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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  SOCKET (9)

NAME

socket - kernel socket interface

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
     Creating and Destroying Sockets
     Connections and Addresses
     Socket Options
     Socket I/O
See Also
History
Authors
Bugs

SYNOPSIS


.In sys/socket.h
.In sys/socketvar.h int sobind struct socket *so struct sockaddr *nam struct thread *td void soclose struct socket *so int soconnect struct socket *so struct sockaddr *nam struct thread *td int
.Fo socreate int dom struct socket **aso int type int proto struct ucred *cred struct thread *td
.Fc int sogetopt struct socket *so struct sockopt *sopt int
.Fo soreceive struct socket *so struct sockaddr **psa struct uio *uio struct mbuf **mp0 struct mbuf **controlp int *flagsp
.Fc int sosetopt struct socket *so struct sockopt *sopt int
.Fo sosend struct socket *so struct sockaddr *addr struct uio *uio struct mbuf *top struct mbuf *control int flags struct thread *td
.Fc int soshutdown struct socket *so int how

DESCRIPTION

The kernel socket programming interface permits in-kernel consumers to interact with local and network socket objects in a manner similar to that permitted using the socket(2) user API. These interfaces are appropriate for use by distributed file systems and other network-aware kernel services. While the user API operates on file descriptors, the kernel interfaces operate directly on
.Vt struct socket pointers.

Except where otherwise indicated, socket functions may sleep, and are not appropriate for use in an ithread(9) context or while holding non-sleepable kernel locks.

    Creating and Destroying Sockets

A new socket may be created using socreate. As with socket(2), arguments specify the requested domain, type, and protocol via dom, type, and proto. The socket is returned via aso on success. In addition, the credential used to authorize operations associated with the socket will be passed via cred (and will be cached for the lifetime of the socket), and the thread performing the operation via td. Warning: authorization of the socket creation operation will be performed using the thread credential for some protocols (such as raw sockets).

Sockets may be closed and freed using soclose, which has similar semantics to close(2).

    Connections and Addresses

The sobind function is equivalent to the bind(2) system call, and binds the socket so to the address nam. The operation would be authorized using the credential on thread td.

The soconnect function is equivalent to the connect(2) system call, and initiates a connection on the socket so to the address nam. The operation will be authorized using the credential on thread td. Unlike the user system call, soconnect returns immediately; the caller may msleep(9) on so->so_timeo while holding the socket mutex and waiting for the SS_ISCONNECTING flag to clear or so->so_error to become non-zero. If soconnect fails, the caller must manually clear the SS_ISCONNECTING flag.

The soshutdown function is equivalent to the shutdown(2) system call, and causes part or all of a connection on a socket to be closed down.

    Socket Options

The sogetopt function is equivalent to the getsockopt(2) system call, and retrieves a socket option on socket so. The sosetopt function is equivalent to the setsockopt(2) system call, and sets a socket option on socket so.

The second argument in both sogetopt and sosetopt is the sopt pointer to a
.Vt struct sopt describing the socket option operation. The caller-allocated structure must be zeroed, and then have its fields initialized to specify socket option operation arguments:
sopt_dir Set to SOPT_SET or SOPT_GET depending on whether this is a get or set operation.
sopt_level Specify the level in the network stack the operation is targeted at; for example, SOL_SOCKET.
sopt_name Specify the name of the socket option to set.
sopt_val Kernel space pointer to the argument value for the socket option.
sopt_valsize
  Size of the argument value in bytes.

    Socket I/O

The soreceive function is equivalent to the recvmsg(2) system call, and attempts to receive bytes of data from the socket so, optionally blocking awaiting for data if none is ready to read. Data may be retrieved directly to kernel or user memory via the uio argument, or as an mbuf chain returned to the caller via mp0, avoiding a data copy. The uio must always be non- NULL. If mp0 is non- NULL, only the uio_resid of uio is used. The caller may optionally retrieve a socket address on a protocol with the PR_ADDR capability by providing storage via non- NULL psa argument. The caller may optionally retrieve control data mbufs via a non- NULL controlp argument. Optional flags may be passed to soreceive via a non- NULL flagsp argument, and use the same flag name space as the recvmsg(2) system call.

The sosend function is equivalent to the sendmsg(2) system call, and attempts to send bytes of data via the socket so, optionally blocking if data cannot be immediately sent. Data may be sent directly from kernel or user memory via the uio argument, or as an mbuf chain via top, avoiding a data copy. Only one of the uio or top pointers may be non- NULL. An optional destination address may be specified via a non- NULL addr argument, which may result in an implicit connect if supported by the protocol. The caller may optionally send control data mbufs via a non- NULL control argument. Flags may be passed to sosend using the flags argument, and use the same flag name space as the sendmsg(2) system call.

Kernel callers running in ithread(9) context, or with a mutex held, will wish to use non-blocking sockets and pass the MSG_DONTWAIT flag in order to prevent these functions from sleeping.

SEE ALSO

bind(2), close(2), connect(2), getsockopt(2), recv(2), send(2), setsockopt(2), shutdown(2), socket(2), ng_ksocket(4), ithread(9), msleep(9), ucred(9)

HISTORY

The socket(2) system call appeared in BSD 4.2 . This manual page was introduced in
.Fx 7.0 .

AUTHORS

This manual page was written by
.An Robert Watson .

BUGS

The use of explicitly passed credentials, credentials hung from explicitly passed threads, the credential on curthread, and the cached credential from socket creation time is inconsistent, and may lead to unexpected behaviour. It is possible that several of the td arguments should be cred arguments, or simply not be present at all.

The caller may need to manually clear SS_ISCONNECTING if soconnect returns an error.

The MSG_DONTWAIT flag is not implemented for sosend, and may not always work with soreceive when zero copy sockets are enabled.

This manual page does not describe how to register socket upcalls or monitor a socket for readability/writability without using blocking I/O.

The soref and sorele functions are not described, and in most cases should not be used, due to confusing and potentially incorrect interactions when sorele is last called after soclose.

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