|o||any path matches itself|
o the pathspec up to the last slash represents a directory prefix. The scope of that pathspec is limited to that subtree.
o the rest of the pathspec is a pattern for the remainder of the pathname. Paths relative to the directory prefix will be matched against that pattern using fnmatch(3); in particular, * and ?can match directory separators.
For example, Documentation/*.jpg will match all .jpg files in the Documentation subtree, including Documentation/chapter_1/figure_1.jpg.
A pathspec that begins with a colon : has special meaning. In the short form, the leading colon : is followed by zero or more "magic signature" letters (which optionally is terminated by another colon :), and the remainder is the pattern to match against the path. The "magic signature" consists of ASCII symbols that are neither alphanumeric, glob, regex special characters nor colon. The optional colon that terminates the "magic signature" can be omitted if the pattern begins with a character that does not belong to "magic signature" symbol set and is not a colon.
In the long form, the leading colon : is followed by a open parenthesis (, a comma-separated list of zero or more "magic words", and a close parentheses ), and the remainder is the pattern to match against the path.
A pathspec with only a colon means "there is no pathspec". This form should not be combined with other pathspec.
The magic word top (magic signature: /) makes the pattern match from the root of the working tree, even when you are running the command from inside a subdirectory.
Wildcards in the pattern such as * or ? are treated as literal characters.
Case insensitive match.
Git treats the pattern as a shell glob suitable for consumption by fnmatch(3) with the FNM_PATHNAME flag: wildcards in the pattern will not match a / in the pathname. For example, "Documentation/*.html" matches "Documentation/git.html" but not "Documentation/ppc/ppc.html" or "tools/perf/Documentation/perf.html".
Two consecutive asterisks ("**") in patterns matched against full pathname may have special meaning:
o A leading "**" followed by a slash means match in all directories. For example, "**/foo" matches file or directory "foo" anywhere, the same as pattern "foo". "**/foo/bar" matches file or directory "bar" anywhere that is directly under directory "foo".
o A trailing "/**" matches everything inside. For example, "abc/**" matches all files inside directory "abc", relative to the location of the .gitignore file, with infinite depth.
o A slash followed by two consecutive asterisks then a slash matches zero or more directories. For example, "a/**/b" matches "a/b", "a/x/b", "a/x/y/b" and so on.
o Other consecutive asterisks are considered invalid.
Glob magic is incompatible with literal magic.
After a path matches any non-exclude pathspec, it will be run through all exclude pathspec (magic signature: !). If it matches, the path is ignored.
A commit object contains a (possibly empty) list of the logical predecessor(s) in the line of development, i.e. its parents.
The term pickaxe refers to an option to the diffcore routines that help select changes that add or delete a given text string. With the --pickaxe-all option, it can be used to view the full changeset that introduced or removed, say, a particular line of text. See git-diff(1).
Cute name for core Git.
Cute name for programs and program suites depending on core Git, presenting a high level access to core Git. Porcelains expose more of a SCM interface than the plumbing.
Refs that are per-worktree, rather than global. This is presently only HEAD and any refs that start with refs/bisect/, but might later include other unusual refs.
Pseudorefs are a class of files under $GIT_DIR which behave like refs for the purposes of rev-parse, but which are treated specially by git. Pseudorefs both have names that are all-caps, and always start with a line consisting of a SHA-1 followed by whitespace. So, HEAD is not a pseudoref, because it is sometimes a symbolic ref. They might optionally contain some additional data. MERGE_HEAD and CHERRY_PICK_HEAD are examples. Unlike per-worktree refs, these files cannot be symbolic refs, and never have reflogs. They also cannot be updated through the normal ref update machinery. Instead, they are updated by directly writing to the files. However, they can be read as if they were refs, so git rev-parse MERGE_HEAD will work.
Pulling a branch means to fetch it and merge it. See also git-pull(1).
Pushing a branch means to get the branchs head ref from a remote repository, find out if it is a direct ancestor to the branchs local head ref, and in that case, putting all objects, which are reachable from the local head ref, and which are missing from the remote repository, into the remote object database, and updating the remote head ref. If the remote head is not an ancestor to the local head, the push fails.
All of the ancestors of a given commit are said to be "reachable" from that commit. More generally, one object is reachable from another if we can reach the one from the other by a chain that follows tags to whatever they tag, commits to their parents or trees, and trees to the trees or blobs that they contain.
To reapply a series of changes from a branch to a different base, and reset the head of that branch to the result.
A name that begins with refs/ (e.g. refs/heads/master) that points to an object name or another ref (the latter is called a symbolic ref). For convenience, a ref can sometimes be abbreviated when used as an argument to a Git command; see gitrevisions(7) for details. Refs are stored in the repository.
The ref namespace is hierarchical. Different subhierarchies are used for different purposes (e.g. the refs/heads/ hierarchy is used to represent local branches).
There are a few special-purpose refs that do not begin with refs/. The most notable example is HEAD.
A reflog shows the local "history" of a ref. In other words, it can tell you what the 3rd last revision in this repository was, and what was the current state in this repository, yesterday 9:14pm. See git-reflog(1) for details.
A "refspec" is used by fetch and push to describe the mapping between remote ref and local ref.
A repository which is used to track the same project but resides somewhere else. To communicate with remotes, see fetch or push.
A ref that is used to follow changes from another repository. It typically looks like refs/remotes/foo/bar (indicating that it tracks a branch named bar in a remote named foo), and matches the right-hand-side of a configured fetch refspec. A remote-tracking branch should not contain direct modifications or have local commits made to it.
A collection of refs together with an object database containing all objects which are reachable from the refs, possibly accompanied by meta data from one or more porcelains. A repository can share an object database with other repositories via alternates mechanism.
The action of fixing up manually what a failed automatic merge left behind.
Synonym for commit (the noun).
To throw away part of the development, i.e. to assign the head to an earlier revision.
Source code management (tool).
"Secure Hash Algorithm 1"; a cryptographic hash function. In the context of Git used as a synonym for object name.
Mostly a synonym to shallow repository but the phrase makes it more explicit that it was created by running git clone --depth=... command.
A shallow repository has an incomplete history some of whose commits have parents cauterized away (in other words, Git is told to pretend that these commits do not have the parents, even though they are recorded in the commit object). This is sometimes useful when you are interested only in the recent history of a project even though the real history recorded in the upstream is much larger. A shallow repository is created by giving the --depth option to git-clone(1), and its history can be later deepened with git-fetch(1).
A repository that holds the history of a separate project inside another repository (the latter of which is called superproject).
A repository that references repositories of other projects in its working tree as submodules. The superproject knows about the names of (but does not hold copies of) commit objects of the contained submodules.
Symbolic reference: instead of containing the SHA-1 id itself, it is of the format ref: refs/some/thing and when referenced, it recursively dereferences to this reference. HEAD is a prime example of a symref. Symbolic references are manipulated with the git-symbolic-ref(1) command.
A ref under refs/tags/ namespace that points to an object of an arbitrary type (typically a tag points to either a tag or a commit object). In contrast to a head, a tag is not updated by the commit command. A Git tag has nothing to do with a Lisp tag (which would be called an object type in Gits context). A tag is most typically used to mark a particular point in the commit ancestry chain.
An object containing a ref pointing to another object, which can contain a message just like a commit object. It can also contain a (PGP) signature, in which case it is called a "signed tag object".
A regular Git branch that is used by a developer to identify a conceptual line of development. Since branches are very easy and inexpensive, it is often desirable to have several small branches that each contain very well defined concepts or small incremental yet related changes.
Either a working tree, or a tree object together with the dependent blob and tree objects (i.e. a stored representation of a working tree).
An object containing a list of file names and modes along with refs to the associated blob and/or tree objects. A tree is equivalent to a directory.
tree-ish (also treeish)
A tree object or an object that can be recursively dereferenced to a tree object. Dereferencing a commit object yields the tree object corresponding to the revisions top directory. The following are all tree-ishes: a commit-ish, a tree object, a tag object that points to a tree object, a tag object that points to a tag object that points to a tree object, etc.
An index which contains unmerged index entries.
An object which is not reachable from a branch, tag, or any other reference.
The default branch that is merged into the branch in question (or the branch in question is rebased onto). It is configured via branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge. If the upstream branch of A is origin/B sometimes we say "A is tracking origin/B".
The tree of actual checked out files. The working tree normally contains the contents of the HEAD commits tree, plus any local changes that you have made but not yet committed.
gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), gitcvs-migration(7), giteveryday(7), [blue]The Git Users Manual
Part of the git(1) suite.
1. The Git Users Manual git-htmldocs/user-manual.html
|Git 2&.7&.4||GITGLOSSARY (7)||03/17/2016|