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Manual Reference Pages  -  MARPA::DEPRECATED::BOCAGE (3)

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NAME

Marpa::Deprecated::Bocage - DEPRECATED: Marpa’s Bocage Data Structure

CONTENTS

THIS DOCUMENT IS DEPRECATED

Most users should ignore this document. It describes the semantics for the internal data structure of a deprecated interface, part of the 2nd Generation Evaluator described in Marpa::Deprecated::Evaluator. This document, for the time being, is kept for reference in case any legacy applications are still using that evaluator. Marpa’s current evaluator is part of its Recognizer and described in the Recognizer’s document.

Marpa is alpha, so that its interfaces are subject to change. This document and the interface it describes will be removed in a future release of Marpa.

SYNOPSIS

This sample Marpa::Deprecated::Evaluator::show_bocage output is for the code in the appendix. It is the same example used in Marpa::Deprecated::Implementation and in Marpa as the unambiguous case.



    parse count: 1
    S2@0-5L6o0 -> S2@0-5L6o0a0
    S2@0-5L6o0a0 -> S5@0-5L0o1
        rule 5: Expression[] -> Expression .
        value_ops
    S5@0-5L0o1 -> S5@0-5L0o1a1
    S5@0-5L0o1a1 -> S12@0-5L1o2
        rule 0: Expression -> Term .
        value_ops
    S12@0-5L1o2 -> S12@0-5L1o2a2
    S12@0-5L1o2a2 -> S8@0-4R3:2o5 S3@4-5L1o3
        rule 3: Term -> Term Add Term .
        value_ops
    S3@4-5L1o3 -> S3@4-5L1o3a3
    S3@4-5L1o3a3 -> S4@4-5L2o4
        rule 1: Term -> Factor .
        value_ops
    S4@4-5L2o4 -> S4@4-5L2o4a4
    S4@4-5L2o4a4 -> \7
        rule 2: Factor -> Number .
        value_ops
    S8@0-4R3:2o5 -> S8@0-4R3:2o5a5
    S8@0-4R3:2o5a5 -> S5@0-3R3:1o6 \+
        rule 3: Term -> Term Add . Term
    S5@0-3R3:1o6 -> S5@0-3R3:1o6a6
    S5@0-3R3:1o6a6 -> S3@0-3L1o7
        rule 3: Term -> Term . Add Term
    S3@0-3L1o7 -> S3@0-3L1o7a7
    S3@0-3L1o7a7 -> S10@0-3L2o8
        rule 1: Term -> Factor .
        value_ops
    S10@0-3L2o8 -> S10@0-3L2o8a8
    S10@0-3L2o8a8 -> S6@0-2R4:2o10 S4@2-3L2o9
        rule 4: Factor -> Factor Multiply Factor .
        value_ops
    S4@2-3L2o9 -> S4@2-3L2o9a9
    S4@2-3L2o9a9 -> \1
        rule 2: Factor -> Number .
        value_ops
    S6@0-2R4:2o10 -> S6@0-2R4:2o10a10
    S6@0-2R4:2o10a10 -> S3@0-1R4:1o11 \*
        rule 4: Factor -> Factor Multiply . Factor
    S3@0-1R4:1o11 -> S3@0-1R4:1o11a11
    S3@0-1R4:1o11a11 -> S4@0-1L2o12
        rule 4: Factor -> Factor . Multiply Factor
    S4@0-1L2o12 -> S4@0-1L2o12a12
    S4@0-1L2o12a12 -> \42
        rule 2: Factor -> Number .
    value_ops



OVERVIEW

This document is intended to be read after Marpa::Deprecated::Implementation, which in turn is intended to be read after most of the other Marpa API documentation. It describes the bocage data structure used by the Marpa’s Multi-parse Evaluator. This is internal implementation information, useful for advanced users and for tracing parses and grammars.

Marpa has two standard evaluators: its Single Parse Evaluator and its Multi-parse Evaluator. The Multi-parse Evaluator will return all parse results for of a parse, and allows the user to control the order in which the parse results are presented. The Multi-parse Evaluator has its own special internal data structure, called a <B>parse bocageB>. The parse bocage allows Marpa to reconstruct multiple parse results quickly. The parse bocage is created when Marpa::Deprecated::Evaluator::new is called, during the bocage setup phase,

DESCRIPTION

    Parse Criteria

Each Marpa evaluator is created with parse criteria. The parse criteria are the start and end earlemes of the parse, and the parse’s top symbol.

Default values are usually used for the evaluator’s parse criteria. The default start earleme is earleme 0. The default end earleme is the location where input to the recognizer ended. The default top symbol is the start symbol of the grammar.

    Parse Forests and the Parse Bocage

The parse bocage stores all parses meeting the evaluator’s parse criteria. In other general parsers, a parse forest has been used to store ambiguous parses. Marpa’s parse bocage is an adaptation of a parse forest. Parse forests and parse bocages both consist of and-nodes and or-nodes. In both parse forests and parse bocages, and-nodes contain pieces of parse trees, while or-nodes represent choices among the pieces.

Parse bocages differ from parse forests in three ways:
o A parse bocage may contain cycles.
o And-nodes and or-nodes strictly alternate in a parse bocage.
o In a parse bocage, and-nodes are limited to two rhs symbols.

    Marpa Bocage Form

In parse forests, the and-nodes directly represent productions of the original grammar. Marpa’s parse bocages contain the original grammar in <B>Marpa Bocage FormB> (<B>MBFB>), which represents the original grammar’s productions in pieces with at most two symbols on the rhs. In restricting the rhs to at most two symbols, MBF is very similar to Chomsky Normal Form (CNF).

Marpa uses MBF because
o MBF can handle parses with cycles.
o MBF is essentially the form in which the grammar is found in the Earley items. Every source choice of an Earley item contains at most two links. Each of these links can be translated to a symbol on the rhs of a production.
o MBF easily produces binary trees. Binary trees are fast and easy to traverse and manipulate.

    Or-Nodes and And-Nodes

Or-nodes and and-nodes strictly alternate in MBF. An or-node, called the <B>start or-nodeB>, is always at the top of a Marpa bocage. Every child of an or-node is an and-node. Every child of an and-node is an or-node.

An or-node is <B>trivialB> if it has only one child and-node. A trivial or-node represents a choice from a list containing only a single alternative. Marpa or-nodes are often trivial.

In MBF, an or-node represents a decision point in the parse, even though often it’s a trivial decision point. There is an or-node for every symbol of every rule that might be used in a parse.

Every and-node represents either a production of the original grammar, or a piece of a production of the original grammar. And-nodes represent specific alternatives.

Every or-node is a parent of one or more and-nodes. Every and-node either has a token value or is the parent of a <B>cause or-nodeB>. Any and-node may also be the parent of a <B>predecessor or-nodeB>. The predecessor child or-node, if present, always comes first, before the token or the cause or-node.

    Or-Nodes and their Child Criteria

Each or-node corresponds to an Earley item and child criteria. The or-node’s corresponding Earley item is determined when the or-node is created. The child criteria for the or-node are set at the same time. The or-node’s child criteria determine which and-nodes can be children of the or-node.

There are two kinds of or-node, each with different child criteria. The start or-node, and all cause or-nodes, are <B>complete or-nodesB>. All other or-nodes are <B>incomplete or-nodesB>. All incomplete or-nodes are predecessor or-nodes, and vice versa.

Complete or-nodes are so called because they represent points at which a complete rule or rules have been recognized. That is, they represent the closing of a rule. The child criterion for a complete or-node is a symbol, called its <B>child lhs symbolB>.

Incomplete or-nodes represent decision points in the interior of a rule. The child criteria for an incomplete or-node are a rule, and a dot position in that rule.

No or-nodes represent the beginning of a rule. Because Marpa rewrites grammars so that there are no empty rules, no complete or-nodes can represent a point at the beginning of a rule. And incomplete or-nodes are not created for the dot position at the beginning of a rule.

The symbol before the dot position in an or-node’s rule is the or-node’s <B>pre-dot symbolB>. The symbol after the dot position in an incomplete or-nodes’s rule is the or-node’s <B>post-dot symbolB>. Since incomplete or-nodes never have dot positions at the end or the beginning of their rules, they always have both a pre-dot and post-dot symbol.

    The Relationship between Or-Nodes and Earley Items

If the post-dot symbol of an incomplete or-node is nulling, it is a <B>mortar or-nodeB>. Every other incomplete or-node, and every complete or-node, is a <B>brick or-nodeB>.

Marpa’s Earley sets contain no LR(0) items with nulling post-dot symbols. Marpa’s parse bocage data structure, on the other hand, needs there to be an or-node at every dot position except the first, regardless of whether the post-dot symbol is nulling or non-nulling. This is why mortar or-nodes are created. The idea is that brick or-nodes correspond directly to Marpa LR(0) items, while mortar or-nodes fill in the cracks.

For brick incomplete or-nodes the AHFA state of the corresponding Earley item will have an LR(0) item with a rule and dot position which exactly match the rule and dot position of the incomplete or-node’s child criteria. For mortar or-nodes, the AHFA state of the corresponding Earley item will have an LR(0) item with a rule which is the same as the rule in the or-node’s child criteria, and the only symbols between the dot position of the or-node and the dot position of that LR(0) item will be nulling symbols.

    How the Parse Bocage is Built

Initializing the Parse Bocage

Creation of a parse bocage starts with the creation of the start or-node. The start or-node is a complete or-node. The child lhs symbol of the start or-node will be the top symbol in the parse. Marpa finds a corresponding Earley item for the start or-node which matches the parse criteria:
o The AHFA state of the Earley item contains a completed rule with the parse’s top symbol on its lhs. Normally the parse’s top symbol will be the grammar’s start symbol, and the AHFA state will be a completed start rule state.
o The origin of the Earley item is the start of parsing. Normally this will be earleme 0.
o The current location of the Earley item is the end of parsing. Normally this will be the earleme where input to the recognizer ended.
The parse bocage is created by processing or-nodes recursively. The list of or-nodes to be processed is initialized with the start or-node.

Creating the And-Node Children for a Parent Or-Node

The loop that creates a parse bocage repeatedly takes an or-node from a list of or-nodes yet to be processed, and adds that or-node to the parse bocage. It then creates that or-node’s and-node children and links them into the parse bocage. The and-node children will often have their own child or-nodes. These new cause and predecessor or-nodes must be added to the list of or-nodes yet to be processed.

In describing the construction of the parse bocage, I’ll call the or-node currently being processed, the parent or-node, or simply the <B>parentB>. I’ll call any and-node child that is created for this parent, an and-node child, or where it’s clear, simply a <B>childB>. I’ll call an or-node child of an and-node child, a <B>grandchildB>. An and-node child may have a <B>predecessor grandchildB> and a <B>cause grandchildB>.

For every or-node there is a set of <B>applicable rulesB>, which are determined by the or-node’s Earley item and its child criteria. For incomplete or-nodes there is only one applicable rule, the rule in the child criteria. For complete or-nodes, the applicable rules are taken from the AHFA state of the corresponding Earley item. A rule is applicable if it is a rule in a completed LR(0) item in the AHFA state of the corresponding Earley item, and if the rule’s lhs is the same as the child lhs symbol of the or-node’s child criteria. There is always at least one applicable rule.

For a parent or-node, an child and-node is created for every pairing of an applicable rule with a source choice of the corresponding Earley item. This means that the number of and-node children will be the number of applicable rules, times the number of source choices. There is always at least one and-node child for any parent or-node.

In addition to an applicable rule and a source choice, every and-node corresponds to a dot position. If the parent or-node was an incomplete or-node, the dot position will be the same as the dot position of the parent or-node’s child criteria. If the parent or-node was a complete or-node, the dot position will be at the end of the applicable rule.

Every and-node has a pre-dot symbol. Where the parent or-node is an incomplete or-node, this is because incomplete or-nodes are never positioned at the beginning of rules. Where the parent or-node is a complete or-node, this is because there are no empty rules after Marpa rewrites its grammar.

If the and-node’s pre-dot symbol is non-nulling, its token, cause and predecessor are created based on the and-node’s corresponding source choice. If it was a token source choice, the and-node will have a token, which will take its value from the source choice token. If it was a completion source choice, the and-node will have a cause grandchild. The corresponding Earley item for the cause grandchild will be the Earley item which was the cause in the source choice. The child lhs symbol for the cause grandchild will be the pre-dot symbol of the and-node.

If the and-node’s pre-dot symbol is non-nulling, a predecessor grandchild or-node is created if and only if its corresponding source choice had a predecessor item. The predecessor grandchild will be created as an or-node child of the and-node child. If a predecessor grandchild is created, its corresponding Earley item will be the predecessor item of the and-node child’s corresponding source choice. The child criteria for the predecessor grandchild will be the and-node child’s rule, with a dot position one symbol position earlier than the dot position in the and-node child.

If the and-node’s pre-dot symbol is nulling, the and-node is created with a token. The value of the token is the null value of the pre-dot symbol.

If the and-node’s pre-dot symbol is nulling, and it is not the first symbol in its rule, a predecessor grandchild is also created. The predecessor grandchild will be a mortar or-node. The corresponding Earley item of the predecessor grandchild will be the Earley item of the parent or-node. The child criteria for the predecessor grandchild will be the and-node’s rule, with a dot position one symbol position earlier than the dot position in the and-node child.

Completing the Parse Bocage

Once an or-node has been processed, and its and-node children created and linked into the parse bocage, Marpa checks to see if any more or-nodes remain on the list to be processed. As the last section showed, when Marpa creates and-node children, it often creates predecessor and cause grandchildren. These grandchild or-nodes must be added to the list of or-nodes yet to be processed. Or-nodes are pulled from the list and processed until there are no more.

Even when the parse is infinitely ambiguous, Marpa is guaranteed to reach a point were there are no more or-nodes on the list of unprocessed or-nodes. Token and-nodes without predecessors are called <B>leaf and-nodesB>. Leaf and-nodes do not have any child nodes. Eventually every recursive path through the Earley sets reaches a leaf and-node. At this point, the parse bocage has been successfully created.

    Naming Or-Nodes

The name of an or-node is formed from
o The name of its corresponding Earley item; followed by,
o A label describing its child criteria; followed by
o The or-node’s ID tag. This is the lower-case letter ’o’ followed by a number. The number is an ID unique to that or-node.
For an incomplete or-node, the label consists of the letter R, and the number of the or-node’s rule and its dot position, colon-separated. The R in the label is a mnemonic for rule.

For example, S8@0-4R3:2o5 is the name of an incomplete or-node. The corresponding Earley item is S8@0-4. The child criteria are rule 3 at dot position 2 (Term -> Term Add . Term).

For complete or-nodes, the child criteria label is the letter L, followed by the number of the child lhs symbol. The L in the symbol or-node’s label is a mnemonic for left hand side.

An example of a complete or-node is S3@4-5L1o3. In this case the matching Earley item is S3@4-5, and the child lhs symbol is Term, which was symbol 1.

    Naming And-Nodes

An and-node is always a child of an or-node. The name of an and-node is the name of the parent or-node, followed by the and-node’s ID tag. The and-node’s ID tag consists of the lower-case letter ’a’ followed by the and-node ID. The and-node ID is a unique numeric identifier. For example, the and-node S8@0-4R3:2o5a5 is the only child of the or-node named S8@0-4R3:2o5.

    The Parse Bocage Grammar

Marpa typically displays a parse bocage as a <B>parse bocage grammarB> (<B>PBGB>). It may seem pointless to have come this far in the parsing, only to write out another grammar. But there is a big difference between the original grammar and the parse bocage grammar. The original grammar describes all parses which are possible for any input. The PBG describes only those parses which are possible for the specific input that was accepted by the recognizer.

    Examples of Parse Bocage Productions



    S2@0-5L6o0 -> S2@0-5L6o0a0



A parse bocage grammar always starts with the start or-production. The above is the start production for our example. The left hand side is an or-node which matches a start rule completion item. The completion start rule state in our example is AHFA state 2 and the input in our example was 5 earlemes long. So the start Earley item is S2@0-5. The start symbol is Expression[], which is symbol number 6. So the child criterion label is L6.

Start or-productions always have or-node ID 0 and are always trivial. The rhs of the start or-production is the and-node which is its first and only child. It always has and-node ID 0.

Or-nodes appear in the PBG as one or more or-productions. Each or-production has the name of the or-node as its lhs. The or-production will have the name of one of the or-node’s child and-nodes as the only symbol on its rhs.

In many cases, the or-nodes are trivial — they have exactly one child. Trivial or-nodes have only one or-production in the PBG. In an unambiguous parse, like the parse of our example, all the or-nodes are trivial.

Even when they are non-trivial, or-productions contain little information, and show_bocage does not show or-productions unless called with the verbose option. Or-productions are necessary for the PBG to be a real BNF grammar, but all the information in them is easily deduced from the names of the and-nodes on the lhs of the and-productions.

These are the rules which allow you to determine the or-production, given an and-production.
o For every and-node on the lhs of an and-production, there will be be an or-production.
o The or-node on the left hand side of the or-production will have the same name as the and-node, except that the and-node ID tag at the end will be removed.
o The or-production will have only one rhs symbol. That rhs symbol will be the and-node.
Here again is the start or-node, this time with the and-production which is the start or-node’s only child:



    S2@0-5L6o0 -> S2@0-5L6o0a0
    S2@0-5L6o0a0 -> S5@0-5L0o1
        rule 5: Expression[] -> Expression .
        value_ops



Parse bocage and-productions always have one or two rhs symbols. Either a token or a complete or-node will be on the right hand side. One or the other will always be present, but never both. Additionally, there may be a incomplete or-node. If an incomplete or-node is present, its name is always the first symbol on the rhs.

In the above example, the only symbol on the rhs is a complete or-node: S5@0-5L0o1. The next line contains a dotted rule: the rule for this and-node and and its dot position. The last line contains the string "value_ops. This indicates that the and-node contains special semantic instructions — instructions for valuing" it. This will be the case, for example, if there is a semantic Perl closure corresponding to this rule.



    S6@0-2R4:2o10 -> S6@0-2R4:2o10a10
    S6@0-2R4:2o10a10 -> S3@0-1R4:1o11 \*
        rule 4: Factor -> Factor Multiply . Factor



This example shows an and-node with an incomplete or-node and a token on the rhs of its rule. The and-node is at position 2 of rule 4, as shown by its child criteria label ("R4:2) and in the dotted rule on the third line. The pre-dot symbol (Multiply) matched the token (*). The incomplete or-node (S3@0-1R4:1o11) points to the part of the bocage which derives the symbols before the pre-dot symbol in rule 4. In this case there is only one symbol (Factor") before the pre-dot symbol.



    S4@0-1L2o12 -> S4@0-1L2o12a12
    S4@0-1L2o12a12 -> \42
        rule 2: Factor -> Number .
        value_ops



The and-production above has only a token on its rhs. There is no incomplete or-node, because the pre-dot symbol for this and-production is the first one of its rule — in fact, it is the only symbol in its rule.

S4@0-1L2o12a12 is a complete or-node with "L2" as its child criteria. Applicable rules will be found in AHFA state 4, and must be completed rules with symbol number 2 on the lhs. Symbol number 2 is Factor. There is only one LR(0) item in AHFA state 4, but it is, as required, a completed rule with Factor as its lhs.

APPENDIX: CODE FOR THE EXAMPLE



    my $grammar = Marpa::Grammar->new(
        {   start          => Expression,
            actions        => My_Actions,
            default_action => first_arg,
            strip          => 0,
            rules          => [
                { lhs => Expression, rhs => [qw/Term/] },
                { lhs => Term,       rhs => [qw/Factor/] },
                { lhs => Factor,     rhs => [qw/Number/] },
                { lhs => Term, rhs => [qw/Term Add Term/], action => do_add },
                {   lhs    => Factor,
                    rhs    => [qw/Factor Multiply Factor/],
                    action => do_multiply
                },
            ],
        }
    );

    $grammar->precompute();

    my $recce = Marpa::Recognizer->new( { grammar => $grammar } );

    my @tokens = (
        [ Number, 42 ],
        [ Multiply, q{*} ],
        [ Number, 1 ],
        [ Add, q{+} ],
        [ Number, 7 ],
    );

    $recce->tokens( \@tokens );





    my $evaler = Marpa::Evaluator->new( { recce => $recce } );





    my $show_bocage_output = $evaler->show_bocage(2);



LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2007-2010 Jeffrey Kegler, all rights reserved. Marpa is free software under the Perl license. For details see the LICENSE file in the Marpa distribution.
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