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Manual Reference Pages  -  EXTUTILS::CBUILDER (3)

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NAME

ExtUtils::CBuilder - Compile and link C code for Perl modules

CONTENTS

SYNOPSIS



  use ExtUtils::CBuilder;

  my $b = ExtUtils::CBuilder->new(%options);
  $obj_file = $b->compile(source => MyModule.c);
  $lib_file = $b->link(objects => $obj_file);



DESCRIPTION

This module can build the C portions of Perl modules by invoking the appropriate compilers and linkers in a cross-platform manner. It was motivated by the Module::Build project, but may be useful for other purposes as well. However, it is not intended as a general cross-platform interface to all your C building needs. That would have been a much more ambitious goal!

METHODS

new Returns a new ExtUtils::CBuilder object. A config parameter lets you override Config.pm settings for all operations performed by the object, as in the following example:



  # Use a different compiler than Config.pm says
  my $b = ExtUtils::CBuilder->new( config =>
                                   { ld => gcc } );



A quiet parameter tells CBuilder to not print its system() commands before executing them:



  # Be quieter than normal
  my $b = ExtUtils::CBuilder->new( quiet => 1 );



have_compiler Returns true if the current system has a working C compiler and linker, false otherwise. To determine this, we actually compile and link a sample C library. The sample will be compiled in the system tempdir or, if that fails for some reason, in the current directory.
have_cplusplus Just like have_compiler but for C++ instead of C.
compile Compiles a C source file and produces an object file. The name of the object file is returned. The source file is specified in a source parameter, which is required; the other parameters listed below are optional.
object_file Specifies the name of the output file to create. Otherwise the object_file() method will be consulted, passing it the name of the source file.
include_dirs Specifies any additional directories in which to search for header files. May be given as a string indicating a single directory, or as a list reference indicating multiple directories.
extra_compiler_flags Specifies any additional arguments to pass to the compiler. Should be given as a list reference containing the arguments individually, or if this is not possible, as a string containing all the arguments together.
C++ Specifies that the source file is a C++ source file and sets appropriate compiler flags

The operation of this method is also affected by the archlibexp, cccdlflags, ccflags, optimize, and cc entries in Config.pm.

link Invokes the linker to produce a library file from object files. In scalar context, the name of the library file is returned. In list context, the library file and any temporary files created are returned. A required objects parameter contains the name of the object files to process, either in a string (for one object file) or list reference (for one or more files). The following parameters are optional:
lib_file Specifies the name of the output library file to create. Otherwise the lib_file() method will be consulted, passing it the name of the first entry in objects.
module_name Specifies the name of the Perl module that will be created by linking. On platforms that need to do prelinking (Win32, OS/2, etc.) this is a required parameter.
extra_linker_flags Any additional flags you wish to pass to the linker.

On platforms where need_prelink() returns true, prelink() will be called automatically.

The operation of this method is also affected by the lddlflags, shrpenv, and ld entries in Config.pm.

link_executable Invokes the linker to produce an executable file from object files. In scalar context, the name of the executable file is returned. In list context, the executable file and any temporary files created are returned. A required objects parameter contains the name of the object files to process, either in a string (for one object file) or list reference (for one or more files). The optional parameters are the same as link with exception for
exe_file Specifies the name of the output executable file to create. Otherwise the exe_file() method will be consulted, passing it the name of the first entry in objects.
object_file


 my $object_file = $b->object_file($source_file);



Converts the name of a C source file to the most natural name of an output object file to create from it. For instance, on Unix the source file foo.c would result in the object file foo.o.

lib_file


 my $lib_file = $b->lib_file($object_file);



Converts the name of an object file to the most natural name of a output library file to create from it. For instance, on Mac OS X the object file foo.o would result in the library file foo.bundle.

exe_file


 my $exe_file = $b->exe_file($object_file);



Converts the name of an object file to the most natural name of an executable file to create from it. For instance, on Mac OS X the object file foo.o would result in the executable file foo, and on Windows it would result in foo.exe.

prelink On certain platforms like Win32, OS/2, VMS, and AIX, it is necessary to perform some actions before invoking the linker. The ExtUtils::Mksymlists module does this, writing files used by the linker during the creation of shared libraries for dynamic extensions. The names of any files written will be returned as a list.

Several parameters correspond to ExtUtils::Mksymlists::Mksymlists() options, as follows:



    Mksymlists()   prelink()          type
   -------------|-------------------|-------------------
    NAME        |  dl_name          | string (required)
    DLBASE      |  dl_base          | string
    FILE        |  dl_file          | string
    DL_VARS     |  dl_vars          | array reference
    DL_FUNCS    |  dl_funcs         | hash reference
    FUNCLIST    |  dl_func_list     | array reference
    IMPORTS     |  dl_imports       | hash reference
    VERSION     |  dl_version       | string



Please see the documentation for ExtUtils::Mksymlists for the details of what these parameters do.

need_prelink Returns true on platforms where prelink() should be called during linking, and false otherwise.
extra_link_args_after_prelink Returns list of extra arguments to give to the link command; the arguments are the same as for prelink(), with addition of array reference to the results of prelink(); this reference is indexed by key prelink_res.

TO DO

Currently this has only been tested on Unix and doesn’t contain any of the Windows-specific code from the Module::Build project. I’ll do that next.

HISTORY

This module is an outgrowth of the Module::Build project, to which there have been many contributors. Notably, Randy W. Sims submitted lots of code to support 3 compilers on Windows and helped with various other platform-specific issues. Ilya Zakharevich has contributed fixes for OS/2; John E. Malmberg and Peter Prymmer have done likewise for VMS.

SUPPORT

ExtUtils::CBuilder is maintained as part of the Perl 5 core. Please submit any bug reports via the perlbug tool included with Perl 5. Bug reports will be included in the Perl 5 ticket system at <http://rt.perl.org>.

The Perl 5 source code is available at <http://perl5.git.perl.org/perl.git> and ExtUtils-CBuilder may be found in the dist/ExtUtils-CBuilder directory of the repository.

AUTHOR

Ken Williams, kwilliams@cpan.org

Additional contributions by The Perl 5 Porters.

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 2003-2005 Ken Williams. All rights reserved.

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

SEE ALSO

perl(1), Module::Build(3)
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perl v5.20.3 EXTUTILS::CBUILDER (3) 2015-10-09

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