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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  CONFIG::FAST (3)

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NAME

Config::Fast - extremely fast configuration file parser

CONTENTS

SYNOPSIS



    # default config format is a space-separated file
    company    "Supercool, Inc."
    support    nobody@nowhere.com


    # and then in Perl
    use Config::Fast;

    %cf = fastconfig;

    print "Thanks for visiting $cf{company}!\n";
    print "Please contact $cf{support} for support.\n";



DESCRIPTION

This module is designed to provide an extremely lightweight way to parse moderately complex configuration files. As such, it exports a single function - fastconfig() - and does not provide any OO access methods. Still, it is fairly full-featured.

Here’s how it works:



    %cf = fastconfig($file, $delim);



Basically, the fastconfig() function returns a hash of keys and values based on the directives in your configuration file. By default, directives and values are separated by whitespace in the config file, but this can be easily changed with the delimiter argument (see below).

When the configuration file is read, its modification time is first checked and the results cached. On each call to fastconfig(), if the config file has been changed, then the file is reread. Otherwise, the cached results are returned automatically. This makes this module great for mod_perl modules and scripts, one of the primary reasons I wrote it. Simply include this at the top of your script or inside of your constructor function:



    my %cf = fastconfig(/path/to/config/file.conf);



If the file argument is omitted, then fastconfig() looks for a file named $0.conf in the ../etc directory relative to the executable. For example, if you ran:



    /usr/local/bin/myapp



Then fastconfig() will automatically look for:



    /usr/local/etc/myapp.conf



This is great if you’re really lazy and always in a hurry, like I am.

If this doesn’t work for you, simply supply a filename manually. Note that filename generation does not work in mod_perl, so you’ll need to supply a filename manually.

FILE FORMAT

By default, your configuration file is split up on the first white space it finds. Subsequent whitespace is preserved intact - quotes are not needed (but you can include them if you wish). For example, this:



    company     Hardwood Flooring Supplies, Inc.



Would result in:



    $cf{company} = Hardwood Flooring Supplies, Inc.;



Of course, you can use the delimiter argument to change the delimiter to anything you want. To read Bourne shell style files, you would use:



    %cf = fastconfig($file, =);



This would let you read a file of the format:



    system=Windows
    kernel=sortof



In all formats, any space around the value is stripped. This is one situation where you must include quotes:



    greeting="     Some leading and trailing space    "



Each configuration directive is read sequentially and placed in the hash. If the same directive is present multiple times, the last one will override any earlier ones.

In addition, you can reuse previously-defined variables by preceding them with a $ sign. Hopefully this seems logical to you.



    owner       Bill Johnson
    company     $owner and Company, Ltd.
    website     http://www.billjohnsonltd.com
    products    $website/newproducts.html



Of course, you can include literal characters by escaping them:



    price       \$5.00
    streetname  "Guido \"The Enforcer\" Scorcese"
    verbatim    Single "quotes" are $$ money @ night
    fileregex   (\.exe|\.bat)$



Basically, this modules attempts to mimic, as closely as possible, Perl’s own single and double quoting conventions.

Variable names are <B>case-insensitiveB> by default (see KEEPCASE). In this example, the last setting of ORACLE_HOME will win:



    oracle_home /oracle
    Oracle_Home /oracle/orahome1
    ORACLE_HOME /oracle/OraHome2



In addition, variables are converted to lowercase before being returned from fastconfig(), meaning you would access the above as:



    print $cf{oracle_home};     # /oracle/OraHome2



Speaking of which, an extra nicety is that this module will setup environment variables for any ALLCAPS variables you define. So, the above ORACLE_HOME variable will automatically be stuck into %ENV. But you would still access it in your program as oracle_home. This may seem confusing at first, but once you use it, I think you’ll find it makes sense.

Finally, if called in a scalar context, then variables will be imported directly into the main:: namespace, just like if you had defined them yourself:



    use Config::Fast;

    fastconfig(web.conf);

    print "The web address is: $website\n";     # website from conf



Generally, this is regarded as <B>dangerousB> and bad form, so I would strongly advise using this form only in throwaway scripts, or not at all.

VARIABLES

There are several global variables that can be set which affect how fastconfig() works. These can be set in the following way:



    use Config::Fast;
    $Config::Fast::Variable = value;
    %cf = fastconfig;



The recognized variables are:
$Delim The config file delimiter to use. This can also be specified as the second argument to fastconfig(). This defaults to \s+.
$KeepCase If set to 1, then MixedCaseVariables are maintained intact. By default, all variables are converted to lowercase.
$EnvCaps If set to 1 (the default), then any ALLCAPS variables are set as environment variables. They are still returned in lowercase from fastconfig().
$Arrays If set to 1, then settings that look like shell arrays are converted into a Perl array. For example, this config block:



    MATRIX[0]="a b c"
    MATRIX[1]="d e f"
    MATRIX[2]="g h i"



Would be returned as:



    $conf{matrix} = [ a b c, d e f, g h i ];



Instead of the default:



    $conf{matrix[0]} = a b c;
    $conf{matrix[1]} = d e f;
    $conf{matrix[2]} = g h i;



@Define This allows you to pre-define var=val pairs that are set before the parsing of the config file. I introduced this feature to solve a specific problem: Executable relocation. In my config files, I put definitions such as:



    # Parsed by Config::Fast and sourced by shell scripts
    BIN="$ROOT/bin"
    SBIN="$ROOT/sbin"
    LIB="$ROOT/lib"
    ETC="$ROOT/etc"



With the goal that this file would be equally usable by both Perl and shell scripts.

When parsed by Config::Fast, I pre-define ROOT to pwd before calling fastconfig():



    use Cwd;
    my $pwd = cwd;
    @Config::Fast::Define = ([ROOT => $pwd]);
    my %conf = fastconfig("$pwd/conf/core.conf");



Each element of

%Convert This is a hash of regex patterns specifying values that should be converted before being returned. By default, values that look like true|on|yes will be converted to 1, and values that match false|off|no will be converted to 0. You could set your own conversions with:



    $Config::Fast::CONVERT{fluffy|chewy} = taffy;



This would convert any settings of fluffy or chewy to taffy.

NOTES

Variables starting with a leading underscore are considered reserved and should not be used in your config file, unless you enjoy painfully mysterious behavior.

For a much more full-featured config module, check out Config::ApacheFormat. It can handle Apache style blocks, array values, etc, etc. This one is supposed to be fast and easy.

VERSION

$Id: Fast.pm,v 1.7 2006/03/06 22:18:41 nwiger Exp $

AUTHOR

Copyright (c) 2002-2005 Nathan Wiger <nate@wiger.org>. All Rights Reserved.

This module is free software; you may copy this under the terms of the GNU General Public License, or the Artistic License, copies of which should have accompanied your Perl kit.

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