Concatenated Disk driver
driver provides the capability of
combining one or more disks/partitions into one virtual disk.
This document assumes that you are familiar with how to generate kernels, how to
properly configure disks and devices in a kernel configuration file, and how
to partition disks.
In order to compile in support for the
you must add a line similar to the following to your kernel configuration
device ccd # concatenated disk
As of the FreeBSD 3.0
release, you do not need to
configure your kernel with
instead use it as a kernel loadable module. Simply running
will load the module into the kernel.
may be either serially concatenated or
interleaved. To serially concatenate the partitions, specify the interleave
factor of 0. Note that mirroring may not be used with an interleave factor of
There is a run-time utility that is used for configuring
for more information.
is interleaved correctly, a
“striping” effect is achieved, which can increase sequential
read/write performance. The interleave factor is expressed in units of
(usually 512 bytes). For large
writes, the optimum interleave factor is typically the size of a track, while
for large reads, it is about a quarter of a track. (Note that this changes
greatly depending on the number and speed of disks.) For instance, with eight
7,200 RPM drives on two Fast-Wide SCSI buses, this translates to about 128 for
writes and 32 for reads. A larger interleave tends to work better when the
disk is taking a multitasking load by localizing the file I/O from any given
process onto a single disk. You lose sequential performance when you do this,
but sequential performance is not usually an issue with a multitasking load.
An interleave factor must be specified when using a mirroring configuration,
even when you have only two disks (i.e., the layout winds up being the same no
matter what the interleave factor). The interleave factor will determine how
I/O is broken up, however, and a value 128 or greater is recommended.
has an option for a parity disk, but does
not currently implement it.
The best performance is achieved if all component disks have the same geometry
and size. Optimum striping cannot occur with different disk types.
For random-access oriented workloads, such as news servers, a larger interleave
factor (e.g., 65,536) is more desirable. Note that there is not much
can do to speed up applications that
are seek-time limited. Larger interleave factors will at least reduce the
chance of having to seek two disk-heads to read one directory or a file.
You can configure the
“mirror” any even number of disks. See
for how to specify the necessary flags. For example, if you have a
configuration specifying four disks,
the first two disks will be mirrored with the second two disks. A write will
be run to both sides of the mirror. A read will be run to either side of the
mirror depending on what the driver believes to be most optimal. If the read
fails, the driver will automatically attempt to read the same sector from the
other side of the mirror. Currently
uses a dual seek zone model to optimize reads for a multi-tasking load rather
than a sequential load.
In an event of a disk failure, you can use
to recover the failed disk.
Note that a one-disk
is not the same as
the original partition. In particular, this means if you have a file system on
a two-disk mirrored
and one of the
disks fail, you cannot mount and use the remaining partition as itself; you
have to configure it as a one-disk
cannot replace a disk in a mirrored
partition without first backing up the partition, then replacing the disk,
then restoring the partition.
The Linux compatibility mode does not try to read the label that Linux'
driver leaves on the raw devices. You will have to give the order of devices
and the interleave factor on your own. When in Linux compatibility mode,
will convert the interleave factor from
Linux terminology. That means you give the same interleave factor that you
gave as chunk size in Linux.
If you have a Linux
device in “legacy” mode, do not use the
flag instead. In
that case you have to convert the interleave factor on your own, usually it is
Linux' chunk size multiplied by two.
Using a Linux RAID this way is potentially dangerous and can destroy the data in
there. Since FreeBSD
does not read the label used by
Linux, changes in Linux might invalidate the compatibility layer.
However, using this is reasonably safe if you test the compatibility before
mounting a RAID read-write for the first time. Just using
without mounting does not write anything to the Linux RAID. Then you do a
) on the
device using the
flag. You can mount the file system
read-only to check files in there. If all this works, it is unlikely that
there is a problem with
. Keep in mind
that even when the Linux compatibility mode in
is working correctly, bugs in
implementation would still destroy your data.
If just one (or more) of the disks in a
fails, the entire file system will be lost unless you are mirroring the disks.
If one of the disks in a mirror is lost, you should still be able to back up
your data. If a write error occurs, however, data read from that sector may be
non-deterministic. It may return the data prior to the write or it may return
the data that was written. When a write error occurs, you should recover and
regenerate the data as soon as possible.
Changing the interleave or other parameters for a
disk usually destroys whatever data
previously existed on that disk.
ccd device special files
The concatenated disk driver was originally written at the University of