Manual Reference Pages - GEOGRAPHY::COUNTRIES (3)
Geography::Countries - 2-letter, 3-letter, and numerical codes for countries.
$country = country DE; # Germany
@list = country 666; # (PM, SPM, 666,
# Saint Pierre and Miquelon, 1)
This module maps country names, and their 2-letter, 3-letter and
numerical codes, as defined by the ISO-3166 maintenance agency ,
and defined by the UNSD.
The CWcountry subroutine.
This subroutine is exported by default. It takes a 2-letter, 3-letter or
numerical code, or a country name as argument. In scalar context, it will
return the country name, in list context, it will return a list consisting
of the 2-letter code, the 3-letter code, the numerical code, the country
name, and a flag, which is explained below. Note that not all countries
have all 3 codes; if a code is unknown, the undefined value is returned.
There are 3 categories of countries. The largest category are the
current countries. Then there is a small set of countries that no
longer exist. The final set consists of areas consisting of multiple
countries, like Africa. No 2-letter or 3-letter codes are available
for the second two sets. (ISO 3166-3  defines 4 letter codes for the
set of countries that no longer exist, but the author of this module
was unable to get her hands on that standard.) By default, country
only returns countries from the first set, but this can be changed
by giving country an optional second argument.
The module optionally exports the constants CNT_F_REGULAR,
CNT_F_OLD, CNT_F_REGION and CNT_F_ANY. These constants can also
be important all at once by using the tag :FLAGS. CNT_F_ANY is just
the binary or of the three other flags. The second argument of country
should be the binary or of a subset of the flags CNT_F_REGULAR,
CNT_F_OLD, and CNT_F_REGION - if no, or a false, second argument is
given, CNT_F_REGULAR is assumed. If CNT_F_REGULAR is set, regular
(current) countries will be returned; if CNT_F_OLD is set, old,
no longer existing, countries will be returned, while CNT_F_REGION
is used in case a region (not necessarely) a country might be returned.
If country is used in list context, the fifth returned element is
one of CNT_F_REGULAR, CNT_F_OLD and CNT_F_REGION, indicating
whether the result is a regular country, an old country, or a region.
In list context, country returns a 5 element list. To avoid having
to remember which element is in which index, the constants CNT_I_CODE2,
CNT_I_CODE3, CNT_I_NUMCODE, CNT_I_COUNTRY and CNT_I_FLAG
can be imported. Those constants contain the indices of the 2-letter code,
the 3-letter code, the numerical code, the country, and the flag explained
above, respectively. All index constants can be imported by using the
The CWcode2, CWcode3, CWnumcode and CWcountries routines.
All known 2-letter codes, 3-letter codes, numerical codes and country
names can be returned by the routines code2, code3, numcode and
countries. None of these methods is exported by default; all need to
be imported if one wants to use them. The tag :LISTS imports them
all. In scalar context, the number of known codes or countries is returned.
The 2-letter codes come from the ISO 3166-1:1997 standard . ISO 3166
bases its list of country names on the list of names published by
the United Nations. This list is published by the Statistical Division
of the United Nations . The UNSD uses 3-letter codes, and numerical
codes . The information about old countries  and regions  also
comes from the United Nations.
In a few cases, there was a conflict between the way how the United
Nations spelled a name, and how ISO 3166 spells it. In most cases,
is was word order (for instance whether The republic of should
preceed the name, or come after the name. A few cases had minor
spelling variations. In all such cases, the method in which the UN
spelled the name was choosen; ISO 3166 claims to take the names from
the UN, so we consider the UN authoritative.
Looking up information using country names is far from perfect.
Except for case and the amount of white space, the exact name as it
appears on the list has to be given. USA will not return anything,
but United States will.
The current sources of this module are found on github,
COPYRIGHT and LICENSE
Copyright (C) 1999, 2009 by Abigail
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
copy of this software and associated documentation files (the Software),
to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation
the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense,
and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED AS IS, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY,
WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT
OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
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