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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  AUDIT.LOG (5)

NAME

audit - Basic Security Module (BSM) file format

CONTENTS

Description
     File Token
     Header Token
     Expanded Header Token
     Trailer Token
     Arbitrary Data Token
     Expanded in_addr Token
     Path Token
     Process Token
     Expanded Process Token
     Return Token
     Subject Token
     Expanded Subject Token
     System V IPC Token
     Text Token
     Attribute Token
     Groups Token
     System V IPC Permission Token
     Arg Token
     Exit Token
     Socket Token
     Expanded Socket Token
     Seq Token
     Use-of-auth Token
     Command Token
     ACL Token
     Zonename Token
See Also
History
Authors
Bugs

DESCRIPTION

The audit file format is based on Sun’s Basic Security Module (BSM) file format, a token-based record stream to represent system audit data. This file format is both flexible and extensible, able to describe a broad range of data types, and easily extended to describe new data types in a moderately backward and forward compatible way.

BSM token streams typically begin and end with a "file" token, which provides time stamp and file name information for the stream; when processing a BSM token stream from a stream as opposed to a single file source, file tokens may be seen at any point between ordinary records identifying when particular parts of the stream begin and end. All other tokens will appear in the context of a complete BSM audit record, which begins with a "header" token, and ends with a "trailer" token, which describe the audit record. Between these two tokens will appear a variety of data tokens, such as process information, file path names, IPC object information, MAC labels, socket information, and so on.

The BSM file format defines specific token orders for each record event type; however, some variation may occur depending on the operating system in use, what system options, such as mandatory access control, are present.

This manual page documents the common token types and their binary format, and is intended for reference purposes only. It is recommended that application programmers use the libbsm(3) interface to read and write tokens, rather than parsing or constructing records by hand.

    File Token

The "file" token is used at the beginning and end of an audit log file to indicate when the audit log begins and ends. It includes a pathname so that, if concatenated together, original file boundaries are still observable, and gaps in the audit log can be identified. A "file" token can be created using au_to_file(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Seconds       4 bytes File time stamp
Microseconds  4 bytes File time stamp
File name length      2 bytes File name of audit trail
File pathname N bytes + 1 NUL File name of audit trail
 

    Header Token

The "header" token is used to mark the beginning of a complete audit record, and includes the length of the total record in bytes, a version number for the record layout, the event type and subtype, and the time at which the event occurred. A 32-bit "header" token can be created using au_to_header32(3); a 64-bit "header" token can be created using au_to_header64(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Record Byte Count     4 bytes Number of bytes in record
Version Number        2 bytes Record version number
Event Type    2 bytes Event type
Event Modifier        2 bytes Event sub-type
Seconds       4/8 bytes       Record time stamp (32/64-bits)
Nanoseconds   4/8 bytes       Record time stamp (32/64-bits)
 

    Expanded Header Token

The "expanded header" token is an expanded version of the "header" token, with the addition of a machine IPv4 or IPv6 address. A 32-bit extended "header" token can be created using au_to_header32_ex(3); a 64-bit extended "header" token can be created using au_to_header64_ex(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Record Byte Count     4 bytes Number of bytes in record
Version Number        2 bytes Record version number
Event Type    2 bytes Event type
Event Modifier        2 bytes Event sub-type
Address Type/Length   1 byte  Host address type and length
Machine Address       4/16 bytes      IPv4 or IPv6 address
Seconds       4/8 bytes       Record time stamp (32/64-bits)
Nanoseconds   4/8 bytes       Record time stamp (32/64-bits)
 

    Trailer Token

The "trailer" terminates a BSM audit record, and contains a magic number, AUT_TRAILER_MAGIC and length that can be used to validate that the record was read properly. A "trailer" token can be created using au_to_trailer(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Trailer Magic 2 bytes Trailer magic number
Record Byte Count     4 bytes Number of bytes in record
 

    Arbitrary Data Token

The "arbitrary data" token contains a byte stream of opaque (untyped) data. The size of the data is calculated as the size of each unit of data multiplied by the number of units of data. A "How to print" field is present to specify how to print the data, but interpretation of that field is not currently defined. An "arbitrary data" token can be created using au_to_data(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
How to Print  1 byte  User-defined printing information
Basic Unit    1 byte  Size of a unit in bytes
Unit Count    1 byte  Number of units of data present
Data Items    Variable        User data
 

    in_addr Token

The "in_addr" token holds a network byte order IPv4 address. An "in_addr" token can be created using au_to_in_addr(3) for an IPv4 address.
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
IP Address    4 bytes IPv4 address
 

    Expanded in_addr Token

The "in_addr_ex" token holds a network byte order IPv4 or IPv6 address. An "in_addr_ex" token can be created using au_to_in_addr_ex(3) for an IPv6 address.

See the BUGS section for information on the storage of this token.
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
IP Address Type       1 byte  Type of address
IP Address    4/16 bytes      IPv4 or IPv6 address
 

    ip Token

The "ip" token contains an IP packet header in network byte order. An "ip" token can be created using au_to_ip(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Version and IHL       1 byte  Version and IP header length
Type of Service       1 byte  IP TOS field
Length        2 bytes IP packet length in network byte order
ID    2 bytes IP header ID for reassembly
Offset        2 bytes IP fragment offset and flags, network byte order
TTL   1 byte  IP Time-to-Live
Protocol      1 byte  IP protocol number
Checksum      2 bytes IP header checksum, network byte order
Source Address        4 bytes IPv4 source address
Destination Address   4 bytes IPv4 destination address
 

    iport Token

The "iport" token stores an IP port number in network byte order. An "iport" token can be created using au_to_iport(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Port Number   2 bytes Port number in network byte order
 

    Path Token

The "path" token contains a pathname. A "path" token can be created using au_to_path(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Path Length   2 bytes Length of path in bytes
Path  N bytes + 1 NUL Path name
 

    path_attr Token

The "path_attr" token contains a set of NUL-terminated path names. The libbsm(3) API cannot currently create a "path_attr" token.
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Count 2 bytes Number of NUL-terminated string(s) in token
Path  Variable        count NUL-terminated string(s)
 

    Process Token

The "process" token contains a description of the security properties of a process involved as the target of an auditable event, such as the destination for signal delivery. It should not be confused with the "subject" token, which describes the subject performing an auditable event. This includes both the traditional Unix security properties, such as user IDs and group IDs, but also audit information such as the audit user ID and session. A "process" token can be created using au_to_process32(3) or au_to_process64(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Audit ID      4 bytes Audit user ID
Effective User ID     4 bytes Effective user ID
Effective Group ID    4 bytes Effective group ID
Real User ID  4 bytes Real user ID
Real Group ID 4 bytes Real group ID
Process ID    4 bytes Process ID
Session ID    4 bytes Audit session ID
Terminal Port ID      4/8 bytes       Terminal port ID (32/64-bits)
Terminal Machine Address      4 bytes IP address of machine
 

    Expanded Process Token

The "expanded process" token contains the contents of the "process" token, with the addition of a machine address type and variable length address storage capable of containing IPv6 addresses. An "expanded process" token can be created using au_to_process32_ex(3) or au_to_process64_ex(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Audit ID      4 bytes Audit user ID
Effective User ID     4 bytes Effective user ID
Effective Group ID    4 bytes Effective group ID
Real User ID  4 bytes Real user ID
Real Group ID 4 bytes Real group ID
Process ID    4 bytes Process ID
Session ID    4 bytes Audit session ID
Terminal Port ID      4/8 bytes       Terminal port ID (32/64-bits)
Terminal Address Type/Length  1 byte  Length of machine address
Terminal Machine Address      4 bytes IPv4 or IPv6 address of machine
 

    Return Token

The "return" token contains a system call or library function return condition, including return value and error number associated with the global variable errno. A "return" token can be created using au_to_return32(3) or au_to_return64(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Error Number  1 byte  Errno value, or 0 if undefined
Return Value  4/8 bytes       Return value (32/64-bits)
 

    Subject Token

The "subject" token contains information on the subject performing the operation described by an audit record, and includes similar information to that found in the "process" and "expanded process" tokens. However, those tokens are used where the process being described is the target of the operation, not the authorizing party. A "subject" token can be created using au_to_subject32(3) and au_to_subject64(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Audit ID      4 bytes Audit user ID
Effective User ID     4 bytes Effective user ID
Effective Group ID    4 bytes Effective group ID
Real User ID  4 bytes Real user ID
Real Group ID 4 bytes Real group ID
Process ID    4 bytes Process ID
Session ID    4 bytes Audit session ID
Terminal Port ID      4/8 bytes       Terminal port ID (32/64-bits)
Terminal Machine Address      4 bytes IP address of machine
 

    Expanded Subject Token

The "expanded subject" token consists of the same elements as the "subject" token, with the addition of type/length and variable size machine address information in the terminal ID. An "expanded subject" token can be created using au_to_subject32_ex(3) or au_to_subject64_ex(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Audit ID      4 bytes Audit user ID
Effective User ID     4 bytes Effective user ID
Effective Group ID    4 bytes Effective group ID
Real User ID  4 bytes Real user ID
Real Group ID 4 bytes Real group ID
Process ID    4 bytes Process ID
Session ID    4 bytes Audit session ID
Terminal Port ID      4/8 bytes       Terminal port ID (32/64-bits)
Terminal Address Type/Length  1 byte  Length of machine address
Terminal Machine Address      4 bytes IPv4 or IPv6 address of machine
 

    System V IPC Token

The "System V IPC" token contains the System V IPC message handle, semaphore handle or shared memory handle. A System V IPC token may be created using +.Xr au_to_ipc 3 .
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Object ID type        1 byte  Object ID
Object ID     4 bytes Object ID
 

    Text Token

The "text" token contains a single NUL-terminated text string. A "text" token may be created using au_to_text(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Text Length   2 bytes Length of text string including NUL
Text  N bytes + 1 NUL Text string including NUL
 

    Attribute Token

The "attribute" token describes the attributes of a file associated with the audit event. As files may be identified by 0, 1, or many path names, a path name is not included with the attribute block for a file; optional "path" tokens may also be present in an audit record indicating which path, if any, was used to reach the object. An "attribute" token can be created using au_to_attr32(3) or au_to_attr64(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
File Access Mode      1 byte  mode_t associated with file
Owner User ID 4 bytes uid_t associated with file
Owner Group ID        4 bytes gid_t associated with file
File System ID        4 bytes fsid_t associated with file
File System Node ID   8 bytes ino_t associated with file
Device        4/8 bytes       Device major/minor number (32/64-bit)
 

    Groups Token

The "groups" token contains a list of group IDs associated with the audit event. A "groups" token can be created using au_to_groups(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Number of Groups      2 bytes Number of groups in token
Group List    N * 4 bytes     List of N group IDs
 

    System V IPC Permission Token

The "System V IPC permission" token contains a System V IPC access permissions. A System V IPC permission token may be created using au_to_ipc_perm(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Owner user ID      4 bytes      User ID of IPC owner
Owner group ID      4 bytes      Group ID of IPC owner
Creator user ID      4 bytes      User ID of IPC creator
Creator group ID      4 bytes      Group ID of IPC creator
Access mode      4 bytes      Access mode
Sequence number      4 bytes      Sequence number
Key      4 bytes      IPC key
 

    Arg Token

The "arg" token contains information about arguments of the system call. Depending on the size of the desired argument value, an Arg token may be created using au_to_arg32(3) or au_to_arg64(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Argument ID      1 byte      Argument ID
Argument value      4/8 bytes      Argument value
Length      2 bytes      Length of the text
Text      N bytes + 1 nul      The string including nul
 

    exec_args Token

The "exec_args" token contains information about arguments of the exec() system call. An exec_args token may be created using au_to_exec_args(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Count      4 bytes      Number of arguments
Text      * bytes      Count nul-terminated strings
 

    exec_env Token

The "exec_env" token contains current environment variables to an exec() system call. An exec_args token may be created using au_to_exec_env(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Count ID      4 bytes      Number of variables
Text      * bytes      Count nul-terminated strings
 

    Exit Token

The "exit" token contains process exit/return code information. An "exit" token can be created using au_to_exit(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Status        4 bytes Process status on exit
Return Value  4 bytes Process return value on exit
 

    Socket Token

The "socket" token contains information about UNIX domain and Internet sockets. Each token has four or eight fields. Depending on the type of socket, a socket token may be created using au_to_sock_unix(3), au_to_sock_inet32(3) or au_to_sock_inet128(3).
Field      Bytes      Description
Token ID      1 byte      Token ID
Socket family      2 bytes      Socket family
Local port      2 bytes      Local port
Socket address      4 bytes      Socket address
 

    Expanded Socket Token

The "expanded socket" token contains information about IPv4 and IPv6 sockets. A "expanded socket" token can be created using au_to_socket_ex(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte      Token ID
Socket domain      2 bytes      Socket domain
Socket type      2 bytes      Socket type
Address type      2 byte      Address type (IPv4/IPv6)
Local port      2 bytes      Local port
Local IP address      4/16 bytes      Local IP address
Remote port      2 bytes      Remote port
Remote IP address      4/16 bytes      Remote IP address
 

    Seq Token

The "seq" token contains a unique and monotonically increasing audit event sequence ID. Due to the limited range of 32 bits, serial number arithmetic and caution should be used when comparing sequence numbers.
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Sequence Number       4 bytes Audit event sequence number
 

    privilege Token

The "privilege" token ...
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
 

    Use-of-auth Token

The "use-of-auth" token ...
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
 

    Command Token

The "command" token ...
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
 

    ACL Token

The "ACL" token ...
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
 

    Zonename Token

The "zonename" token holds a NUL-terminated string with the name of the zone or jail from which the record originated. A "zonename" token can be created using au_to_zonename(3).
Field  Bytes   Description
Token ID      1 byte  Token ID
Zonename length       2 bytes Length of zonename string including NUL
Zonename      N bytes + 1 NUL Zonename string including NUL
 

SEE ALSO

auditreduce(1), praudit(1), libbsm(3), audit(4), auditpipe(4), audit(8)

HISTORY

The OpenBSM implementation was created by McAfee Research, the security division of McAfee Inc., under contract to Apple Computer Inc. in 2004. It was subsequently adopted by the TrustedBSD Project as the foundation for the OpenBSM distribution.

AUTHORS

The Basic Security Module (BSM) interface to audit records and audit event stream format were defined by Sun Microsystems.

This manual page was written by
.An Robert Watson Aq rwatson@FreeBSD.org .

BUGS

The "How to print" field in the "arbitrary data" token has undefined values.

The "in_addr" and "in_addr_ex" token layout documented here appears to be in conflict with the libbsm(3) implementation of au_to_in_addr_ex(3).

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