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Manual Reference Pages  -  BREAD::BOARD::MANUAL::CONCEPTS::TYPEMAP (3)

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Bread::Board::Manual::Concepts::Typemap - An overview of the typemapping feature



version 0.32


A new (read: experimental) feature of Bread::Board is typemapped services. These are services which are mapped to a particular type rather then just a name. This feature has the potential to make obsolete a large amount of the Bread::Board configuration by simply asking Bread::Board to figure things out on its own. Here is a small example of how this works.

  # define the classes making sure
  # to specify required items and
  # their types

      package Stapler;
      use Moose;

      package Desk;
      use Moose;

      package Chair;
      use Moose;

      package Cubicle;
      use Moose;

      has desk  => ( is => ro, isa => Desk,  required => 1 );
      has chair => ( is => ro, isa => Chair, required => 1 );

      package Employee;
      use Moose;

      has [ first_name, last_name ] => (
          is       => ro,
          isa      => Str,
          required => 1,

      has stapler => ( is => rw, isa => Stapler, predicate => has_stapler );

      has work_area => ( is => ro, isa => Cubicle, required => 1 );

  # now create the container, and
  # map the Employee type and ask
  # Bread::Board to infer all the
  # other relationships

  my $c = container Initech => as {
      typemap Employee => infer;

  # now you can create new Employee objects
  # by calling ->resolve with the type and
  # supplying the required parameters (see
  # below for details).

  my $micheal = $c->resolve(
      type       => Employee,
      parameters => {
          first_name => Micheal,
          last_name  => Bolton

  my $cube = $micheal->work_area; # this will be a Cubicle object
  $cube->desk;  # this will be a Desk object
  $cube->chair; # this will be a Chair object

  $micheal->has_stapler; # this is false

  # We can create another Employee object
  # and this time we pass in the optional
  # parameter for the non-required stapler
  # attribute

  my $milton = $c->resolve(
      type       => Employee,
      parameters => {
          first_name => Milton,
          last_name  => Waddams,
          stapler    => Stapler->new

  $milton->has_stapler; # this is true

In the above example, we created a number of Moose classes that had specific required relationships. When we called infer for the <B>EmployeeB> object, Bread::Board figured out those relationships and set up dependencies and parameters accordingly.

For the work_area object, we saw the <B>CubicleB> type and then basically called infer on the <B>CubicleB> object. We then saw the <B>DeskB> and <B>ChairB> objects and called infer on those as well. The result of this recursive inferrence was that the <B>EmployeeB>, <B>CubicleB>, <B>DeskB> and <B>ChairB> relationships were modeled in Bread::Board as dependent services.

Bread::Board also took it one step further.

We were able to resolve the <B>CubicleB>, <B>DeskB> and <B>ChairB> types automatically because they were already defined by Moose as subtypes of the Object type. We knew that it could introspect those classes and get more information. However, this was not the case with the first_name and last_name attributes of the <B>EmployeeB> object. In that case, we determined that we couldn’t resolve those objects and (because it was a top-level inferrence) instead turned them into required parameters for the inferred <B>EmployeeB> service.

And lastly, with a top-level inferrence (not one caused by recursion) Bread::Board will also look at all the remaining non-required attributes and turn them into optional parameters. In this case we have a stapler attribute that is not required and so is listed as an optional parameter, meaning that it is not required, but still subject to type checking.


This example should give a good basic overview of this feature and more details can be found in the test suite (t/07*.t). These show examples of how to typemap roles to concrete classes and how to supply hints to infer to help Bread::Board figure out specific details.

As I mentioned above, this feature should be considered experimental and we are still working out details and writing tests for it. Any contributions are welcome.


Stevan Little <>


This software is copyright (c) 2014 by Infinity Interactive.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

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perl v5.20.3 BREAD::BOARD::MANUAL::CONCEPTS::TYPEMAP (3) 2014-06-03

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