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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  MAKEFS (8)

NAME

makefs - create a file system image from a directory tree or a mtree manifest

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
     FFS-specific options
     CD9660-specific options
See Also
History
Authors

SYNOPSIS

makefs [-DxZ] [-B endian] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask] [-F mtree-specfile] [-f free-files] [-M minimum-size] [-m maximum-size] [-N userdb-dir] [-o fs-options] [-R roundup-size] [-S sector-size] [-s image-size] [-t fs-type] image-file directory | manifest [extra-directory ...]

DESCRIPTION

The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the directory tree directory or from the mtree manifest manifest. If any optional directory trees are passed in the extra-directory arguments, then the directory tree of each argument will be merged into the directory or manifest first before creating image-file. No special devices or privileges are required to perform this task.

The options are as follows:
-B endian
  Set the byte order of the image to endian. Valid byte orders are 4321’, big’, or be’ for big endian, and 1234’, little’, or le’ for little endian. Some file systems may have a fixed byte order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.
-b free-blocks
  Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the image. An optional %’ suffix may be provided to indicate that free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.
-D Treat duplicate paths in an mtree manifest as warnings not error.
-d debug-mask
  Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are set in debug-mask. XXX: document these
-F mtree-specfile
  Use mtree-specfile as an mtree(8) 'specfile' specification. This option has no effect when the image is created from a mtree manifest rather than a directory.

If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its permissions and modification time will be used unless specifically overridden by the specfile. An error will be raised if the type of entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry.

In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the specfile entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored. Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the specfile: type, mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, and link (in the case of symbolic links). If time isn’t provided, the current time will be used. If flags isn’t provided, the current file flags will be used. Missing regular file entries will be created as zero-length files.

-f free-files
  Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in the image. An optional %’ suffix may be provided to indicate that free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.
-M minimum-size
  Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.
-m maximum-size
  Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size. An error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger than this to accommodate the provided directory tree.
-N userdb-dir
  Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database text file group from userdb-dir, rather than using the results from the system’s getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls.
-o fs-options
  Set file system specific options. fs-options is a comma separated list of options. Valid file system specific options are detailed below.
-p Deprecated. See the -Z flag.
-R roundup-size
  Round the image up to roundup-size. roundup-size should be a multiple of the file system block size. This option only applies to the ffs file system type.
-S sector-size
  Set the file system sector size to sector-size. Defaults to 512.
-s image-size
  Set the size of the file system image to image-size.
-t fs-type
  Create an fs-type file system image. The following file system types are supported:
ffs BSD fast file system (default).
cd9660
  ISO 9660 file system.
-x Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.
-Z Create a sparse file for ffs. This is useful for virtual machine images.

Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected. Two or more numbers may be separated by an "x" to indicate a product. Each number may have one of the following optional suffixes:
b Block; multiply by 512
k Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
m Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
g Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
t Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
w Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

    FFS-specific options

ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided. Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (‘=’), and a value. The following keywords are supported:

avgfilesize Expected average file size.
avgfpdir Expected number of files per directory.
bsize Block size.
density Bytes per inode.
fsize Fragment size.
label Label name of the image.
maxbpg Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
minfree Minimum % free.
optimization
  Optimization preference; one of space’ or time’.
extent Maximum extent size.
maxbpcg Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
version UFS version. 1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.

    CD9660-specific options

cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be provided. The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal sign (‘=’), and a value. The following keywords are supported:

allow-deep-trees Allow the directory structure to exceed the maximum specified in the spec.
allow-illegal-chars Allow illegal characters in filenames. This option is not implemented.
allow-lowercase Allow lowercase characters in filenames. This option is not implemented.
allow-max-name Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for filenames by omitting the version id.
allow-multidot Allow multiple dots in a filename.
applicationid Application ID of the image.
archimedes Use the ARCHIMEDES’ extension to encode RISC OS metadata.
bootimagedir Boot image directory. This option is not implemented.
chrp-boot Write an MBR partition table to the image to allow older CHRP hardware to boot.
boot-load-segment Set load segment for the boot image.
bootimage Filename of a boot image in the format "sysid;filename", where "sysid" is one of i386’, mac68k’, macppc’, or powerpc’.
generic-bootimage Load a generic boot image into the first 32K of the cd9660 image.
hard-disk-boot Boot image is a hard disk image.
isolevel An integer representing the ISO 9660 interchange level where "level" is either 1’ or 2’. "level" 3’ is not implemented.
keep-bad-images Do not discard images whose write was aborted due to an error. For debugging purposes.
label Label name of the image.
no-boot Boot image is not bootable.
no-emul-boot Boot image is a "no emulation" ElTorito image.
no-trailing-padding Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs the padding).
omit-trailing-period
  Omit trailing periods in filenames.
preparer Preparer ID of the image.
publisher Publisher ID of the image.
rockridge Use RockRidge extensions (for longer filenames, etc.).
verbose Turns on verbose output.
volumeid Volume set identifier of the image.

SEE ALSO

mtree(5), mtree(8), newfs(8)

HISTORY

The makefs utility appeared in
.Nx 1.6 .

AUTHORS


.An Luke Mewburn Aq Mt lukem@NetBSD.org (original program),
.An Daniel Watt ,
.An Walter Deignan ,
.An Ryan Gabrys ,
.An Alan Perez-Rathke ,
.An Ram Vedam (cd9660 support)
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