GSP
Quick Navigator

Search Site

Unix VPS
A - Starter
B - Basic
C - Preferred
D - Commercial
MPS - Dedicated
Previous VPSs
* Sign Up! *

Support
Contact Us
Online Help
Handbooks
Domain Status
Man Pages

FAQ
Virtual Servers
Pricing
Billing
Technical

Network
Facilities
Connectivity
Topology Map

Miscellaneous
Server Agreement
Year 2038
Credits
 

USA Flag

 

 

Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  MANDOC (3)

NAME

mandoc, mandoc_escape, man_meta, man_mparse, man_node, mchars_alloc, mchars_free, mchars_num2char, mchars_num2uc, mchars_spec2cp, mchars_spec2str, mdoc_meta, mdoc_node, mparse_alloc, mparse_free, mparse_getkeep, mparse_keep, mparse_readfd, mparse_reset, mparse_result, mparse_strerror, mparse_strlevel - mandoc macro compiler library

CONTENTS

Library
Synopsis
Description
Reference
     Types
     Functions
     Variables
Implementation Notes
     Man and Mdoc Strings
     Man Abstract Syntax Tree
     Mdoc Abstract Syntax Tree
See Also
Authors

LIBRARY


.Lb mandoc

SYNOPSIS


.In man.h
.In mdoc.h
.In mandoc.h enum mandoc_esc
.Fo mandoc_escape const char **end const char **start int *sz
.Fc const struct man_meta *
.Fo man_meta const struct man *man
.Fc const struct mparse *
.Fo man_mparse const struct man *man
.Fc const struct man_node *
.Fo man_node const struct man *man
.Fc struct mchars * mchars_alloc void mchars_free struct mchars *p char mchars_num2char const char *cp size_t sz int mchars_num2uc const char *cp size_t sz const char *
.Fo mchars_spec2str const struct mchars *p const char *cp size_t sz size_t *rsz
.Fc int
.Fo mchars_spec2cp const struct mchars *p const char *cp size_t sz const char *
.Fc const struct mdoc_meta *
.Fo mdoc_meta const struct mdoc *mdoc
.Fc const struct mdoc_node *
.Fo mdoc_node const struct mdoc *mdoc
.Fc void
.Fo mparse_alloc enum mparset type enum mandoclevel wlevel mandocmsg msg void *msgarg
.Fc void
.Fo mparse_free struct mparse *parse
.Fc void
.Fo mparse_getkeep const struct mparse *parse
.Fc void
.Fo mparse_keep struct mparse *parse
.Fc enum mandoclevel
.Fo mparse_readfd struct mparse *parse int fd const char *fname
.Fc void
.Fo mparse_reset struct mparse *parse
.Fc void
.Fo mparse_result struct mparse *parse struct mdoc **mdoc struct man **man
.Fc const char *
.Fo mparse_strerror enum mandocerr
.Fc const char *
.Fo mparse_strlevel enum mandoclevel
.Fc
.Vt extern const char * const * man_macronames;
.Vt extern const char * const * mdoc_argnames;
.Vt extern const char * const * mdoc_macronames;
.Fd #define ASCII_NBRSP
.Fd #define ASCII_HYPH

DESCRIPTION

The mandoc library parses a Unix manual into an abstract syntax tree (AST). Unix manuals are composed of mdoc(7) or man(7), and may be mixed with roff(7), tbl(7), and eqn(7) invocations.

The following describes a general parse sequence:

  1. initiate a parsing sequence with mparse_alloc;
  2. parse files or file descriptors with mparse_readfd;
  3. retrieve a parsed syntax tree, if the parse was successful, with mparse_result;
  4. iterate over parse nodes with mdoc_node or man_node;
  5. free all allocated memory with mparse_free, or invoke mparse_reset and parse new files.

The mandoc library also contains routines for translating character strings into glyphs (see mchars_alloc) and parsing escape sequences from strings (see mandoc_escape).

REFERENCE

This section documents the functions, types, and variables available via
.In mandoc.h .

    Types

Vt enum mandoc_esc An escape sequence classification.
Vt enum mandocerr A fatal error, error, or warning message during parsing.
Vt enum mandoclevel A classification of an
.Vt enum mandoclevel as regards system operation.
Vt struct mchars An opaque pointer to an object allowing for translation between character strings and glyphs. See mchars_alloc.
Vt enum mparset The type of parser when reading input. This should usually be MPARSE_AUTO for auto-detection.
Vt struct mparse An opaque pointer to a running parse sequence. Created with mparse_alloc and freed with mparse_free. This may be used across parsed input if mparse_reset is called between parses.
Vt mandocmsg A prototype for a function to handle fatal error, error, and warning messages emitted by the parser.

    Functions

mandoc_escape Scan an escape sequence, i.e., a character string beginning with '\'. Pass a pointer to the character after the '\' as end; it will be set to the supremum of the parsed escape sequence unless returning ESCAPE_ERROR, in which case the string is bogus and should be thrown away. If not ESCAPE_ERROR or ESCAPE_IGNORE, start is set to the first relevant character of the substring (font, glyph, whatever) of length sz. Both start and sz may be NULL.
man_meta Obtain the meta-data of a successful parse. This may only be used on a pointer returned by mparse_result.
man_mparse Get the parser used for the current output.
man_node Obtain the root node of a successful parse. This may only be used on a pointer returned by mparse_result.
mchars_alloc Allocate an
.Vt struct mchars * object for translating special characters into glyphs. See mandoc_char(7) for an overview of special characters. The object must be freed with mchars_free.
mchars_free Free an object created with mchars_alloc.
mchars_num2char Convert a character index (e.g., the \N\(aq\(aq escape) into a printable ASCII character. Returns \0 (the nil character) if the input sequence is malformed.
mchars_num2uc Convert a hexadecimal character index (e.g., the \[uNNNN] escape) into a Unicode codepoint. Returns \0 (the nil character) if the input sequence is malformed.
mchars_spec2cp Convert a special character into a valid Unicode codepoint. Returns -1 on failure or a non-zero Unicode codepoint on success.
mchars_spec2str Convert a special character into an ASCII string. Returns NULL on failure.
mdoc_meta Obtain the meta-data of a successful parse. This may only be used on a pointer returned by mparse_result.
mdoc_node Obtain the root node of a successful parse. This may only be used on a pointer returned by mparse_result.
mparse_alloc Allocate a parser. The same parser may be used for multiple files so long as mparse_reset is called between parses. mparse_free must be called to free the memory allocated by this function.
mparse_free Free all memory allocated by mparse_alloc.
mparse_getkeep Acquire the keep buffer. Must follow a call of mparse_keep.
mparse_keep Instruct the parser to retain a copy of its parsed input. This can be acquired with subsequent mparse_getkeep calls.
mparse_readfd Parse a file or file descriptor. If fd is -1, fname is opened for reading. Otherwise, fname is assumed to be the name associated with fd. This may be called multiple times with different parameters; however, mparse_reset should be invoked between parses.
mparse_reset Reset a parser so that mparse_readfd may be used again.
mparse_result Obtain the result of a parse. Only successful parses ( i.e., those where mparse_readfd returned less than MANDOCLEVEL_FATAL ) should invoke this function, in which case one of the two pointers will be filled in.
mparse_strerror Return a statically-allocated string representation of an error code.
mparse_strlevel Return a statically-allocated string representation of a level code.

    Variables

man_macronames The string representation of a man macro as indexed by
.Vt enum mant .
mdoc_argnames The string representation of a mdoc macro argument as indexed by
.Vt enum mdocargt .
mdoc_macronames The string representation of a mdoc macro as indexed by
.Vt enum mdoct .

IMPLEMENTATION NOTES

This section consists of structural documentation for mdoc(7) and man(7) syntax trees and strings.

    Man and Mdoc Strings

Strings may be extracted from mdoc and man meta-data, or from text nodes (MDOC_TEXT and MAN_TEXT, respectively). These strings have special non-printing formatting cues embedded in the text itself, as well as roff(7) escapes preserved from input. Implementing systems will need to handle both situations to produce human-readable text. In general, strings may be assumed to consist of 7-bit ASCII characters.

The following non-printing characters may be embedded in text strings:
ASCII_NBRSP
  A non-breaking space character.
ASCII_HYPH
  A soft hyphen.

Escape characters are also passed verbatim into text strings. An escape character is a sequence of characters beginning with the backslash ('\'). To construct human-readable text, these should be intercepted with mandoc_escape and converted with one of mchars_num2char, mchars_spec2str, and so on.

    Man Abstract Syntax Tree

This AST is governed by the ontological rules dictated in man(7) and derives its terminology accordingly.

The AST is composed of
.Vt struct man_node nodes with element, root and text types as declared by the type field. Each node also provides its parse point (the line, sec, and pos fields), its position in the tree (the parent, child, next and prev fields) and some type-specific data.

The tree itself is arranged according to the following normal form, where capitalised non-terminals represent nodes.

ROOT <- mnode+
mnode <- ELEMENT | TEXT | BLOCK
BLOCK <- HEAD BODY
HEAD <- mnode*
BODY <- mnode*
ELEMENT <- ELEMENT | TEXT*
TEXT <- [[:ascii:]]*

The only elements capable of nesting other elements are those with next-lint scope as documented in man(7).

    Mdoc Abstract Syntax Tree

This AST is governed by the ontological rules dictated in mdoc(7) and derives its terminology accordingly. "In-line" elements described in mdoc(7) are described simply as "elements".

The AST is composed of
.Vt struct mdoc_node nodes with block, head, body, element, root and text types as declared by the type field. Each node also provides its parse point (the line, sec, and pos fields), its position in the tree (the parent, child, nchild, next and prev fields) and some type-specific data, in particular, for nodes generated from macros, the generating macro in the tok field.

The tree itself is arranged according to the following normal form, where capitalised non-terminals represent nodes.

ROOT <- mnode+
mnode <- BLOCK | ELEMENT | TEXT
BLOCK <- HEAD [TEXT] (BODY [TEXT])+ [TAIL [TEXT]]
ELEMENT <- TEXT*
HEAD <- mnode*
BODY <- mnode* [ENDBODY mnode*]
TAIL <- mnode*
TEXT <- [[:ascii:]]*

Of note are the TEXT nodes following the HEAD, BODY and TAIL nodes of the BLOCK production: these refer to punctuation marks. Furthermore, although a TEXT node will generally have a non-zero-length string, in the specific case of '.Bd -literal', an empty line will produce a zero-length string. Multiple body parts are only found in invocations of 'Bl -column', where a new body introduces a new phrase.

The mdoc(7) syntax tree accommodates for broken block structures as well. The ENDBODY node is available to end the formatting associated with a given block before the physical end of that block. It has a non-null end field, is of the BODY type, has the same tok as the BLOCK it is ending, and has a pending field pointing to that BLOCK’s BODY node. It is an indirect child of that BODY node and has no children of its own.

An ENDBODY node is generated when a block ends while one of its child blocks is still open, like in the following example:

.Ao ao
.Bo bo ac
.Ac bc
.Bc end

This example results in the following block structure:

BLOCK Ao
    HEAD Ao
    BODY Ao
        TEXT ao
        BLOCK Bo, pending -> Ao
            HEAD Bo
            BODY Bo
                TEXT bo
                TEXT ac
                ENDBODY Ao, pending -> Ao
                TEXT bc
TEXT end

Here, the formatting of the 'Ao' block extends from TEXT ao to TEXT ac, while the formatting of the 'Bo' block extends from TEXT bo to TEXT bc. It renders as follows in -T ascii mode:

    <ao [bo ac> bc] end

Support for badly-nested blocks is only provided for backward compatibility with some older mdoc(7) implementations. Using badly-nested blocks is strongly discouraged; for example, the -T html and -T xhtml front-ends to mandoc(1) are unable to render them in any meaningful way. Furthermore, behaviour when encountering badly-nested blocks is not consistent across troff implementations, especially when using multiple levels of badly-nested blocks.

SEE ALSO

mandoc(1), eqn(7), man(7), mandoc_char(7), mdoc(7), roff(7), tbl(7)

AUTHORS

The mandoc library was written by
.An Kristaps Dzonsons ,
.Mt kristaps@bsd.lv .
Search for    or go to Top of page |  Section 3 |  Main Index


Powered by GSP Visit the GSP FreeBSD Man Page Interface.
Output converted with manServer 1.07.