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Manual Reference Pages  -  ATF-C (3)

NAME

atf-c, ATF_CHECK, ATF_CHECK_MSG, ATF_CHECK_EQ, ATF_CHECK_EQ_MSG, ATF_CHECK_MATCH, ATF_CHECK_MATCH_MSG, ATF_CHECK_STREQ, ATF_CHECK_STREQ_MSG, ATF_CHECK_ERRNO, ATF_REQUIRE, ATF_REQUIRE_MSG, ATF_REQUIRE_EQ, ATF_REQUIRE_EQ_MSG, ATF_REQUIRE_MATCH, ATF_REQUIRE_MATCH_MSG, ATF_REQUIRE_STREQ, ATF_REQUIRE_STREQ_MSG, ATF_REQUIRE_ERRNO, ATF_TC, ATF_TC_BODY, ATF_TC_BODY_NAME, ATF_TC_CLEANUP, ATF_TC_CLEANUP_NAME, ATF_TC_HEAD, ATF_TC_HEAD_NAME, ATF_TC_NAME, ATF_TC_WITH_CLEANUP, ATF_TC_WITHOUT_HEAD, ATF_TP_ADD_TC, ATF_TP_ADD_TCS, atf_tc_get_config_var, atf_tc_get_config_var_wd, atf_tc_get_config_var_as_bool, atf_tc_get_config_var_as_bool_wd, atf_tc_get_config_var_as_long, atf_tc_get_config_var_as_long_wd, atf_no_error, atf_tc_expect_death, atf_tc_expect_exit, atf_tc_expect_fail, atf_tc_expect_pass, atf_tc_expect_signal, atf_tc_expect_timeout, atf_tc_fail, atf_tc_fail_nonfatal, atf_tc_pass, atf_tc_skip, atf_utils_cat_file, atf_utils_compare_file, atf_utils_copy_file, atf_utils_create_file, atf_utils_file_exists, atf_utils_fork, atf_utils_free_charpp, atf_utils_grep_file, atf_utils_grep_string, atf_utils_readline, atf_utils_redirect, atf_utils_wait - C API to write ATF-based test programs

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
     Definition of test cases
     Program initialization
     Header definitions
     Configuration variables
     Access to the source directory
     Requiring programs
     Test case finalization
     Expectations
     Helper macros for common checks
     Utility functions
Environment
Examples
See Also

SYNOPSIS


.In atf-c.h ATF_CHECK expression ATF_CHECK_MSG expression fail_msg_fmt ... ATF_CHECK_EQ expected_expression actual_expression ATF_CHECK_EQ_MSG expected_expression actual_expression fail_msg_fmt ... ATF_CHECK_MATCH regexp string ATF_CHECK_MATCH_MSG regexp string fail_msg_fmt ... ATF_CHECK_STREQ string_1 string_2 ATF_CHECK_STREQ_MSG string_1 string_2 fail_msg_fmt ... ATF_CHECK_ERRNO expected_errno bool_expression ATF_REQUIRE expression ATF_REQUIRE_MSG expression fail_msg_fmt ... ATF_REQUIRE_EQ expected_expression actual_expression ATF_REQUIRE_EQ_MSG expected_expression actual_expression fail_msg_fmt ... ATF_REQUIRE_MATCH regexp string ATF_REQUIRE_MATCH_MSG regexp string fail_msg_fmt ... ATF_REQUIRE_STREQ expected_string actual_string ATF_REQUIRE_STREQ_MSG expected_string actual_string fail_msg_fmt ... ATF_REQUIRE_ERRNO expected_errno bool_expression ATF_TC name ATF_TC_BODY name tc ATF_TC_BODY_NAME name ATF_TC_CLEANUP name tc ATF_TC_CLEANUP_NAME name ATF_TC_HEAD name tc ATF_TC_HEAD_NAME name ATF_TC_NAME name ATF_TC_WITH_CLEANUP name ATF_TC_WITHOUT_HEAD name ATF_TP_ADD_TC tp_name tc_name ATF_TP_ADD_TCS tp_name atf_tc_get_config_var tc varname atf_tc_get_config_var_wd tc variable_name default_value atf_tc_get_config_var_as_bool tc variable_name atf_tc_get_config_var_as_bool_wd tc variable_name default_value atf_tc_get_config_var_as_long tc variable_name atf_tc_get_config_var_as_long_wd tc variable_name default_value atf_no_error atf_tc_expect_death reason ... atf_tc_expect_exit exitcode reason ... atf_tc_expect_fail reason ... atf_tc_expect_pass atf_tc_expect_signal signo reason ... atf_tc_expect_timeout reason ... atf_tc_fail reason atf_tc_fail_nonfatal reason atf_tc_pass atf_tc_skip reason void
.Fo atf_utils_cat_file const char *file const char *prefix
.Fc bool
.Fo atf_utils_compare_file const char *file const char *contents
.Fc void
.Fo atf_utils_copy_file const char *source const char *destination
.Fc void
.Fo atf_utils_create_file const char *file const char *contents ...
.Fc void
.Fo atf_utils_file_exists const char *file
.Fc pid_t
.Fo atf_utils_fork void
.Fc void
.Fo atf_utils_free_charpp char **argv
.Fc bool
.Fo atf_utils_grep_file const char *regexp const char *file ...
.Fc bool
.Fo atf_utils_grep_string const char *regexp const char *str ...
.Fc char *
.Fo atf_utils_readline int fd
.Fc void
.Fo atf_utils_redirect const int fd const char *file
.Fc void
.Fo atf_utils_wait const pid_t pid const int expected_exit_status const char *expected_stdout const char *expected_stderr
.Fc

DESCRIPTION

ATF provides a C programming interface to implement test programs. C-based test programs follow this template:

... C-specific includes go here ...

#include <atf-c.h>

ATF_TC(tc1); ATF_TC_HEAD(tc1, tc) { ... first test case’s header ... } ATF_TC_BODY(tc1, tc) { ... first test case’s body ... }

ATF_TC_WITH_CLEANUP(tc2); ATF_TC_HEAD(tc2, tc) { ... second test case’s header ... } ATF_TC_BODY(tc2, tc) { ... second test case’s body ... } ATF_TC_CLEANUP(tc2, tc) { ... second test case’s cleanup ... }

ATF_TC_WITHOUT_HEAD(tc3); ATF_TC_BODY(tc3, tc) { ... third test case’s body ... }

... additional test cases ...

ATF_TP_ADD_TCS(tp) { ATF_TP_ADD_TC(tcs, tc1); ATF_TP_ADD_TC(tcs, tc2); ATF_TP_ADD_TC(tcs, tc3); ... add additional test cases ...

return atf_no_error(); }

    Definition of test cases

Test cases have an identifier and are composed of three different parts: the header, the body and an optional cleanup routine, all of which are described in atf-test-case(4). To define test cases, one can use the ATF_TC, ATF_TC_WITH_CLEANUP or the ATF_TC_WITHOUT_HEAD macros, which take a single parameter specifiying the test case’s name. ATF_TC, requires to define a head and a body for the test case, ATF_TC_WITH_CLEANUP requires to define a head, a body and a cleanup for the test case and ATF_TC_WITHOUT_HEAD requires only a body for the test case. It is important to note that these do not set the test case up for execution when the program is run. In order to do so, a later registration is needed with the ATF_TP_ADD_TC macro detailed in Program initialization.

Later on, one must define the three parts of the body by means of three functions. Their headers are given by the ATF_TC_HEAD, ATF_TC_BODY and ATF_TC_CLEANUP macros, all of which take the test case name provided to the ATF_TC ATF_TC_WITH_CLEANUP, or ATF_TC_WITHOUT_HEAD macros and the name of the variable that will hold a pointer to the test case data. Following each of these, a block of code is expected, surrounded by the opening and closing brackets.

    Program initialization

The library provides a way to easily define the test program’s main function. You should never define one on your own, but rely on the library to do it for you. This is done by using the ATF_TP_ADD_TCS macro, which is passed the name of the object that will hold the test cases; i.e. the test program instance. This name can be whatever you want as long as it is a valid variable identifier.

After the macro, you are supposed to provide the body of a function, which should only use the ATF_TP_ADD_TC macro to register the test cases the test program will execute and return a success error code. The first parameter of this macro matches the name you provided in the former call. The success status can be returned using the atf_no_error function.

    Header definitions

The test case’s header can define the meta-data by using the atf_tc_set_md_var method, which takes three parameters: the first one points to the test case data, the second one specifies the meta-data variable to be set and the third one specifies its value. Both of them are strings.

    Configuration variables

The test case has read-only access to the current configuration variables by means of the bool atf_tc_has_config_var, const char * atf_tc_get_config_var, const char * atf_tc_get_config_var_wd, bool atf_tc_get_config_var_as_bool, bool atf_tc_get_config_var_as_bool_wd, long atf_tc_get_config_var_as_long, and the long atf_tc_get_config_var_as_long_wd functions, which can be called in any of the three parts of a test case.

The '_wd' variants take a default value for the variable which is returned if the variable is not defined. The other functions without the '_wd' suffix require the variable to be defined.

    Access to the source directory

It is possible to get the path to the test case’s source directory from any of its three components by querying the 'srcdir' configuration variable.

    Requiring programs

Aside from the require.progs meta-data variable available in the header only, one can also check for additional programs in the test case’s body by using the atf_tc_require_prog function, which takes the base name or full path of a single binary. Relative paths are forbidden. If it is not found, the test case will be automatically skipped.

    Test case finalization

The test case finalizes either when the body reaches its end, at which point the test is assumed to have passed, unless any non-fatal errors were raised using atf_tc_fail_nonfatal, or at any explicit call to atf_tc_pass, atf_tc_fail or atf_tc_skip. These three functions terminate the execution of the test case immediately. The cleanup routine will be processed afterwards in a completely automated way, regardless of the test case’s termination reason.

atf_tc_pass does not take any parameters. atf_tc_fail, atf_tc_fail_nonfatal and atf_tc_skip take a format string and a variable list of parameters, which describe, in a user-friendly manner, why the test case failed or was skipped, respectively. It is very important to provide a clear error message in both cases so that the user can quickly know why the test did not pass.

    Expectations

Everything explained in the previous section changes when the test case expectations are redefined by the programmer.

Each test case has an internal state called 'expect' that describes what the test case expectations are at any point in time. The value of this property can change during execution by any of:
atf_tc_expect_death reason ...
  Expects the test case to exit prematurely regardless of the nature of the exit.
atf_tc_expect_exit exitcode reason ...
  Expects the test case to exit cleanly. If exitcode is not '-1', the runtime engine will validate that the exit code of the test case matches the one provided in this call. Otherwise, the exact value will be ignored.
atf_tc_expect_fail reason ...
  Any failure (be it fatal or non-fatal) raised in this mode is recorded. However, such failures do not report the test case as failed; instead, the test case finalizes cleanly and is reported as 'expected failure'; this report includes the provided reason as part of it. If no error is raised while running in this mode, then the test case is reported as 'failed'.

This mode is useful to reproduce actual known bugs in tests. Whenever the developer fixes the bug later on, the test case will start reporting a failure, signaling the developer that the test case must be adjusted to the new conditions. In this situation, it is useful, for example, to set reason as the bug number for tracking purposes.

atf_tc_expect_pass
  This is the normal mode of execution. In this mode, any failure is reported as such to the user and the test case is marked as 'failed'.
atf_tc_expect_signal signo reason ...
  Expects the test case to terminate due to the reception of a signal. If signo is not '-1', the runtime engine will validate that the signal that terminated the test case matches the one provided in this call. Otherwise, the exact value will be ignored.
atf_tc_expect_timeout reason ...
  Expects the test case to execute for longer than its timeout.

    Helper macros for common checks

The library provides several macros that are very handy in multiple situations. These basically check some condition after executing a given statement or processing a given expression and, if the condition is not met, they report the test case as failed.

The 'REQUIRE' variant of the macros immediately abort the test case as soon as an error condition is detected by calling the atf_tc_fail function. Use this variant whenever it makes no sense to continue the execution of a test case when the checked condition is not met. The 'CHECK' variant, on the other hand, reports a failure as soon as it is encountered using the atf_tc_fail_nonfatal function, but the execution of the test case continues as if nothing had happened. Use this variant whenever the checked condition is important as a result of the test case, but there are other conditions that can be subsequently checked on the same run without aborting.

Additionally, the 'MSG' variants take an extra set of parameters to explicitly specify the failure message. This failure message is formatted according to the printf(3) formatters.

ATF_CHECK, ATF_CHECK_MSG, ATF_REQUIRE and ATF_REQUIRE_MSG take an expression and fail if the expression evaluates to false.

ATF_CHECK_EQ, ATF_CHECK_EQ_MSG, ATF_REQUIRE_EQ and ATF_REQUIRE_EQ_MSG take two expressions and fail if the two evaluated values are not equal. The common style is to put the expected value in the first parameter and the actual value in the second parameter.

ATF_CHECK_MATCH, ATF_CHECK_MATCH_MSG, ATF_REQUIRE_MATCH and ATF_REQUIRE_MATCH_MSG take a regular expression and a string and fail if the regular expression does not match the given string. Note that the regular expression is not anchored, so it will match anywhere in the string.

ATF_CHECK_STREQ, ATF_CHECK_STREQ_MSG, ATF_REQUIRE_STREQ and ATF_REQUIRE_STREQ_MSG take two strings and fail if the two are not equal character by character. The common style is to put the expected string in the first parameter and the actual string in the second parameter.

ATF_CHECK_ERRNO and ATF_REQUIRE_ERRNO take, first, the error code that the check is expecting to find in the errno variable and, second, a boolean expression that, if evaluates to true, means that a call failed and errno has to be checked against the first value.

    Utility functions

The following functions are provided as part of the atf-c API to simplify the creation of a variety of tests. In particular, these are useful to write tests for command-line interfaces.

void
.Fo atf_utils_cat_file const char *file const char *prefix
.Fc

Prints the contents of

 file
to the standard output, prefixing every line with the string in

 prefix.

bool
.Fo atf_utils_compare_file const char *file const char *contents
.Fc

Returns true if the given

 file
matches exactly the expected inlined

 contents.

void
.Fo atf_utils_copy_file const char *source const char *destination
.Fc

Copies the file

 source
to

 destination.
The permissions of the file are preserved during the code.

void
.Fo atf_utils_create_file const char *file const char *contents ...
.Fc

Creates

 file
with the text given in

 contents,
which is a formatting string that uses the rest of the variable arguments.

void
.Fo atf_utils_file_exists const char *file
.Fc

Checks if

 file
exists.

pid_t
.Fo atf_utils_fork void
.Fc

Forks a process and redirects the standard output and standard error of the
child to files for later validation with

 atf_utils_wait.
Fails the test case if the fork fails, so this does not return an error.

void
.Fo atf_utils_free_charpp char **argv
.Fc

Frees a dynamically-allocated array of dynamically-allocated strings.

bool
.Fo atf_utils_grep_file const char *regexp const char *file ...
.Fc

Searches for the

 regexp,
which is a formatting string representing the regular expression,
in the

 file.
The variable arguments are used to construct the regular expression.

bool
.Fo atf_utils_grep_string const char *regexp const char *str ...
.Fc

Searches for the

 regexp,
which is a formatting string representing the regular expression,
in the literal string

 str.
The variable arguments are used to construct the regular expression.

char *
.Fo atf_utils_readline int fd
.Fc

Reads a line from the file descriptor

 fd.
The line, if any, is returned as a dynamically-allocated buffer that must be
released with

free(3).
If there was nothing to read, returns

'NULL'.

void
.Fo atf_utils_redirect const int fd const char *file
.Fc

Redirects the given file descriptor

 fd
to

 file.
This function exits the process in case of an error and does not properly mark
the test case as failed.
As a result, it should only be used in subprocesses of the test case; specially
those spawned by

 atf_utils_fork.

void
.Fo atf_utils_wait const pid_t pid const int expected_exit_status const char *expected_stdout const char *expected_stderr
.Fc

Waits and validates the result of a subprocess spawned with

 atf_utils_wait.
The validation involves checking that the subprocess exited cleanly and returned
the code specified in

 expected_exit_status
and that its standard output and standard error match the strings given in

 expected_stdout
and

 expected_stderr.

If any of the expected_stdout or expected_stderr strings are prefixed with 'save:', then they specify the name of the file into which to store the stdout or stderr of the subprocess, and no comparison is performed.

ENVIRONMENT

The following variables are recognized by atf-c but should not be overridden other than for testing purposes:

ATF_BUILD_CC Path to the C compiler.
ATF_BUILD_CFLAGS C compiler flags.
ATF_BUILD_CPP Path to the C/C++ preprocessor.
ATF_BUILD_CPPFLAGS C/C++ preprocessor flags.
ATF_BUILD_CXX Path to the C++ compiler.
ATF_BUILD_CXXFLAGS C++ compiler flags.

EXAMPLES

The following shows a complete test program with a single test case that validates the addition operator:
#include <atf-c.h>

ATF_TC(addition); ATF_TC_HEAD(addition, tc) { atf_tc_set_md_var(tc, "descr", "Sample tests for the addition operator"); } ATF_TC_BODY(addition, tc) { ATF_CHECK_EQ(0, 0 + 0); ATF_CHECK_EQ(1, 0 + 1); ATF_CHECK_EQ(1, 1 + 0);

ATF_CHECK_EQ(2, 1 + 1);

ATF_CHECK_EQ(300, 100 + 200); }

ATF_TC(string_formatting); ATF_TC_HEAD(string_formatting, tc) { atf_tc_set_md_var(tc, "descr", "Sample tests for the snprintf"); } ATF_TC_BODY(string_formatting, tc) { char buf[1024]; snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "a %s", "string"); ATF_CHECK_STREQ_MSG("a string", buf, "%s is not working"); }

ATF_TC(open_failure); ATF_TC_HEAD(open_failure, tc) { atf_tc_set_md_var(tc, "descr", "Sample tests for the open function"); } ATF_TC_BODY(open_failure, tc) { ATF_CHECK_ERRNO(ENOENT, open("non-existent", O_RDONLY) == -1); }

ATF_TC(known_bug); ATF_TC_HEAD(known_bug, tc) { atf_tc_set_md_var(tc, "descr", "Reproduces a known bug"); } ATF_TC_BODY(known_bug, tc) { atf_tc_expect_fail("See bug number foo/bar"); ATF_CHECK_EQ(3, 1 + 1); atf_tc_expect_pass(); ATF_CHECK_EQ(3, 1 + 2); }

ATF_TP_ADD_TCS(tp) { ATF_TP_ADD_TC(tp, addition); ATF_TP_ADD_TC(tp, string_formatting); ATF_TP_ADD_TC(tp, open_failure); ATF_TP_ADD_TC(tp, known_bug);

return atf_no_error(); }

SEE ALSO

atf-test-program(1), atf-test-case(4)
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