GSP
Quick Navigator

Search Site

Unix VPS
A - Starter
B - Basic
C - Preferred
D - Commercial
MPS - Dedicated
Previous VPSs
* Sign Up! *

Support
Contact Us
Online Help
Handbooks
Domain Status
Man Pages

FAQ
Virtual Servers
Pricing
Billing
Technical

Network
Facilities
Connectivity
Topology Map

Miscellaneous
Server Agreement
Year 2038
Credits
 

USA Flag

 

 

Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  BIT::SHIFTREG (3)

.ds Aq ’

NAME

Bit::ShiftReg - Bit Shift Registers with Rotate / Shift Operations

Implements rotate left, rotate right, shift left and shift right operations with carry flag for all C integer types

CONTENTS

SYNOPSIS

o use Bit::ShiftReg qw( bits_of_byte bits_of_short bits_of_int bits_of_long LSB_byte MSB_byte LSB_short MSB_short LSB_int MSB_int LSB_long MSB_long ROL_byte ROR_byte SHL_byte SHR_byte ROL_short ROR_short SHL_short SHR_short ROL_int ROR_int SHL_int SHR_int ROL_long ROR_long SHL_long SHR_long );

imports all (or some, by leaving some out) of the available operations and functions

o use Bit::ShiftReg qw(:all);

imports all available operations and functions

o $version = Bit::ShiftReg::Version();

returns the module’s version number

o $bits = bits_of_byte();

returns the number of bits in a byte (unsigned char) on your machine

o $bits = bits_of_short();

returns the number of bits in an unsigned short on your machine

o $bits = bits_of_int();

returns the number of bits in an unsigned int on your machine

o $bits = bits_of_long();

returns the number of bits in an unsigned long on your machine

o $lsb = LSB_byte($value);

returns the least significant bit (LSB) of a byte (unsigned char)

o $msb = MSB_byte($value);

returns the most significant bit (MSB) of a byte (unsigned char)

o $lsb = LSB_short($value);

returns the least significant bit (LSB) of an unsigned short

o $msb = MSB_short($value);

returns the most significant bit (MSB) of an unsigned short

o $lsb = LSB_int($value);

returns the least significant bit (LSB) of an unsigned int

o $msb = MSB_int($value);

returns the most significant bit (MSB) of an unsigned int

o $lsb = LSB_long($value);

returns the least significant bit (LSB) of an unsigned long

o $msb = MSB_long($value);

returns the most significant bit (MSB) of an unsigned long

o $carry = ROL_byte($value);
o $carry = ROR_byte($value);
o $carry_out = SHL_byte($value,$carry_in);
o $carry_out = SHR_byte($value,$carry_in);
o $carry = ROL_short($value);
o $carry = ROR_short($value);
o $carry_out = SHL_short($value,$carry_in);
o $carry_out = SHR_short($value,$carry_in);
o $carry = ROL_int($value);
o $carry = ROR_int($value);
o $carry_out = SHL_int($value,$carry_in);
o $carry_out = SHR_int($value,$carry_in);
o $carry = ROL_long($value);
o $carry = ROR_long($value);
o $carry_out = SHL_long($value,$carry_in);
o $carry_out = SHR_long($value,$carry_in);
<B>Note that $value must be a variable in the calls of the functionsB> <B>ROL, ROR, SHL and SHR, and that the contents of this variable areB> <B>altered IMPLICITLY by these functions!B>

<B>Note also that the carry input value is always truncated to the leastB> <B>significant bit, i.e., input values for carry must be either 0 or 1!B>

<B>Finally, note that the return values of the functions LSB, MSB, ROL, ROR,B> <B>SHL and SHR are always either 0 or 1!B>

DESCRIPTION

This module implements rotate left, rotate right, shift left and shift right operations with carry flag for all C integer types.

The results depend on the number of bits that the integer types unsigned char, unsigned short, unsigned int and unsigned long have on your machine.

The module automatically determines the number of bits of each integer type and adjusts its internal constants accordingly.

How the operations work:
ROL Rotate Left:



 carry:                           value:

 +---+            +---+---+---+---     ---+---+---+---+
 | 1 |  <---+---  | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1  ...  1 | 0 | 1 | 1 |  <---+
 +---+      |     +---+---+---+---     ---+---+---+---+      |
            |                                                |
            +------------------------------------------------+



ROR Rotate Right:



                        value:                          carry:

        +---+---+---+---     ---+---+---+---+           +---+
 +--->  | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1  ...  1 | 0 | 1 | 1 |  ---+---> | 1 |
 |      +---+---+---+---     ---+---+---+---+     |     +---+
 |                                                |
 +------------------------------------------------+



SHL Shift Left:



 carry                        value:                       carry
  out:                                                      in:
 +---+        +---+---+---+---     ---+---+---+---+        +---+
 | 1 |  <---  | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1  ...  1 | 0 | 1 | 1 |  <---  | 1 |
 +---+        +---+---+---+---     ---+---+---+---+        +---+



SHR Shift Right:



 carry                        value:                       carry
  in:                                                       out:
 +---+        +---+---+---+---     ---+---+---+---+        +---+
 | 1 |  --->  | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1  ...  1 | 0 | 1 | 1 |  --->  | 1 |
 +---+        +---+---+---+---     ---+---+---+---+        +---+



EXAMPLE

Suppose you want to implement shift registers in a machine-independent way.

The only C integer type whose length in bits you can be pretty sure about is probably a byte, since the C standard only prescribes minimum lengths for char, short, int and long and that sizeof(char) <= sizeof(short) <= sizeof(int) <= sizeof(long).

How to implement a 4-byte shift register and the 4 operations ROL, ROR, SHL and SHR on it:

First, you need to define 4 byte registers:



  $byte0 = 0;
  $byte1 = 0;
  $byte2 = 0;
  $byte3 = 0;



Then proceed as follows:
ROL Rotate left:



  $carry = SHL_byte($byte3, SHL_byte($byte2, SHL_byte($byte1,
           SHL_byte($byte0, MSB_byte($byte3)))));



ROR Rotate right:



  $carry = SHR_byte($byte0, SHR_byte($byte1, SHR_byte($byte2,
           SHR_byte($byte3, LSB_byte($byte0)))));



SHL Shift left:



  $carry_out = SHL_byte($byte3, SHL_byte($byte2, SHL_byte($byte1,
               SHL_byte($byte0, $carry_in))));



SHR Shift right:



  $carry_out = SHR_byte($byte0, SHR_byte($byte1, SHR_byte($byte2,
               SHR_byte($byte3, $carry_in))));



SEE ALSO

perl(1), perlsub(1), perlmod(1), perlxs(1), perlxstut(1), perlguts(1).

VERSION

This man page documents Bit::ShiftReg version 2.0.

AUTHOR

Steffen Beyer <sb@sdm.de>.

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 1997 by Steffen Beyer. All rights reserved.

LICENSE AGREEMENT

This package is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
Search for    or go to Top of page |  Section 3 |  Main Index


perl v5.20.3 SHIFTREG (3) 1997-03-19

Powered by GSP Visit the GSP FreeBSD Man Page Interface.
Output converted with manServer 1.07.