directory contains a collection of common utilities intended for use
in recovering a badly damaged system.
With the transition to a dynamically-linked root beginning with
.Fx 5.2 ,
there is a real possibility that the standard tools in
may become non-functional due to a failed upgrade or a disk error.
The tools in
are statically linked and should therefore be more resistant to
However, being statically linked, the tools in
are also less functional than the standard utilities.
In particular, they do not have full use of the locale,
and nsswitch libraries.
If your system fails to boot, and it shows a prompt similar to:
Enter full pathname of shell or RETURN for /bin/sh:
the first thing to try running is the standard shell,
If that fails, try running
which is the
To repair the system, the root partition must first be remounted
This can be done with the following
/rescue/mount -uw /
The next step is to double-check the contents of
possibly mounting a
"live file system"
of the officially released
ISO images) and copying files from there.
Once it is possible to successfully run
and other standard utilities, try rebooting back into the standard
tools are compiled using
which makes them considerably more compact than the standard
To build a
system where space is critical,
can be used as a replacement for the standard
directories; simply change
to be symbolic links pointing to
is statically linked, it should also be possible to dispense with much
in such an environment.
In contrast to its predecessor
is updated during normal
source and binary upgrades.