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# Manual Reference Pages  -  GROFF_MAN (7)

### NAME

groff_man - groff ‘man’ macros to support generation of man pages

Synopsis
Description
Options
Usage
Files
Author

### SYNOPSIS

groff -man [ options... ] [ files... ]
groff -m man [ options... ] [ files... ]

### DESCRIPTION

The man macros used to generate  man~pages with groff were written by James Clark. This document provides a brief summary of the use of each macro in that package.

### OPTIONS

The man macros understand the following command line options (which define various registers).
-rcR=1 This option (the default if in nroff mode) will create a single, very long page instead of multiple pages. Say -rcR=0 to disable it.
-rC1 If more than one manual page is given on the command line, number the pages continuously, rather than starting each at 1.
-rD1 Double-sided printing. Footers for even and odd pages are formatted differently.
-rFT=dist
Set distance of the footer relative to the bottom of the page if negative or relative to the top if positive. The default is -0.5i.
-rHY=flags
Set hyphenation flags. Possible values are 1 to hyphenate without restrictions, 2 to not hyphenate the last word on a page, 4 to not hyphenate the last two characters of a word, and 8 to not hyphenate the first two characters of a word. These values are additive; the default is 14.
-rIN=width
Set body text indentation to width. The default is 7n for nroff, 7.2n for troff. For nroff, this value should always be an integer multiple of unit ‘n’ to get consistent indentation.
-rLL=line-length
Set line length. If this option is not given, the line length is set to respect any value set by a prior ‘.ll’ request, (which must be in effect when the ‘.TH’ macro is invoked), if this differs from the built-in default for the formatter; otherwise it defaults to 78n in nroff mode and 6.5i in troff mode.
Note that the use of a ‘.ll’ request to initialize the line length is supported for backward compatibility with some versions of the man program; direct initialization of the ‘LL’ register should always be preferred to the use of such a request. In particular, note that a ‘.ll 65n’ request will not preserve the normal nroff default line length, (the man default initialization to 78n will prevail), whereas, the ‘-rLL=65n’ option, or an equivalent ‘.nr LL 65n’ request preceding the use of the ‘TH’ macro, will set a line length of 65n.
-rLT=title-length
Set title length. If this option is not given, the title length defaults to the line length.
-rPnnn Enumeration of pages will start with nnn rather than with 1.
-rSxx Base document font size is xx points (xx can be 10, 11, or 12) rather than 10 points.
-rSN=width
Set sub-subheading indentation to width. The default is 3n.
-rXnnn After page nnn, number pages as nnna, nnnb, nnnc, etc. For example, the option ‘-rX2’ will produce the following page numbers: 1, 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, etc.

### USAGE

This section describes the available macros for manual pages. For further customization, put additional macros and requests into the file man.local which will be loaded immediately after the man package.
.TH title section [extra1] [extra2] [extra3]
Set the title of the \man~page to title and the section to section, which must take on a value between 1 and 8. The value section may also have a string appended, e.g. ‘.pm’, to indicate a specific subsection of the  man~pages. Both title and section are positioned at the left and right in the header line (with section in parentheses immediately appended to title. extra1 will be positioned in the middle of the footer line. extra2 will be positioned at the left in the footer line (or at the left on even pages and at the right on odd pages if double-sided printing is active). extra3 is centered in the header line.
For HTML output, headers and footers are completely supressed.
Additionally, this macro starts a new page; the new line number is 1 again (except if the ‘-rC1’ option is given on the command line) -- this feature is intended only for formatting multiple  man~pages; a single  man~page should contain exactly one TH macro at the beginning of the file.
Set up an unnumbered section heading sticking out to the left. Prints out all the text following SH up to the end of the line (or the text in the next input line if there is no argument to SH) in bold face (or the font specified by the string HF), one size larger than the base document size. Additionally, the left margin and the indentation for the following text is reset to the default values.
Set up a secondary, unnumbered section heading. Prints out all the text following SS up to the end of the line (or the text in the next input line if there is no argument to SS) in bold face (or the font specified by the string HF), at the same size as the base document size. Additionally, the left margin and the indentation for the following text is reset to the default values.
.TP [nnn]
Set up an indented paragraph with label. The indentation is set to nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is ‘n’ if omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of them have been used yet).
The first input line of text following this macro is interpreted as a string to be printed flush-left, as it is appropriate for a label. It is not interpreted as part of a paragraph, so there is no attempt to fill the first line with text from the following input lines. Nevertheless, if the label is not as wide as the indentation the paragraph starts at the same line (but indented), continuing on the following lines. If the label is wider than the indentation the descriptive part of the paragraph begins on the line following the label, entirely indented. Note that neither font shape nor font size of the label is set to a default value; on the other hand, the rest of the text will have default font settings.
The TP macro is the macro used for the explanations you are just reading.
.LP
.PP
.P These macros are mutual aliases. Any of them causes a line break at the current position, followed by a vertical space downwards by the amount specified by the PD macro. The font size and shape are reset to the default value (10pt resp. Roman). Finally, the current left margin and the indentation are restored.
.IP [designator] [nnn]
Set up an indented paragraph, using designator as a tag to mark its beginning. The indentation is set to nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is ‘n’ if omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of them have been used yet). Font size and face of the paragraph (but not the designator) are reset to its default values.
To start an indented paragraph with a particular indentation but without a designator, use ‘""’ (two doublequotes) as the second argument.
For example, the following paragraphs were all set up with bullets as the designator, using ‘.IP \(bu 4’. The whole block has been enclosed with ‘.RS’ and ‘.RE’ to set the left margin temporarily to the current indentation value.
o IP is one of the three macros used in the man package to format lists.
o HP is another. This macro produces a paragraph with a left hanging indentation.
o TP is another. This macro produces an unindented label followed by an indented paragraph.
.HP [nnn]
Set up a paragraph with hanging left indentation. The indentation is set to nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is ‘n’ if omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of them have been used yet). Font size and face are reset to its default values. The following paragraph illustrates the effect of this macro with hanging indentation set to 4 (enclosed by .RS and .RE to set the left margin temporarily to the current indentation):
This is a paragraph following an invocation of the HP macro. As you can see, it produces a paragraph where all lines but the first are indented.
.RS [nnn]
This macro moves the left margin to the right by the value nnn if specified (default unit is ‘n’); otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of them have been used yet). The indentation value is then set to the default.
Calls to the RS macro can be nested.
.RE [nnn]
This macro moves the left margin back to level nnn, restoring the previous left margin. If no argument is given, it moves one level back. The first level (i.e., no call to RS yet) has number 1, and each call to RS increases the level by 1.
To summarize, the following macros cause a line break with the insertion of vertical space (which amount can be changed with the PD macro): SH, SS, TP, LP (PP, P), IP, and HP. The macros RS and RE also cause a break but no insertion of vertical space.

### MACROS TO SET FONTS

The standard font is Roman; the default text size is 10 point.
.SM [text]
Causes the text on the same line or the text on the next input line to appear in a font that is one point size smaller than the default font.
.SB [text]
Causes the text on the same line or the text on the next input line to appear in boldface font, one point size smaller than the default font.
.BI text
Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face and italic. The text must be on the same line as the macro call. Thus
.BI this "word and" that
would cause ‘this’ and ‘that’ to appear in bold face, while ‘word and’ appears in italics.
.IB text
Causes text to appear alternately in italic and bold face. The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.RI text
Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and italic. The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.IR text
Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in italic and roman. The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.BR text
Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face and roman. The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.RB text
Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and bold face. The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.B [text]
Causes text to appear in bold face. If no text is present on the line where the macro is called the text of the next input line appears in bold face.
.I [text]
Causes text to appear in italic. If no text is present on the line where the macro is called the text of the next input line appears in italic.

### MISCELLANEOUS

The default indentation is 7.2n in troff mode and 7n in nroff mode except for grohtml which ignores indentation.
.DT Set tabs every 0.5 inches. Since this macro is always called during a TH request, it makes sense to call it only if the tab positions have been changed.
.PD [nnn]
Adjust the empty space before a new paragraph or section. The optional argument gives the amount of space (default unit is ‘v’); without parameter, the value is reset to its default value (1 line in nroff mode, 0.4v otherwise). This affects the macros SH, SS, TP, LP (resp. PP and P), IP, and HP.
.AT [system [release]]
Alter the footer for use with CR]AT&T]  man~pages. This command exists only for compatibility; don’t use it. See the groff info manual for more.
.UC [version]
Alter the footer for use with CR]BSD]  man~pages. This command exists only for compatibility; don’t use it. See the groff info manual for more.
.PT Print the header string. Redefine this macro to get control of the header.
.BT Print the footer string. Redefine this macro to get control of the footer.
The following strings are defined:
\*S Switch back to the default font size.
\*R The ‘registered’ sign.
\*(lq
\*(rq Left and right quote. This is equal to ‘\(lq’ and ‘\(rq’, respectively.
\*(HF The typeface used to print headings and subheadings. The default is ‘B’.
If a preprocessor like tbl or eqn is needed, it has become usage to make the first line of the  man~page look like this:

.\ word
Note the single space character after the double quote. word consists of letters for the needed preprocessors: ‘e’ for eqn, ‘r’ for refer, and ‘t’ for tbl. Modern implementations of the man program read this first line and automatically call the right preprocessor(s).

### FILES

 man.tmac an.tmac These are wrapper files to call andoc.tmac. andoc.tmac This file checks whether the man macros or the mdoc package should be used. an-old.tmac All man macros are contained in this file. man.local Local changes and customizations should be put into this file.

Since the man macros consist of groups of groff requests, one can, in principle, supplement the functionality of the man macros with individual groff requests where necessary. See the groff info pages for a complete reference of all requests.

tbl(1), eqn(1), refer(1), man(1), man(7),

### AUTHOR

This manual page was originally written for the Debian GNU/Linux system by Susan G. Kleinmann <sgk@debian.org>, corrected and updated by Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>, and is now part of the GNU troff distribution.
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 Groff Version 1.19.2 GROFF_MAN (7) 24 March 2016

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