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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  RAL (4)

NAME

ral - Ralink Technology IEEE 802.11a/g/n wireless network device

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Hardware
Examples
Diagnostics
See Also
History
Authors
Caveats

SYNOPSIS

To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your kernel configuration file:


.Cd device ral
.Cd device ralfw
.Cd device wlan
.Cd device wlan_amrr
.Cd device firmware

Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in loader.conf(5):

if_ral_load="YES"

DESCRIPTION

The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters based on the Ralink RT2500, RT2501, RT2600, RT2700, RT2800, RT3090 and RT3900E chipsets.

The RT2500 chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2560 MAC/BBP and an RT2525 radio transceiver.

The RT2501 chipset is the second generation of 802.11a/b/g adapters from Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2561 MAC/BBP and an RT2527 radio transceiver. This chipset provides support for the IEEE 802.11e standard with multiple hardware transmission queues and allows scatter/gather for efficient DMA operations.

The RT2600 chipset consists of two integrated chips, an RT2661 MAC/BBP and an RT2529 radio transceiver. This chipset uses the MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) technology with multiple radio transceivers to extend the operating range of the adapter and to achieve higher throughput. However, the RT2600 chipset does not support any of the 802.11n features.

The RT2700 chipset is a low-cost version of the RT2800 chipset. It supports a single transmit path and two receiver paths (1T2R). It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2760 or RT2790 (PCIe) MAC/BBP and an RT2720 (2.4GHz) or RT2750 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver.

The RT2800 chipset is the first generation of 802.11n adapters from Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2860 or RT2890 (PCIe) MAC/BBP and an RT2820 (2.4GHz) or RT2850 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver. The RT2800 chipset supports two transmit paths and up to three receiver paths (2T2R/2T3R). It can achieve speeds up to 144Mbps (20MHz bandwidth) and 300Mbps (40MHz bandwidth.)

The RT3090 chipset is the first generation of single-chip 802.11n adapters from Ralink. ral supports station, adhoc, hostap, mesh, wds, and monitor mode operation. Only one hostap or mesh virtual interface may be configured at a time. Any number of wds virtual interfaces may be configured together with a hostap interface. Multiple station interfaces may be operated together with a hostap interface to construct a wireless repeater device.

The RT3900E chipset is a single-chip 802.11n adapters from Ralink. The MAC/Baseband Processor can be an RT5390 or RT5392. The RT5390 chip operates in the 2GHz spectrum and supports 1 transmit path and 1 receiver path (1T1R). The RT5392 chip operates in the 2GHz spectrum and supports up to 2 transmit paths and 2 receiver paths (2T2R).

The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by the driver depending on the number of hardware transmission retries. For more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

HARDWARE

The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters based on Ralink Technology chipsets, including:

Card      MAC/BBP      Bus
A-Link WL54H      RT2560      PCI
A-Link WL54PC      RT2560      CardBus
AirLink101 AWLC5025      RT2661      CardBus
AirLink101 AWLH5025      RT2661      PCI
Amigo AWI-914W      RT2560      CardBus
Amigo AWI-922W      RT2560      mini-PCI
Amigo AWI-926W      RT2560      PCI
AMIT WL531C      RT2560      CardBus
AMIT WL531P      RT2560      PCI
AOpen AOI-831      RT2560      PCI
ASUS WL-107G      RT2560      CardBus
ASUS WL-130g      RT2560      PCI
Atlantis Land A02-PCI-W54      RT2560      PCI
Atlantis Land A02-PCM-W54      RT2560      CardBus
Belkin F5D7000 v3      RT2560      PCI
Belkin F5D7010 v2      RT2560      CardBus
Billionton MIWLGRL      RT2560      mini-PCI
Canyon CN-WF511      RT2560      PCI
Canyon CN-WF513      RT2560      CardBus
CC&C WL-2102      RT2560      CardBus
CNet CWC-854      RT2560      CardBus
CNet CWP-854      RT2560      PCI
Compex WL54G      RT2560      CardBus
Compex WLP54G      RT2560      PCI
Conceptronic C54RC      RT2560      CardBus
Conceptronic C54Ri      RT2560      PCI
D-Link DWA-525 rev A2      RT5392      PCI
Digitus DN-7001G-RA      RT2560      CardBus
Digitus DN-7006G-RA      RT2560      PCI
E-Tech WGPC02      RT2560      CardBus
E-Tech WGPI02      RT2560      PCI
Edimax EW-7108PCg      RT2560      CardBus
Edimax EW-7128g      RT2560      PCI
Eminent EM3036      RT2560      CardBus
Eminent EM3037      RT2560      PCI
Encore ENLWI-G-RLAM      RT2560      PCI
Encore ENPWI-G-RLAM      RT2560      CardBus
Fiberline WL-400P      RT2560      PCI
Fibreline WL-400X      RT2560      CardBus
Gigabyte GN-WI01GS      RT2561S      mini-PCI
Gigabyte GN-WIKG      RT2560      mini-PCI
Gigabyte GN-WMKG      RT2560      CardBus
Gigabyte GN-WP01GS      RT2561S      PCI
Gigabyte GN-WPKG      RT2560      PCI
Hawking HWC54GR      RT2560      CardBus
Hawking HWP54GR      RT2560      PCI
iNexQ CR054g-009 (R03)      RT2560      PCI
JAHT WN-4054P      RT2560      CardBus
JAHT WN-4054PCI      RT2560      PCI
LevelOne WNC-0301 v2      RT2560      PCI
LevelOne WPC-0301 v2      RT2560      CardBus
Linksys WMP54G v4      RT2560      PCI
Micronet SP906GK      RT2560      PCI
Micronet SP908GK V3      RT2560      CardBus
Minitar MN54GCB-R      RT2560      CardBus
Minitar MN54GPC-R      RT2560      PCI
MSI CB54G2      RT2560      CardBus
MSI MP54G2      RT2560      mini-PCI
MSI PC54G2      RT2560      PCI
OvisLink EVO-W54PCI      RT2560      PCI
PheeNet HWL-PCIG/RA      RT2560      PCI
Pro-Nets CB80211G      RT2560      CardBus
Pro-Nets PC80211G      RT2560      PCI
Repotec RP-WB7108      RT2560      CardBus
Repotec RP-WP0854      RT2560      PCI
SATech SN-54C      RT2560      CardBus
SATech SN-54P      RT2560      PCI
Sitecom WL-112      RT2560      CardBus
Sitecom WL-115      RT2560      PCI
SMC SMCWCB-GM      RT2661      CardBus
SMC SMCWPCI-GM      RT2661      PCI
SparkLAN WL-685R      RT2560      CardBus
Surecom EP-9321-g      RT2560      PCI
Surecom EP-9321-g1      RT2560      PCI
Surecom EP-9428-g      RT2560      CardBus
Sweex LC500050      RT2560      CardBus
Sweex LC700030      RT2560      PCI
TekComm NE-9321-g      RT2560      PCI
TekComm NE-9428-g      RT2560      CardBus
Unex CR054g-R02      RT2560      PCI
Unex MR054g-R02      RT2560      CardBus
Zinwell ZWX-G160      RT2560      CardBus
Zinwell ZWX-G360      RT2560      mini-PCI
Zinwell ZWX-G361      RT2560      PCI
Zonet ZEW1500      RT2560      CardBus
Zonet ZEW1600      RT2560      PCI
 

EXAMPLES

Join an existing BSS network (i.e., connect to an access point):

    ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00

Join a specific BSS network with network name "my_net":

ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
    netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

Join a specific BSS network with 40-bit WEP encryption:

ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
    netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
    wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 weptxkey 1

Join a specific BSS network with 104-bit WEP encryption:

ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
    netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
    wepmode on wepkey 0x01020304050607080910111213 weptxkey 1

DIAGNOSTICS

ral%d: could not load 8051 microcode An error occurred while attempting to upload the microcode to the onboard 8051 microcontroller unit.
ral%d: timeout waiting for MCU to initialize The onboard 8051 microcontroller unit failed to initialize in time.
ral%d: device timeout A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission did not complete in time. The driver will reset the hardware. This should not happen.

SEE ALSO

intro(4), cardbus(4), wlan(4), wlan_ccmp(4), wlan_tkip(4), wlan_wep(4), wlan_xauth(4), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8), wpa_supplicant(8)
.Rs Ralink Technology
.Re

HISTORY

The ral driver first appeared in
.Ox 3.7 . Support for the RT2501 and RT2600 chipsets was added in
.Ox 3.9 . Support for the RT2800 chipset was added in
.Ox 4.3 . Support for the RT2700 chipset was added in
.Ox 4.4 . Support for the RT3090 chipset was added in
.Ox 4.9 .

AUTHORS

The original ral driver was written by
.An Damien Bergamini Aq damien@openbsd.org .

CAVEATS

The ral driver does not make use of the hardware cryptographic engine.

The ral driver does not support any of the 802.11n capabilities offered by the RT2700 and RT2800 chipsets. Additional work is required in before those features can be supported.

Host AP mode doesn’t support power saving. Clients attempting to use power saving mode may experience significant packet loss (disabling power saving on the client will fix this).

Some PCI ral adapters seem to strictly require a system supporting PCI 2.2 or greater and will likely not work in systems based on older revisions of the PCI specification. Check the board’s PCI version before purchasing the card.

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