

inf()  A shortcut to return Math::BigInt>binf(). Useful because Perl does not always handle bareword inf properly. 
NaN()  A shortcut to return Math::BigInt>bnan(). Useful because Perl does not always handle bareword NaN properly. 
e 
# perl Mbigrat=e wle print e Returns Euler’s number e, aka exp(1). 
PI 
# perl Mbigrat=PI wle print PI Returns PI. 
bexp() 
bexp($power,$accuracy); Returns Euler’s number e raised to the appropriate power, to the wanted accuracy. Example:
# perl Mbigrat=bexp wle print bexp(1,80) 
bpi() 
bpi($accuracy); Returns PI to the wanted accuracy. Example:
# perl Mbigrat=bpi wle print bpi(80) 
upgrade()  Return the class that numbers are upgraded to, is in fact returning $Math::BigInt::upgrade. 
in_effect() 
use bigrat; print "in effect\n" if bigrat::in_effect; # true { no bigrat; print "in effect\n" if bigrat::in_effect; # false } Returns true or false if bigrat is in effect in the current scope. This method only works on Perl v5.9.4 or later. 
Math with the numbers is done (by default) by a module called
But a warning is in order. When using the following to make a copy of a number, only a shallow copy will be made.
$x = 9; $y = $x; $x = $y = 7;If you want to make a real copy, use the following:
$y = $x>copy();Using the copy or the original with overloaded math is okay, e.g. the following work:
$x = 9; $y = $x; print $x + 1, " ", $y,"\n"; # prints 10 9but calling any method that modifies the number directly will result in <B>bothB> the original and the copy being destroyed:
$x = 9; $y = $x; print $x>badd(1), " ", $y,"\n"; # prints 10 10 $x = 9; $y = $x; print $x>binc(1), " ", $y,"\n"; # prints 10 10 $x = 9; $y = $x; print $x>bmul(2), " ", $y,"\n"; # prints 18 18Using methods that do not modify, but testthe contents works:
$x = 9; $y = $x; $z = 9 if $x>is_zero(); # works fineSee the documentation about the copy constructor and = in overload, as well as the documentation in BigInt for further details.
bignum recognizes some options that can be passed while loading it via use. The options can (currently) be either a single letter form, or the long form. The following options exist:
a or accuracy This sets the accuracy for all math operations. The argument must be greater than or equal to zero. See Math::BigInt’s bround() function for details.
perl Mbigrat=a,50 le print sqrt(20)Note that setting precision and accuracy at the same time is not possible.
p or precision This sets the precision for all math operations. The argument can be any integer. Negative values mean a fixed number of digits after the dot, while a positive value rounds to this digit left from the dot. 0 or 1 mean round to integer. See Math::BigInt’s bfround() function for details.
perl Mbigrat=p,50 le print sqrt(20)Note that setting precision and accuracy at the same time is not possible.
t or trace This enables a trace mode and is primarily for debugging bignum or Math::BigInt/Math::BigFloat. l or lib Load a different math lib, see MATH LIBRARY.
perl Mbigrat=l,GMP e print 2 ** 512Currently there is no way to specify more than one library on the command line. This means the following does not work:
perl Mbignum=l,GMP,Pari e print 2 ** 512This will be hopefully fixed soon ;)
hex Override the builtin hex() method with a version that can handle big numbers. This overrides it by exporting it to the current package. Under Perl v5.10.0 and higher, this is not so necessary, as hex() is lexically overridden in the current scope whenever the bigrat pragma is active. oct Override the builtin oct() method with a version that can handle big numbers. This overrides it by exporting it to the current package. Under Perl v5.10.0 and higher, this is not so necessary, as oct() is lexically overridden in the current scope whenever the bigrat pragma is active. v or version This prints out the name and version of all modules used and then exits.
perl Mbigrat=v
Operator vs literal overloading bigrat works by overloading handling of integer and floating point literals, converting them to Math::BigInt or Math::BigRat objects. This means that arithmetic involving only string values or string literals will be performed using Perl’s builtin operators.
For example:
use bigrat; my $x = "900000000000000009"; my $y = "900000000000000007"; print $x  $y;will output 0 on default 32bit builds, since bigrat never sees the string literals. To ensure the expression is all treated as Math::BigInt or Math::BigRat objects, use a literal number in the expression:
print +(0+$x)  $y;in_effect() This method only works on Perl v5.9.4 or later. hex()/oct() bigint overrides these routines with versions that can also handle big integer values. Under Perl prior to version v5.9.4, however, this will not happen unless you specifically ask for it with the two import tags hex and oct  and then it will be global and cannot be disabled inside a scope with no bigint:
use bigint qw/hex oct/; print hex("0x1234567890123456"); { no bigint; print hex("0x1234567890123456"); }The second call to hex() will warn about a nonportable constant.
Compare this to:
use bigint; # will warn only under Perl older than v5.9.4 print hex("0x1234567890123456");
perl Mbigrat le print sqrt(33) perl Mbigrat le print 2*255 perl Mbigrat le print 4.5+2*255 perl Mbigrat le print 3/7 + 5/7 + 8/3 perl Mbigrat le print 12>is_odd(); perl Mbignum=l,GMP le print 7 ** 7777
This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
Especially bignum.Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::BigRat and Math::Big as well as Math::BigInt::Pari and Math::BigInt::GMP.
(C) by Tels <http://bloodgate.com/> in early 2002  2007.
perl v5.20.3  BIGRAT (3)  20160104 
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