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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  O (3)

.ds Aq ’

NAME

O - Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

CONTENTS

SYNOPSIS



        perl -MO=[-q,]Backend[,OPTIONS] foo.pl



DESCRIPTION

This is the module that is used as a frontend to the Perl Compiler.

If you pass the -q option to the module, then the STDOUT filehandle will be redirected into the variable $O::BEGIN_output during compilation. This has the effect that any output printed to STDOUT by BEGIN blocks or use’d modules will be stored in this variable rather than printed. It’s useful with those backends which produce output themselves (Deparse, Concise etc), so that their output is not confused with that generated by the code being compiled.

The -qq option behaves like -q, except that it also closes STDERR after deparsing has finished. This suppresses the Syntax OK message normally produced by perl.

CONVENTIONS

Most compiler backends use the following conventions: OPTIONS consists of a comma-separated list of words (no white-space). The -v option usually puts the backend into verbose mode. The -ofile option generates output to <B>fileB> instead of stdout. The -D option followed by various letters turns on various internal debugging flags. See the documentation for the desired backend (named B::Backend for the example above) to find out about that backend.

IMPLEMENTATION

This section is only necessary for those who want to write a compiler backend module that can be used via this module.

The command-line mentioned in the SYNOPSIS section corresponds to the Perl code



    use O ("Backend", OPTIONS);



The O::import function loads the appropriate B::Backend module and calls its compile function, passing it OPTIONS. That function is expected to return a sub reference which we’ll call CALLBACK. Next, the compile-only flag is switched on (equivalent to the command-line option -c) and a CHECK block is registered which calls CALLBACK. Thus the main Perl program mentioned on the command-line is read in, parsed and compiled into internal syntax tree form. Since the -c flag is set, the program does not start running (excepting BEGIN blocks of course) but the CALLBACK function registered by the compiler backend is called.

In summary, a compiler backend module should be called B::Foo for some foo and live in the appropriate directory for that name. It should define a function called compile. When the user types



    perl -MO=Foo,OPTIONS foo.pl



that function is called and is passed those OPTIONS (split on commas). It should return a sub ref to the main compilation function. After the user’s program is loaded and parsed, that returned sub ref is invoked which can then go ahead and do the compilation, usually by making use of the B module’s functionality.

BUGS

The -q and -qq options don’t work correctly if perl isn’t compiled with PerlIO support : STDOUT will be closed instead of being redirected to $O::BEGIN_output.

AUTHOR

Malcolm Beattie, mbeattie@sable.ox.ac.uk
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perl v5.22.1 O (3) 2015-10-17

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