Any methods not listed here are derived from Math::BigFloat (or
Math::BigInt), so make sure you check these two modules for further
information.
*new()*

`
``
$x = Math::BigRat->new(1/3);
`

Create a new Math::BigRat object. Input can come in various forms:

`
`

`
$x = Math::BigRat->new(123); # scalars
$x = Math::BigRat->new(inf); # infinity
$x = Math::BigRat->new(123.3); # float
$x = Math::BigRat->new(1/3); # simple string
$x = Math::BigRat->new(1 / 3); # spaced
$x = Math::BigRat->new(1 / 0.1); # w/ floats
$x = Math::BigRat->new(Math::BigInt->new(3)); # BigInt
$x = Math::BigRat->new(Math::BigFloat->new(3.1)); # BigFloat
$x = Math::BigRat->new(Math::BigInt::Lite->new(2)); # BigLite
# You can also give D and N as different objects:
$x = Math::BigRat->new(
Math::BigInt->new(-123),
Math::BigInt->new(7),
); # => -123/7
`

*numerator()*

`
``
$n = $x->numerator();
`

Returns a copy of the numerator (the part above the line) as signed BigInt.

`
``
$d = $x->denominator();
`

Returns a copy of the denominator (the part under the line) as positive BigInt.

`
``
($n,$d) = $x->parts();
`

Return a list consisting of (signed) numerator and (unsigned) denominator as
BigInts.

`
``
my $y = $x->numify();
`

Returns the object as a scalar. This will lose some data if the object
cannot be represented by a normal Perl scalar (integer or float), so
use *as_int()* or *as_float()* instead.

This routine is automatically used whenever a scalar is required:

`
`

`
my $x = Math::BigRat->new(3/1);
@array = (0,1,2,3);
$y = $array[$x]; # set $y to 3
`

*as_int()/as_number()*

`
``
$x = Math::BigRat->new(13/7);
print $x->as_int(),"\n"; # 1
`

Returns a copy of the object as BigInt, truncated to an integer.

`as_number()` is an alias for `as_int()`.

`
``
$x = Math::BigRat->new(13/7);
print $x->as_float(),"\n"; # 1
$x = Math::BigRat->new(2/3);
print $x->as_float(5),"\n"; # 0.66667
`

Returns a copy of the object as BigFloat, preserving the
accuracy as wanted, or the default of 40 digits.

This method was added in v0.22 of Math::BigRat (April 2008).

`
``
$x = Math::BigRat->new(13);
print $x->as_hex(),"\n"; # 0xd
`

Returns the BigRat as hexadecimal string. Works only for integers.

`
``
$x = Math::BigRat->new(13);
print $x->as_bin(),"\n"; # 0x1101
`

Returns the BigRat as binary string. Works only for integers.

`
``
$x = Math::BigRat->new(13);
print $x->as_oct(),"\n"; # 015
`

Returns the BigRat as octal string. Works only for integers.

`
``
my $h = Math::BigRat->from_hex(0x10);
my $b = Math::BigRat->from_bin(0b10000000);
my $o = Math::BigRat->from_oct(020);
`

Create a BigRat from an hexadecimal, binary or octal number
in string form.

`
``
$len = $x->length();
`

Return the length of `$x` in digits for integer values.

`
``
print Math::BigRat->new(123/1)->digit(1); # 1
print Math::BigRat->new(123/1)->digit(-1); # 3
`

Return the N’ths digit from X when X is an integer value.

`
``
$x->bnorm();
`

Reduce the number to the shortest form. This routine is called
automatically whenever it is needed.

`
``
$x->bfac();
`

Calculates the factorial of `$x`. For instance:

`
`

`
print Math::BigRat->new(3/1)->bfac(),"\n"; # 1*2*3
print Math::BigRat->new(5/1)->bfac(),"\n"; # 1*2*3*4*5
`

Works currently only for integers.

Are not yet implemented.
*bmod()*

`
``
$x->bmod($y);
`

Returns `$x` modulo `$y`. When `$x` is finite, and `$y` is finite and non-zero, the
result is identical to the remainder after floored division (F-division). If,
in addition, both `$x` and `$y` are integers, the result is identical to the result
from Perl’s % operator.

`
``
$x->bneg();
`

Used to negate the object in-place.

`
``
print "$x is 1\n" if $x->is_one();
`

Return true if `$x` is exactly one, otherwise false.

`
``
print "$x is 0\n" if $x->is_zero();
`

Return true if `$x` is exactly zero, otherwise false.

`
``
print "$x is >= 0\n" if $x->is_positive();
`

Return true if `$x` is positive (greater than or equal to zero), otherwise
false. Please note that ’+inf’ is also positive, while ’NaN’ and ’-inf’ aren’t.

`is_positive()` is an alias for `is_pos()`.

`
``
print "$x is < 0\n" if $x->is_negative();
`

Return true if `$x` is negative (smaller than zero), otherwise false. Please
note that ’-inf’ is also negative, while ’NaN’ and ’+inf’ aren’t.

`is_negative()` is an alias for `is_neg()`.

`
``
print "$x is an integer\n" if $x->is_int();
`

Return true if `$x` has a denominator of 1 (e.g. no fraction parts), otherwise
false. Please note that ’-inf’, ’inf’ and ’NaN’ aren’t integer.

`
``
print "$x is odd\n" if $x->is_odd();
`

Return true if `$x` is odd, otherwise false.

`
``
print "$x is even\n" if $x->is_even();
`

Return true if `$x` is even, otherwise false.

`
``
$x->bceil();
`

Set `$x` to the next bigger integer value (e.g. truncate the number to integer
and then increment it by one).

`
``
$x->bfloor();
`

Truncate `$x` to an integer value.

`
``
$x->bsqrt();
`

Calculate the square root of `$x`.

`
``
$x->broot($n);
`

Calculate the N’th root of `$x`.

`
``
$x->badd($y);
`

Adds `$y` to `$x` and returns the result.

`
``
$x->bmul($y);
`

Multiplies `$y` to `$x` and returns the result.

`
``
$x->bsub($y);
`

Subtracts `$y` from `$x` and returns the result.

`
``
$q = $x->bdiv($y);
($q, $r) = $x->bdiv($y);
`

In scalar context, divides `$x` by `$y` and returns the result. In list context,
does floored division (F-division), returning an integer `$q` and a remainder `$r`
so that `$x` = `$q` * `$y` + `$r`. The remainer (modulo) is equal to what is returned
by `$x-`bmod($y)>.

`
``
$x->bdec();
`

Decrements `$x` by 1 and returns the result.

`
``
$x->binc();
`

Increments `$x` by 1 and returns the result.

`
``
my $z = $x->copy();
`

Makes a deep copy of the object.

Please see the documentation in Math::BigInt for further details.

`
``
my $x = Math::BigInt->new(8/4);
print $x->bstr(),"\n"; # prints 1/2
print $x->bsstr(),"\n"; # prints 1/2
`

Return a string representing this object.

Used to compare numbers.
Please see the documentation in Math::BigInt for further details.

Used to shift numbers left/right.
Please see the documentation in Math::BigInt for further details.

`
``
$x->bpow($y);
`

Compute `$x` ** `$y`.

Please see the documentation in Math::BigInt for further details.

`
``
$x->bexp($accuracy); # calculate e ** X
`

Calculates two integers A and B so that A/B is equal to `e ** $x`, where `e` is
Euler’s number.

This method was added in v0.20 of Math::BigRat (May 2007).

See also `blog()`.

`
``
$x->bnok($y); # x over y (binomial coefficient n over k)
`

Calculates the binomial coefficient n over k, also called the choose
function. The result is equivalent to:

`
`

`
( n ) n!
| - | = -------
( k ) k!(n-k)!
`

This method was added in v0.20 of Math::BigRat (May 2007).

`
``
use Data::Dumper;
print Dumper ( Math::BigRat->config() );
print Math::BigRat->config()->{lib},"\n";
`

Returns a hash containing the configuration, e.g. the version number, lib
loaded etc. The following hash keys are currently filled in with the
appropriate information.

`
`

`
key RO/RW Description
Example
============================================================
lib RO Name of the Math library
Math::BigInt::Calc
lib_version RO Version of lib
0.30
class RO The class of config you just called
Math::BigRat
version RO version number of the class you used
0.10
upgrade RW To which class numbers are upgraded
undef
downgrade RW To which class numbers are downgraded
undef
precision RW Global precision
undef
accuracy RW Global accuracy
undef
round_mode RW Global round mode
even
div_scale RW Fallback accuracy for div
40
trap_nan RW Trap creation of NaN (undef = no)
undef
trap_inf RW Trap creation of +inf/-inf (undef = no)
undef
`

By passing a reference to a hash you may set the configuration values. This
works only for values that a marked with a `RW` above, anything else is
read-only.

This is an internal routine that turns scalars into objects.