by itself in the input and only end a typed message when the user types the end-of-file character (usually control-D). When the input is not a terminal, this is the default action.
-u Sends an urgent message. This changes the zephyr instance of the message to ‘‘URGENT’’.
-o Causes zwrite to ignore the Zephyr variables zwrite-class, zwrite-inst, and zwrite-opcode when picking a default class, instance, and opcode.
-n prevents zwrite from sending a PING message to verify the recipient is subscribing to messages. By default, zwrite will send a notice to the destination class, instance, and recipient, with opcode ‘‘PING’’ before sending the message. If the PING is sent, and the server response indicates there are no recipients subscribed to your message, zwrite exits without sending a message. When the -n option is used, no PING is sent.
-C prepends a "CC:" line to the body of the message indicating the recipients of the message. This is strictly a convenience: the presence of a "CC:" line at the top of a zephyr body does not necessarily indicate that this option was used, or that the message really was sent to the listed users, and its lack doesn’t indicate that the message was not sent to multiple users.
-s signature sets the signature to be included in the message. This overrides both the user’s name (as found in the password file) and any setting of the Zephyr variable zwrite-signature. signature must be a single argument, hence when using a shell it should be quoted with double quotes. A signature argument of "" leaves the signature in the message empty.
-c class Allows a user to specify a different class for the message. This allows a message to be sent to a large group of people with some degree of security. See zephyr(1) and zephyrd(8) for a description of how to restrict access to classes. When this option is specified, the message is sent to recipient "*" unless an additional list of recipients is specified.
This argument may not be used in conjunction with the -f option.
-i instance Allows a user to specify a different instance than the default. When this option is used, the message is sent to recipient "*" unless an additional list of recipients is specified. This allows a message to be sent to a large group of people (e.g. a development group) just by having the members subscribe to messages of class "MESSAGE", the specified instance, and recipient "*".
This argument may not be used in conjunction with the -f option.
-r realm Allows a user to specify a different realm for the message, if the server supports interrealm Zephyr.
-F format Allows a user to specify a different default format for the message.
-O opcode Allows a user to specify a different opcode for the message. Some Zephyr notice display programs may use the opcode to decide how to display a notice.
-f arg Allows a user to specify an argument to be interpreted as a filesystem specification. The class is set to FILSRV. he instance is set to arg as modified: If arg contains no colons (‘:’), it is assumed to be a host name, and it is converted into an official host name via gethostbyname(3). If arg contains a colon, the portion preceding the colon is treated as a host name, and the colon and any trailing characters are appended to the offical host name returned by gethostbyname. If the name fails to resolve into an official host name, the instance is set to arg unmodified.
This option may not be used in conjunction with the -c or -i option.
-m Zwrite sends the remaining arguments on the command line as the message.
If the -m option is not specified, the user is prompted for the message to be sent. The message may be terminated by typing ^D or ‘‘.’’ on a line by itself.

The default class for messages is ‘‘MESSAGE’’, the default instance is ‘‘PERSONAL’’, andthe default opcode is ‘‘’’ (an empty string). These defaults can be overridden by setting the Zephyr variables zwrite-class, zwrite-inst, and zwrite-opcode, respectively. Command-line options can override the defaults.

If the class is ‘‘MESSAGE’’ and the instance is either ‘‘PERSONAL’’ or ‘‘URGENT’’, a recipient must be specified. These comparisons are case-sensitive.

Unless the -s option is used, the contents of the Zephyr variable zwrite-signature are used to augment the user’s username in the message. If zwrite-signature is not set and the -s option is not specified, the user’s full name (as specified in the password file) is used instead.


Tab expansion should really be done by the receiver of the message.
The -u option is provided for compatibility with old versions of zwrite and is not necessarily useful for sending messages to users who do not have old subscription files.


kerberosintro(1), zctl(1), zephyr(1), zwgc(1), zhm(8), zephyrd(8), gethostbyname(3)
Project Athena Technical Plan Section E.4.1, ‘Zephyr Notification Service’


$ZEPHYR_VARS or $HOME/.zephyr.vars


Robert S. French (MIT-Project Athena)


Copyright (c) 1987,1988 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All Rights Reserved.
zephyr(1) specifies the terms and conditions for redistribution.
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MIT Project Athena ZWRITE (1) October 26, 1989

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