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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  PERLAPI (1)

.ds Aq ’

NAME

perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API

CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION

This file contains the documentation of the perl public API generated by embed.pl, specifically a listing of functions, macros, flags, and variables that may be used by extension writers. At the end is a list of functions which have yet to be documented. The interfaces of those are subject to change without notice. Anything not listed here is not part of the public API, and should not be used by extension writers at all. For these reasons, blindly using functions listed in proto.h is to be avoided when writing extensions.

Note that all Perl API global variables must be referenced with the PL_ prefix. Again, those not listed here are not to be used by extension writers, and can be changed or removed without notice; same with macros. Some macros are provided for compatibility with the older, unadorned names, but this support may be disabled in a future release.

Perl was originally written to handle US-ASCII only (that is characters whose ordinal numbers are in the range 0 - 127). And documentation and comments may still use the term ASCII, when sometimes in fact the entire range from 0 - 255 is meant.

Note that Perl can be compiled and run under either ASCII or EBCDIC (See perlebcdic). Most of the documentation (and even comments in the code) ignore the EBCDIC possibility. For almost all purposes the differences are transparent. As an example, under EBCDIC, instead of UTF-8, UTF-EBCDIC is used to encode Unicode strings, and so whenever this documentation refers to utf8 (and variants of that name, including in function names), it also (essentially transparently) means UTF-EBCDIC. But the ordinals of characters differ between ASCII, EBCDIC, and the UTF- encodings, and a string encoded in UTF-EBCDIC may occupy more bytes than in UTF-8.

The listing below is alphabetical, case insensitive.

‘‘Gimme’’ Values

GIMME A backward-compatible version of GIMME_V which can only return G_SCALAR or G_ARRAY; in a void context, it returns G_SCALAR. Deprecated. Use GIMME_V instead.



        U32     GIMME



GIMME_V The XSUB-writer’s equivalent to Perl’s wantarray. Returns G_VOID, G_SCALAR or G_ARRAY for void, scalar or list context, respectively. See perlcall for a usage example.



        U32     GIMME_V



G_ARRAY Used to indicate list context. See GIMME_V, GIMME and perlcall.
G_DISCARD Indicates that arguments returned from a callback should be discarded. See perlcall.
G_EVAL Used to force a Perl eval wrapper around a callback. See perlcall.
G_NOARGS Indicates that no arguments are being sent to a callback. See perlcall.
G_SCALAR Used to indicate scalar context. See GIMME_V, GIMME, and perlcall.
G_VOID Used to indicate void context. See GIMME_V and perlcall.

Array Manipulation Functions

AvFILL Same as av_top_index(). Deprecated, use av_top_index() instead.



        int     AvFILL(AV* av)



av_clear Frees the all the elements of an array, leaving it empty. The XS equivalent of @array = (). See also av_undef.

Note that it is possible that the actions of a destructor called directly or indirectly by freeing an element of the array could cause the reference count of the array itself to be reduced (e.g. by deleting an entry in the symbol table). So it is a possibility that the AV could have been freed (or even reallocated) on return from the call unless you hold a reference to it.



        void    av_clear(AV *av)



av_create_and_push NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Push an SV onto the end of the array, creating the array if necessary. A small internal helper function to remove a commonly duplicated idiom.



        void    av_create_and_push(AV **const avp,
                                   SV *const val)



av_create_and_unshift_one NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Unshifts an SV onto the beginning of the array, creating the array if necessary. A small internal helper function to remove a commonly duplicated idiom.



        SV**    av_create_and_unshift_one(AV **const avp,
                                          SV *const val)



av_delete Deletes the element indexed by key from the array, makes the element mortal, and returns it. If flags equals G_DISCARD, the element is freed and null is returned. Perl equivalent: my $elem = delete($myarray[$idx]); for the non-G_DISCARD version and a void-context delete($myarray[$idx]); for the G_DISCARD version.



        SV*     av_delete(AV *av, SSize_t key, I32 flags)



av_exists Returns true if the element indexed by key has been initialized.

This relies on the fact that uninitialized array elements are set to NULL.

Perl equivalent: exists($myarray[$key]).



        bool    av_exists(AV *av, SSize_t key)



av_extend Pre-extend an array. The key is the index to which the array should be extended.



        void    av_extend(AV *av, SSize_t key)



av_fetch Returns the SV at the specified index in the array. The key is the index. If lval is true, you are guaranteed to get a real SV back (in case it wasn’t real before), which you can then modify. Check that the return value is non-null before dereferencing it to a SV*.

See Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays in perlguts for more information on how to use this function on tied arrays.

The rough perl equivalent is $myarray[$idx].



        SV**    av_fetch(AV *av, SSize_t key, I32 lval)



av_fill Set the highest index in the array to the given number, equivalent to Perl’s $#array = $fill;.

The number of elements in the array will be fill + 1 after av_fill() returns. If the array was previously shorter, then the additional elements appended are set to NULL. If the array was longer, then the excess elements are freed. av_fill(av, -1) is the same as av_clear(av).



        void    av_fill(AV *av, SSize_t fill)



av_len Same as av_top_index. Note that, unlike what the name implies, it returns the highest index in the array, so to get the size of the array you need to use av_len(av) + 1. This is unlike sv_len, which returns what you would expect.



        SSize_t av_len(AV *av)



av_make Creates a new AV and populates it with a list of SVs. The SVs are copied into the array, so they may be freed after the call to av_make. The new AV will have a reference count of 1.

Perl equivalent: my @new_array = ($scalar1, $scalar2, $scalar3...);



        AV*     av_make(SSize_t size, SV **strp)



av_pop Removes one SV from the end of the array, reducing its size by one and returning the SV (transferring control of one reference count) to the caller. Returns &PL_sv_undef if the array is empty.

Perl equivalent: pop(@myarray);



        SV*     av_pop(AV *av)



av_push Pushes an SV onto the end of the array. The array will grow automatically to accommodate the addition. This takes ownership of one reference count.

Perl equivalent: push @myarray, $elem;.



        void    av_push(AV *av, SV *val)



av_shift Removes one SV from the start of the array, reducing its size by one and returning the SV (transferring control of one reference count) to the caller. Returns &PL_sv_undef if the array is empty.

Perl equivalent: shift(@myarray);



        SV*     av_shift(AV *av)



av_store Stores an SV in an array. The array index is specified as key. The return value will be NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not need to be actually stored within the array (as in the case of tied arrays). Otherwise, it can be dereferenced to get the SV* that was stored there (= val)).

Note that the caller is responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of val before the call, and decrementing it if the function returned NULL.

Approximate Perl equivalent: $myarray[$key] = $val;.

See Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays in perlguts for more information on how to use this function on tied arrays.



        SV**    av_store(AV *av, SSize_t key, SV *val)



av_tindex Same as av_top_index().



        int     av_tindex(AV* av)



av_top_index Returns the highest index in the array. The number of elements in the array is av_top_index(av) + 1. Returns -1 if the array is empty.

The Perl equivalent for this is $#myarray.

(A slightly shorter form is av_tindex.)



        SSize_t av_top_index(AV *av)



av_undef Undefines the array. The XS equivalent of undef(@array).

As well as freeing all the elements of the array (like av_clear()), this also frees the memory used by the av to store its list of scalars.

See av_clear for a note about the array possibly being invalid on return.



        void    av_undef(AV *av)



av_unshift Unshift the given number of undef values onto the beginning of the array. The array will grow automatically to accommodate the addition. You must then use av_store to assign values to these new elements.

Perl equivalent: unshift @myarray, ( (undef) x $n );



        void    av_unshift(AV *av, SSize_t num)



get_av Returns the AV of the specified Perl global or package array with the given name (so it won’t work on lexical variables). flags are passed to gv_fetchpv. If GV_ADD is set and the Perl variable does not exist then it will be created. If flags is zero and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

Perl equivalent: @{"$name"}.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        AV*     get_av(const char *name, I32 flags)



newAV Creates a new AV. The reference count is set to 1.

Perl equivalent: my @array;.



        AV*     newAV()



sortsv Sort an array. Here is an example:



    sortsv(AvARRAY(av), av_top_index(av)+1, Perl_sv_cmp_locale);



Currently this always uses mergesort. See sortsv_flags for a more flexible routine.



        void    sortsv(SV** array, size_t num_elts,
                       SVCOMPARE_t cmp)



sortsv_flags Sort an array, with various options.



        void    sortsv_flags(SV** array, size_t num_elts,
                             SVCOMPARE_t cmp, U32 flags)



xsubpp variables and internal functions

ax Variable which is setup by xsubpp to indicate the stack base offset, used by the ST, XSprePUSH and XSRETURN macros. The dMARK macro must be called prior to setup the MARK variable.



        I32     ax



CLASS Variable which is setup by xsubpp to indicate the class name for a C++ XS constructor. This is always a char*. See THIS.



        char*   CLASS



dAX Sets up the ax variable. This is usually handled automatically by xsubpp by calling dXSARGS.



                dAX;



dAXMARK Sets up the ax variable and stack marker variable mark. This is usually handled automatically by xsubpp by calling dXSARGS.



                dAXMARK;



dITEMS Sets up the items variable. This is usually handled automatically by xsubpp by calling dXSARGS.



                dITEMS;



dUNDERBAR Sets up any variable needed by the UNDERBAR macro. It used to define padoff_du, but it is currently a noop. However, it is strongly advised to still use it for ensuring past and future compatibility.



                dUNDERBAR;



dXSARGS Sets up stack and mark pointers for an XSUB, calling dSP and dMARK. Sets up the ax and items variables by calling dAX and dITEMS. This is usually handled automatically by xsubpp.



                dXSARGS;



dXSI32 Sets up the ix variable for an XSUB which has aliases. This is usually handled automatically by xsubpp.



                dXSI32;



items Variable which is setup by xsubpp to indicate the number of items on the stack. See Variable-length Parameter Lists in perlxs.



        I32     items



ix Variable which is setup by xsubpp to indicate which of an XSUB’s aliases was used to invoke it. See The ALIAS: Keyword in perlxs.



        I32     ix



RETVAL Variable which is setup by xsubpp to hold the return value for an XSUB. This is always the proper type for the XSUB. See The RETVAL Variable in perlxs.



        (whatever)      RETVAL



ST Used to access elements on the XSUB’s stack.



        SV*     ST(int ix)



THIS Variable which is setup by xsubpp to designate the object in a C++ XSUB. This is always the proper type for the C++ object. See CLASS and Using XS With C++ in perlxs.



        (whatever)      THIS



UNDERBAR The SV* corresponding to the $_ variable. Works even if there is a lexical $_ in scope.
XS Macro to declare an XSUB and its C parameter list. This is handled by xsubpp. It is the same as using the more explicit XS_EXTERNAL macro.
XS_EXTERNAL Macro to declare an XSUB and its C parameter list explicitly exporting the symbols.
XS_INTERNAL Macro to declare an XSUB and its C parameter list without exporting the symbols. This is handled by xsubpp and generally preferable over exporting the XSUB symbols unnecessarily.

Callback Functions

call_argv Performs a callback to the specified named and package-scoped Perl subroutine with argv (a NULL-terminated array of strings) as arguments. See perlcall.

Approximate Perl equivalent: &{"$sub_name"}(@$argv).

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        I32     call_argv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags,
                          char** argv)



call_method Performs a callback to the specified Perl method. The blessed object must be on the stack. See perlcall.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        I32     call_method(const char* methname, I32 flags)



call_pv Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub. See perlcall.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        I32     call_pv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags)



call_sv Performs a callback to the Perl sub specified by the SV.

If neither the G_METHOD or G_METHOD_NAMED flag is supplied, the SV may be any of a CV, a GV, a reference to a CV, a reference to a GV or SvPV(sv) will be used as the name of the sub to call.

If the G_METHOD flag is supplied, the SV may be a reference to a CV or SvPV(sv) will be used as the name of the method to call.

If the G_METHOD_NAMED flag is supplied, SvPV(sv) will be used as the name of the method to call.

Some other values are treated specially for internal use and should not be depended on.

See perlcall.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        I32     call_sv(SV* sv, VOL I32 flags)



ENTER Opening bracket on a callback. See LEAVE and perlcall.



                ENTER;



eval_pv Tells Perl to eval the given string in scalar context and return an SV* result.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        SV*     eval_pv(const char* p, I32 croak_on_error)



eval_sv Tells Perl to eval the string in the SV. It supports the same flags as call_sv, with the obvious exception of G_EVAL. See perlcall.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        I32     eval_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)



FREETMPS Closing bracket for temporaries on a callback. See SAVETMPS and perlcall.



                FREETMPS;



LEAVE Closing bracket on a callback. See ENTER and perlcall.



                LEAVE;



SAVETMPS Opening bracket for temporaries on a callback. See FREETMPS and perlcall.



                SAVETMPS;



Character case changing

toFOLD Converts the specified character to foldcase. If the input is anything but an ASCII uppercase character, that input character itself is returned. Variant toFOLD_A is equivalent. (There is no equivalent to_FOLD_L1 for the full Latin1 range, as the full generality of toFOLD_uni is needed there.)



        U8      toFOLD(U8 ch)



toFOLD_uni Converts the Unicode code point cp to its foldcase version, and stores that in UTF-8 in s, and its length in bytes in lenp. Note that the buffer pointed to by s needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the foldcase version may be longer than the original character.

The first code point of the foldcased version is returned (but note, as explained just above, that there may be more.)



        UV      toFOLD_uni(UV cp, U8* s, STRLEN* lenp)



toFOLD_utf8 Converts the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its foldcase version, and stores that in UTF-8 in s, and its length in bytes in lenp. Note that the buffer pointed to by s needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the foldcase version may be longer than the original character.

The first code point of the foldcased version is returned (but note, as explained just above, that there may be more.)

The input character at p is assumed to be well-formed.



        UV      toFOLD_utf8(U8* p, U8* s, STRLEN* lenp)



toLOWER Converts the specified character to lowercase. If the input is anything but an ASCII uppercase character, that input character itself is returned. Variant toLOWER_A is equivalent.



        U8      toLOWER(U8 ch)



toLOWER_L1 Converts the specified Latin1 character to lowercase. The results are undefined if the input doesn’t fit in a byte.



        U8      toLOWER_L1(U8 ch)



toLOWER_LC Converts the specified character to lowercase using the current locale’s rules, if possible; otherwise returns the input character itself.



        U8      toLOWER_LC(U8 ch)



toLOWER_uni Converts the Unicode code point cp to its lowercase version, and stores that in UTF-8 in s, and its length in bytes in lenp. Note that the buffer pointed to by s needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the lowercase version may be longer than the original character.

The first code point of the lowercased version is returned (but note, as explained just above, that there may be more.)



        UV      toLOWER_uni(UV cp, U8* s, STRLEN* lenp)



toLOWER_utf8 Converts the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its lowercase version, and stores that in UTF-8 in s, and its length in bytes in lenp. Note that the buffer pointed to by s needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the lowercase version may be longer than the original character.

The first code point of the lowercased version is returned (but note, as explained just above, that there may be more.)

The input character at p is assumed to be well-formed.



        UV      toLOWER_utf8(U8* p, U8* s, STRLEN* lenp)



toTITLE Converts the specified character to titlecase. If the input is anything but an ASCII lowercase character, that input character itself is returned. Variant toTITLE_A is equivalent. (There is no toTITLE_L1 for the full Latin1 range, as the full generality of toTITLE_uni is needed there. Titlecase is not a concept used in locale handling, so there is no functionality for that.)



        U8      toTITLE(U8 ch)



toTITLE_uni Converts the Unicode code point cp to its titlecase version, and stores that in UTF-8 in s, and its length in bytes in lenp. Note that the buffer pointed to by s needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the titlecase version may be longer than the original character.

The first code point of the titlecased version is returned (but note, as explained just above, that there may be more.)



        UV      toTITLE_uni(UV cp, U8* s, STRLEN* lenp)



toTITLE_utf8 Converts the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its titlecase version, and stores that in UTF-8 in s, and its length in bytes in lenp. Note that the buffer pointed to by s needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the titlecase version may be longer than the original character.

The first code point of the titlecased version is returned (but note, as explained just above, that there may be more.)

The input character at p is assumed to be well-formed.



        UV      toTITLE_utf8(U8* p, U8* s, STRLEN* lenp)



toUPPER Converts the specified character to uppercase. If the input is anything but an ASCII lowercase character, that input character itself is returned. Variant toUPPER_A is equivalent.



        U8      toUPPER(U8 ch)



toUPPER_uni Converts the Unicode code point cp to its uppercase version, and stores that in UTF-8 in s, and its length in bytes in lenp. Note that the buffer pointed to by s needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the uppercase version may be longer than the original character.

The first code point of the uppercased version is returned (but note, as explained just above, that there may be more.)



        UV      toUPPER_uni(UV cp, U8* s, STRLEN* lenp)



toUPPER_utf8 Converts the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its uppercase version, and stores that in UTF-8 in s, and its length in bytes in lenp. Note that the buffer pointed to by s needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the uppercase version may be longer than the original character.

The first code point of the uppercased version is returned (but note, as explained just above, that there may be more.)

The input character at p is assumed to be well-formed.



        UV      toUPPER_utf8(U8* p, U8* s, STRLEN* lenp)



Character classification

This section is about functions (really macros) that classify characters into types, such as punctuation versus alphabetic, etc. Most of these are analogous to regular expression character classes. (See POSIX Character Classes in perlrecharclass.) There are several variants for each class. (Not all macros have all variants; each item below lists the ones valid for it.) None are affected by use bytes, and only the ones with LC in the name are affected by the current locale.

The base function, e.g., isALPHA(), takes an octet (either a char or a U8) as input and returns a boolean as to whether or not the character represented by that octet is (or on non-ASCII platforms, corresponds to) an ASCII character in the named class based on platform, Unicode, and Perl rules. If the input is a number that doesn’t fit in an octet, FALSE is returned.

Variant isFOO_A (e.g., isALPHA_A()) is identical to the base function with no suffix "_A".

Variant isFOO_L1 imposes the Latin-1 (or EBCDIC equivlalent) character set onto the platform. That is, the code points that are ASCII are unaffected, since ASCII is a subset of Latin-1. But the non-ASCII code points are treated as if they are Latin-1 characters. For example, isWORDCHAR_L1() will return true when called with the code point 0xDF, which is a word character in both ASCII and EBCDIC (though it represents different characters in each).

Variant isFOO_uni is like the isFOO_L1 variant, but accepts any UV code point as input. If the code point is larger than 255, Unicode rules are used to determine if it is in the character class. For example, isWORDCHAR_uni(0x100) returns TRUE, since 0x100 is LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH MACRON in Unicode, and is a word character.

Variant isFOO_utf8 is like isFOO_uni, but the input is a pointer to a (known to be well-formed) UTF-8 encoded string (U8* or char*). The classification of just the first (possibly multi-byte) character in the string is tested.

Variant isFOO_LC is like the isFOO_A and isFOO_L1 variants, but the result is based on the current locale, which is what LC in the name stands for. If Perl can determine that the current locale is a UTF-8 locale, it uses the published Unicode rules; otherwise, it uses the C library function that gives the named classification. For example, isDIGIT_LC() when not in a UTF-8 locale returns the result of calling isdigit(). FALSE is always returned if the input won’t fit into an octet. On some platforms where the C library function is known to be defective, Perl changes its result to follow the POSIX standard’s rules.

Variant isFOO_LC_uvchr is like isFOO_LC, but is defined on any UV. It returns the same as isFOO_LC for input code points less than 256, and returns the hard-coded, not-affected-by-locale, Unicode results for larger ones.

Variant isFOO_LC_utf8 is like isFOO_LC_uvchr, but the input is a pointer to a (known to be well-formed) UTF-8 encoded string (U8* or char*). The classification of just the first (possibly multi-byte) character in the string is tested.
isALPHA Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is an alphabetic character, analogous to m/[[:alpha:]]/. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isALPHA_A, isALPHA_L1, isALPHA_uni, isALPHA_utf8, isALPHA_LC, isALPHA_LC_uvchr, and isALPHA_LC_utf8.



        bool    isALPHA(char ch)



isALPHANUMERIC Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a either an alphabetic character or decimal digit, analogous to m/[[:alnum:]]/. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isALPHANUMERIC_A, isALPHANUMERIC_L1, isALPHANUMERIC_uni, isALPHANUMERIC_utf8, isALPHANUMERIC_LC, isALPHANUMERIC_LC_uvchr, and isALPHANUMERIC_LC_utf8.



        bool    isALPHANUMERIC(char ch)



isASCII Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is one of the 128 characters in the ASCII character set, analogous to m/[[:ascii:]]/. On non-ASCII platforms, it returns TRUE iff this character corresponds to an ASCII character. Variants isASCII_A() and isASCII_L1() are identical to isASCII(). See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isASCII_uni, isASCII_utf8, isASCII_LC, isASCII_LC_uvchr, and isASCII_LC_utf8. Note, however, that some platforms do not have the C library routine isascii(). In these cases, the variants whose names contain LC are the same as the corresponding ones without.

Also note, that because all ASCII characters are UTF-8 invariant (meaning they have the exact same representation (always a single byte) whether encoded in UTF-8 or not), isASCII will give the correct results when called with any byte in any string encoded or not in UTF-8. And similarly isASCII_utf8 will work properly on any string encoded or not in UTF-8.



        bool    isASCII(char ch)



isBLANK Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a character considered to be a blank, analogous to m/[[:blank:]]/. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isBLANK_A, isBLANK_L1, isBLANK_uni, isBLANK_utf8, isBLANK_LC, isBLANK_LC_uvchr, and isBLANK_LC_utf8. Note, however, that some platforms do not have the C library routine isblank(). In these cases, the variants whose names contain LC are the same as the corresponding ones without.



        bool    isBLANK(char ch)



isCNTRL Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a control character, analogous to m/[[:cntrl:]]/. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isCNTRL_A, isCNTRL_L1, isCNTRL_uni, isCNTRL_utf8, isCNTRL_LC, isCNTRL_LC_uvchr, and isCNTRL_LC_utf8 On EBCDIC platforms, you almost always want to use the isCNTRL_L1 variant.



        bool    isCNTRL(char ch)



isDIGIT Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a digit, analogous to m/[[:digit:]]/. Variants isDIGIT_A and isDIGIT_L1 are identical to isDIGIT. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isDIGIT_uni, isDIGIT_utf8, isDIGIT_LC, isDIGIT_LC_uvchr, and isDIGIT_LC_utf8.



        bool    isDIGIT(char ch)



isGRAPH Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a graphic character, analogous to m/[[:graph:]]/. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isGRAPH_A, isGRAPH_L1, isGRAPH_uni, isGRAPH_utf8, isGRAPH_LC, isGRAPH_LC_uvchr, and isGRAPH_LC_utf8.



        bool    isGRAPH(char ch)



isIDCONT Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character can be the second or succeeding character of an identifier. This is very close to, but not quite the same as the official Unicode property XID_Continue. The difference is that this returns true only if the input character also matches isWORDCHAR. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isIDCONT_A, isIDCONT_L1, isIDCONT_uni, isIDCONT_utf8, isIDCONT_LC, isIDCONT_LC_uvchr, and isIDCONT_LC_utf8.



        bool    isIDCONT(char ch)



isIDFIRST Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character can be the first character of an identifier. This is very close to, but not quite the same as the official Unicode property XID_Start. The difference is that this returns true only if the input character also matches isWORDCHAR. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isIDFIRST_A, isIDFIRST_L1, isIDFIRST_uni, isIDFIRST_utf8, isIDFIRST_LC, isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr, and isIDFIRST_LC_utf8.



        bool    isIDFIRST(char ch)



isLOWER Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a lowercase character, analogous to m/[[:lower:]]/. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isLOWER_A, isLOWER_L1, isLOWER_uni, isLOWER_utf8, isLOWER_LC, isLOWER_LC_uvchr, and isLOWER_LC_utf8.



        bool    isLOWER(char ch)



isOCTAL Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is an octal digit, [0-7]. The only two variants are isOCTAL_A and isOCTAL_L1; each is identical to isOCTAL.



        bool    isOCTAL(char ch)



isPRINT Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a printable character, analogous to m/[[:print:]]/. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isPRINT_A, isPRINT_L1, isPRINT_uni, isPRINT_utf8, isPRINT_LC, isPRINT_LC_uvchr, and isPRINT_LC_utf8.



        bool    isPRINT(char ch)



isPSXSPC (short for Posix Space) Starting in 5.18, this is identical in all its forms to the corresponding isSPACE() macros. The locale forms of this macro are identical to their corresponding isSPACE() forms in all Perl releases. In releases prior to 5.18, the non-locale forms differ from their isSPACE() forms only in that the isSPACE() forms don’t match a Vertical Tab, and the isPSXSPC() forms do. Otherwise they are identical. Thus this macro is analogous to what m/[[:space:]]/ matches in a regular expression. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isPSXSPC_A, isPSXSPC_L1, isPSXSPC_uni, isPSXSPC_utf8, isPSXSPC_LC, isPSXSPC_LC_uvchr, and isPSXSPC_LC_utf8.



        bool    isPSXSPC(char ch)



isPUNCT Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a punctuation character, analogous to m/[[:punct:]]/. Note that the definition of what is punctuation isn’t as straightforward as one might desire. See POSIX Character Classes in perlrecharclass for details. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isPUNCT_A, isPUNCT_L1, isPUNCT_uni, isPUNCT_utf8, isPUNCT_LC, isPUNCT_LC_uvchr, and isPUNCT_LC_utf8.



        bool    isPUNCT(char ch)



isSPACE Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a whitespace character. This is analogous to what m/\s/ matches in a regular expression. Starting in Perl 5.18 this also matches what m/[[:space:]]/ does. Prior to 5.18, only the locale forms of this macro (the ones with LC in their names) matched precisely what m/[[:space:]]/ does. In those releases, the only difference, in the non-locale variants, was that isSPACE() did not match a vertical tab. (See isPSXSPC for a macro that matches a vertical tab in all releases.) See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isSPACE_A, isSPACE_L1, isSPACE_uni, isSPACE_utf8, isSPACE_LC, isSPACE_LC_uvchr, and isSPACE_LC_utf8.



        bool    isSPACE(char ch)



isUPPER Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is an uppercase character, analogous to m/[[:upper:]]/. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isUPPER_A, isUPPER_L1, isUPPER_uni, isUPPER_utf8, isUPPER_LC, isUPPER_LC_uvchr, and isUPPER_LC_utf8.



        bool    isUPPER(char ch)



isWORDCHAR Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a character that is a word character, analogous to what m/\w/ and m/[[:word:]]/ match in a regular expression. A word character is an alphabetic character, a decimal digit, a connecting punctuation character (such as an underscore), or a mark character that attaches to one of those (like some sort of accent). isALNUM() is a synonym provided for backward compatibility, even though a word character includes more than the standard C language meaning of alphanumeric. See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isWORDCHAR_A, isWORDCHAR_L1, isWORDCHAR_uni, and isWORDCHAR_utf8. isWORDCHAR_LC, isWORDCHAR_LC_uvchr, and isWORDCHAR_LC_utf8 are also as described there, but additionally include the platform’s native underscore.



        bool    isWORDCHAR(char ch)



isXDIGIT Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a hexadecimal digit. In the ASCII range these are [0-9A-Fa-f]. Variants isXDIGIT_A() and isXDIGIT_L1() are identical to isXDIGIT(). See the top of this section for an explanation of variants isXDIGIT_uni, isXDIGIT_utf8, isXDIGIT_LC, isXDIGIT_LC_uvchr, and isXDIGIT_LC_utf8.



        bool    isXDIGIT(char ch)



Cloning an interpreter

perl_clone Create and return a new interpreter by cloning the current one.

perl_clone takes these flags as parameters:

CLONEf_COPY_STACKS - is used to, well, copy the stacks also, without it we only clone the data and zero the stacks, with it we copy the stacks and the new perl interpreter is ready to run at the exact same point as the previous one. The pseudo-fork code uses COPY_STACKS while the threads->create doesn’t.

CLONEf_KEEP_PTR_TABLE - perl_clone keeps a ptr_table with the pointer of the old variable as a key and the new variable as a value, this allows it to check if something has been cloned and not clone it again but rather just use the value and increase the refcount. If KEEP_PTR_TABLE is not set then perl_clone will kill the ptr_table using the function ptr_table_free(PL_ptr_table); PL_ptr_table = NULL;, reason to keep it around is if you want to dup some of your own variable who are outside the graph perl scans, example of this code is in threads.xs create.

CLONEf_CLONE_HOST - This is a win32 thing, it is ignored on unix, it tells perls win32host code (which is c++) to clone itself, this is needed on win32 if you want to run two threads at the same time, if you just want to do some stuff in a separate perl interpreter and then throw it away and return to the original one, you don’t need to do anything.



        PerlInterpreter* perl_clone(
                             PerlInterpreter *proto_perl,
                             UV flags
                         )



Compile-time scope hooks

BhkDISABLE NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Temporarily disable an entry in this BHK structure, by clearing the appropriate flag. which is a preprocessor token indicating which entry to disable.



        void    BhkDISABLE(BHK *hk, which)



BhkENABLE NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Re-enable an entry in this BHK structure, by setting the appropriate flag. which is a preprocessor token indicating which entry to enable. This will assert (under -DDEBUGGING) if the entry doesn’t contain a valid pointer.



        void    BhkENABLE(BHK *hk, which)



BhkENTRY_set NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Set an entry in the BHK structure, and set the flags to indicate it is valid. which is a preprocessing token indicating which entry to set. The type of ptr depends on the entry.



        void    BhkENTRY_set(BHK *hk, which, void *ptr)



blockhook_register NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Register a set of hooks to be called when the Perl lexical scope changes at compile time. See Compile-time scope hooks in perlguts.

NOTE: this function must be explicitly called as Perl_blockhook_register with an aTHX_ parameter.



        void    Perl_blockhook_register(pTHX_ BHK *hk)



COP Hint Hashes

cophh_2hv NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Generates and returns a standard Perl hash representing the full set of key/value pairs in the cop hints hash cophh. flags is currently unused and must be zero.



        HV *    cophh_2hv(const COPHH *cophh, U32 flags)



cophh_copy NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Make and return a complete copy of the cop hints hash cophh.



        COPHH * cophh_copy(COPHH *cophh)



cophh_delete_pv NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Like cophh_delete_pvn, but takes a nul-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        COPHH * cophh_delete_pv(const COPHH *cophh,
                                const char *key, U32 hash,
                                U32 flags)



cophh_delete_pvn NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Delete a key and its associated value from the cop hints hash cophh, and returns the modified hash. The returned hash pointer is in general not the same as the hash pointer that was passed in. The input hash is consumed by the function, and the pointer to it must not be subsequently used. Use cophh_copy if you need both hashes.

The key is specified by keypv and keylen. If flags has the COPHH_KEY_UTF8 bit set, the key octets are interpreted as UTF-8, otherwise they are interpreted as Latin-1. hash is a precomputed hash of the key string, or zero if it has not been precomputed.



        COPHH * cophh_delete_pvn(COPHH *cophh,
                                 const char *keypv,
                                 STRLEN keylen, U32 hash,
                                 U32 flags)



cophh_delete_pvs NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Like cophh_delete_pvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair, and no precomputed hash.



        COPHH * cophh_delete_pvs(const COPHH *cophh,
                                 const char *key, U32 flags)



cophh_delete_sv NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Like cophh_delete_pvn, but takes a Perl scalar instead of a string/length pair.



        COPHH * cophh_delete_sv(const COPHH *cophh, SV *key,
                                U32 hash, U32 flags)



cophh_fetch_pv NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Like cophh_fetch_pvn, but takes a nul-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        SV *    cophh_fetch_pv(const COPHH *cophh,
                               const char *key, U32 hash,
                               U32 flags)



cophh_fetch_pvn NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Look up the entry in the cop hints hash cophh with the key specified by keypv and keylen. If flags has the COPHH_KEY_UTF8 bit set, the key octets are interpreted as UTF-8, otherwise they are interpreted as Latin-1. hash is a precomputed hash of the key string, or zero if it has not been precomputed. Returns a mortal scalar copy of the value associated with the key, or &PL_sv_placeholder if there is no value associated with the key.



        SV *    cophh_fetch_pvn(const COPHH *cophh,
                                const char *keypv,
                                STRLEN keylen, U32 hash,
                                U32 flags)



cophh_fetch_pvs NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Like cophh_fetch_pvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair, and no precomputed hash.



        SV *    cophh_fetch_pvs(const COPHH *cophh,
                                const char *key, U32 flags)



cophh_fetch_sv NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Like cophh_fetch_pvn, but takes a Perl scalar instead of a string/length pair.



        SV *    cophh_fetch_sv(const COPHH *cophh, SV *key,
                               U32 hash, U32 flags)



cophh_free NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Discard the cop hints hash cophh, freeing all resources associated with it.



        void    cophh_free(COPHH *cophh)



cophh_new_empty NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Generate and return a fresh cop hints hash containing no entries.



        COPHH * cophh_new_empty()



cophh_store_pv NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Like cophh_store_pvn, but takes a nul-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        COPHH * cophh_store_pv(const COPHH *cophh,
                               const char *key, U32 hash,
                               SV *value, U32 flags)



cophh_store_pvn NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Stores a value, associated with a key, in the cop hints hash cophh, and returns the modified hash. The returned hash pointer is in general not the same as the hash pointer that was passed in. The input hash is consumed by the function, and the pointer to it must not be subsequently used. Use cophh_copy if you need both hashes.

The key is specified by keypv and keylen. If flags has the COPHH_KEY_UTF8 bit set, the key octets are interpreted as UTF-8, otherwise they are interpreted as Latin-1. hash is a precomputed hash of the key string, or zero if it has not been precomputed.

value is the scalar value to store for this key. value is copied by this function, which thus does not take ownership of any reference to it, and later changes to the scalar will not be reflected in the value visible in the cop hints hash. Complex types of scalar will not be stored with referential integrity, but will be coerced to strings.



        COPHH * cophh_store_pvn(COPHH *cophh, const char *keypv,
                                STRLEN keylen, U32 hash,
                                SV *value, U32 flags)



cophh_store_pvs NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Like cophh_store_pvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair, and no precomputed hash.



        COPHH * cophh_store_pvs(const COPHH *cophh,
                                const char *key, SV *value,
                                U32 flags)



cophh_store_sv NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Like cophh_store_pvn, but takes a Perl scalar instead of a string/length pair.



        COPHH * cophh_store_sv(const COPHH *cophh, SV *key,
                               U32 hash, SV *value, U32 flags)



COP Hint Reading

cop_hints_2hv Generates and returns a standard Perl hash representing the full set of hint entries in the cop cop. flags is currently unused and must be zero.



        HV *    cop_hints_2hv(const COP *cop, U32 flags)



cop_hints_fetch_pv Like cop_hints_fetch_pvn, but takes a nul-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        SV *    cop_hints_fetch_pv(const COP *cop,
                                   const char *key, U32 hash,
                                   U32 flags)



cop_hints_fetch_pvn Look up the hint entry in the cop cop with the key specified by keypv and keylen. If flags has the COPHH_KEY_UTF8 bit set, the key octets are interpreted as UTF-8, otherwise they are interpreted as Latin-1. hash is a precomputed hash of the key string, or zero if it has not been precomputed. Returns a mortal scalar copy of the value associated with the key, or &PL_sv_placeholder if there is no value associated with the key.



        SV *    cop_hints_fetch_pvn(const COP *cop,
                                    const char *keypv,
                                    STRLEN keylen, U32 hash,
                                    U32 flags)



cop_hints_fetch_pvs Like cop_hints_fetch_pvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair, and no precomputed hash.



        SV *    cop_hints_fetch_pvs(const COP *cop,
                                    const char *key, U32 flags)



cop_hints_fetch_sv Like cop_hints_fetch_pvn, but takes a Perl scalar instead of a string/length pair.



        SV *    cop_hints_fetch_sv(const COP *cop, SV *key,
                                   U32 hash, U32 flags)



Custom Operators

custom_op_register Register a custom op. See Custom Operators in perlguts.

NOTE: this function must be explicitly called as Perl_custom_op_register with an aTHX_ parameter.



        void    Perl_custom_op_register(pTHX_
                                        Perl_ppaddr_t ppaddr,
                                        const XOP *xop)



custom_op_xop Return the XOP structure for a given custom op. This macro should be considered internal to OP_NAME and the other access macros: use them instead. This macro does call a function. Prior to 5.19.6, this was implemented as a function.

NOTE: this function must be explicitly called as Perl_custom_op_xop with an aTHX_ parameter.



        const XOP * Perl_custom_op_xop(pTHX_ const OP *o)



XopDISABLE Temporarily disable a member of the XOP, by clearing the appropriate flag.



        void    XopDISABLE(XOP *xop, which)



XopENABLE Reenable a member of the XOP which has been disabled.



        void    XopENABLE(XOP *xop, which)



XopENTRY Return a member of the XOP structure. which is a cpp token indicating which entry to return. If the member is not set this will return a default value. The return type depends on which. This macro evaluates its arguments more than once. If you are using Perl_custom_op_xop to retreive a XOP * from a OP *, use the more efficient XopENTRYCUSTOM instead.



                XopENTRY(XOP *xop, which)



XopENTRYCUSTOM Exactly like XopENTRY(XopENTRY(Perl_custom_op_xop(aTHX_ o), which) but more efficient. The which parameter is identical to XopENTRY.



                XopENTRYCUSTOM(const OP *o, which)



XopENTRY_set Set a member of the XOP structure. which is a cpp token indicating which entry to set. See Custom Operators in perlguts for details about the available members and how they are used. This macro evaluates its argument more than once.



        void    XopENTRY_set(XOP *xop, which, value)



XopFLAGS Return the XOP’s flags.



        U32     XopFLAGS(XOP *xop)



CV Manipulation Functions

This section documents functions to manipulate CVs which are code-values, or subroutines. For more information, see perlguts.
caller_cx The XSUB-writer’s equivalent of caller(). The returned PERL_CONTEXT structure can be interrogated to find all the information returned to Perl by caller. Note that XSUBs don’t get a stack frame, so caller_cx(0, NULL) will return information for the immediately-surrounding Perl code.

This function skips over the automatic calls to &DB::sub made on the behalf of the debugger. If the stack frame requested was a sub called by DB::sub, the return value will be the frame for the call to DB::sub, since that has the correct line number/etc. for the call site. If dbcxp is non-NULL, it will be set to a pointer to the frame for the sub call itself.



        const PERL_CONTEXT * caller_cx(
                                 I32 level,
                                 const PERL_CONTEXT **dbcxp
                             )



CvSTASH Returns the stash of the CV. A stash is the symbol table hash, containing the package-scoped variables in the package where the subroutine was defined. For more information, see perlguts.

This also has a special use with XS AUTOLOAD subs. See Autoloading with XSUBs in perlguts.



        HV*     CvSTASH(CV* cv)



find_runcv Locate the CV corresponding to the currently executing sub or eval. If db_seqp is non_null, skip CVs that are in the DB package and populate *db_seqp with the cop sequence number at the point that the DB:: code was entered. (This allows debuggers to eval in the scope of the breakpoint rather than in the scope of the debugger itself.)



        CV*     find_runcv(U32 *db_seqp)



get_cv Uses strlen to get the length of name, then calls get_cvn_flags.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        CV*     get_cv(const char* name, I32 flags)



get_cvn_flags Returns the CV of the specified Perl subroutine. flags are passed to gv_fetchpvn_flags. If GV_ADD is set and the Perl subroutine does not exist then it will be declared (which has the same effect as saying sub name;). If GV_ADD is not set and the subroutine does not exist then NULL is returned.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        CV*     get_cvn_flags(const char* name, STRLEN len,
                              I32 flags)



Debugging Utilities

dump_all Dumps the entire optree of the current program starting at PL_main_root to STDERR. Also dumps the optrees for all visible subroutines in PL_defstash.



        void    dump_all()



dump_packsubs Dumps the optrees for all visible subroutines in stash.



        void    dump_packsubs(const HV* stash)



op_dump Dumps the optree starting at OP o to STDERR.



        void    op_dump(const OP *o)



sv_dump Dumps the contents of an SV to the STDERR filehandle.

For an example of its output, see Devel::Peek.



        void    sv_dump(SV* sv)



Display and Dump functions

pv_display Similar to



  pv_escape(dsv,pv,cur,pvlim,PERL_PV_ESCAPE_QUOTE);



except that an additional \0 will be appended to the string when len > cur and pv[cur] is \0.

Note that the final string may be up to 7 chars longer than pvlim.



        char*   pv_display(SV *dsv, const char *pv, STRLEN cur,
                           STRLEN len, STRLEN pvlim)



pv_escape Escapes at most the first count chars of pv and puts the results into dsv such that the size of the escaped string will not exceed max chars and will not contain any incomplete escape sequences. The number of bytes escaped will be returned in the STRLEN *escaped parameter if it is not null. When the dsv parameter is null no escaping actually occurs, but the number of bytes that would be escaped were it not null will be calculated.

If flags contains PERL_PV_ESCAPE_QUOTE then any double quotes in the string will also be escaped.

Normally the SV will be cleared before the escaped string is prepared, but when PERL_PV_ESCAPE_NOCLEAR is set this will not occur.

If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_UNI is set then the input string is treated as UTF-8 if PERL_PV_ESCAPE_UNI_DETECT is set then the input string is scanned using is_utf8_string() to determine if it is UTF-8.

If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_ALL is set then all input chars will be output using \x01F1 style escapes, otherwise if PERL_PV_ESCAPE_NONASCII is set, only non-ASCII chars will be escaped using this style; otherwise, only chars above 255 will be so escaped; other non printable chars will use octal or common escaped patterns like \n. Otherwise, if PERL_PV_ESCAPE_NOBACKSLASH then all chars below 255 will be treated as printable and will be output as literals.

If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_FIRSTCHAR is set then only the first char of the string will be escaped, regardless of max. If the output is to be in hex, then it will be returned as a plain hex sequence. Thus the output will either be a single char, an octal escape sequence, a special escape like \n or a hex value.

If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_RE is set then the escape char used will be a ’%’ and not a ’\\’. This is because regexes very often contain backslashed sequences, whereas ’%’ is not a particularly common character in patterns.

Returns a pointer to the escaped text as held by dsv.



        char*   pv_escape(SV *dsv, char const * const str,
                          const STRLEN count, const STRLEN max,
                          STRLEN * const escaped,
                          const U32 flags)



pv_pretty Converts a string into something presentable, handling escaping via pv_escape() and supporting quoting and ellipses.

If the PERL_PV_PRETTY_QUOTE flag is set then the result will be double quoted with any double quotes in the string escaped. Otherwise if the PERL_PV_PRETTY_LTGT flag is set then the result be wrapped in angle brackets.

If the PERL_PV_PRETTY_ELLIPSES flag is set and not all characters in string were output then an ellipsis ... will be appended to the string. Note that this happens AFTER it has been quoted.

If start_color is non-null then it will be inserted after the opening quote (if there is one) but before the escaped text. If end_color is non-null then it will be inserted after the escaped text but before any quotes or ellipses.

Returns a pointer to the prettified text as held by dsv.



        char*   pv_pretty(SV *dsv, char const * const str,
                          const STRLEN count, const STRLEN max,
                          char const * const start_color,
                          char const * const end_color,
                          const U32 flags)



Embedding Functions

cv_clone Clone a CV, making a lexical closure. proto supplies the prototype of the function: its code, pad structure, and other attributes. The prototype is combined with a capture of outer lexicals to which the code refers, which are taken from the currently-executing instance of the immediately surrounding code.



        CV *    cv_clone(CV *proto)



cv_name Returns an SV containing the name of the CV, mainly for use in error reporting. The CV may actually be a GV instead, in which case the returned SV holds the GV’s name. Anything other than a GV or CV is treated as a string already holding the sub name, but this could change in the future.

An SV may be passed as a second argument. If so, the name will be assigned to it and it will be returned. Otherwise the returned SV will be a new mortal.

If the flags include CV_NAME_NOTQUAL, then the package name will not be included. If the first argument is neither a CV nor a GV, this flag is ignored (subject to change).



        SV *    cv_name(CV *cv, SV *sv, U32 flags)



cv_undef Clear out all the active components of a CV. This can happen either by an explicit undef &foo, or by the reference count going to zero. In the former case, we keep the CvOUTSIDE pointer, so that any anonymous children can still follow the full lexical scope chain.



        void    cv_undef(CV* cv)



find_rundefsv Find and return the variable that is named $_ in the lexical scope of the currently-executing function. This may be a lexical $_, or will otherwise be the global one.



        SV *    find_rundefsv()



find_rundefsvoffset DEPRECATED! It is planned to remove this function from a future release of Perl. Do not use it for new code; remove it from existing code.

Find the position of the lexical $_ in the pad of the currently-executing function. Returns the offset in the current pad, or NOT_IN_PAD if there is no lexical $_ in scope (in which case the global one should be used instead). find_rundefsv is likely to be more convenient.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        PADOFFSET find_rundefsvoffset()



intro_my Introduce my variables to visible status. This is called during parsing at the end of each statement to make lexical variables visible to subsequent statements.



        U32     intro_my()



load_module Loads the module whose name is pointed to by the string part of name. Note that the actual module name, not its filename, should be given. Eg, Foo::Bar instead of Foo/Bar.pm. flags can be any of PERL_LOADMOD_DENY, PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, or PERL_LOADMOD_IMPORT_OPS (or 0 for no flags). ver, if specified and not NULL, provides version semantics similar to use Foo::Bar VERSION. The optional trailing SV* arguments can be used to specify arguments to the module’s import() method, similar to use Foo::Bar VERSION LIST. They must be terminated with a final NULL pointer. Note that this list can only be omitted when the PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT flag has been used. Otherwise at least a single NULL pointer to designate the default import list is required.

The reference count for each specified SV* parameter is decremented.



        void    load_module(U32 flags, SV* name, SV* ver, ...)



newPADNAMELIST NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Creates a new pad name list. max is the highest index for which space is allocated.



        PADNAMELIST * newPADNAMELIST(size_t max)



newPADNAMEouter NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Constructs and returns a new pad name. Only use this function for names that refer to outer lexicals. (See also newPADNAMEpvn.) outer is the outer pad name that this one mirrors. The returned pad name has the PADNAMEt_OUTER flag already set.



        PADNAME * newPADNAMEouter(PADNAME *outer)



newPADNAMEpvn NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Constructs and returns a new pad name. s must be a UTF8 string. Do not use this for pad names that point to outer lexicals. See newPADNAMEouter.



        PADNAME * newPADNAMEpvn(const char *s, STRLEN len)



nothreadhook Stub that provides thread hook for perl_destruct when there are no threads.



        int     nothreadhook()



padnamelist_fetch NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Fetches the pad name from the given index.



        PADNAME * padnamelist_fetch(PADNAMELIST *pnl,
                                    SSize_t key)



padnamelist_store NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Stores the pad name (which may be null) at the given index, freeing any existing pad name in that slot.



        PADNAME ** padnamelist_store(PADNAMELIST *pnl,
                                     SSize_t key, PADNAME *val)



pad_add_anon Allocates a place in the currently-compiling pad (via pad_alloc) for an anonymous function that is lexically scoped inside the currently-compiling function. The function func is linked into the pad, and its CvOUTSIDE link to the outer scope is weakened to avoid a reference loop.

One reference count is stolen, so you may need to do SvREFCNT_inc(func).

optype should be an opcode indicating the type of operation that the pad entry is to support. This doesn’t affect operational semantics, but is used for debugging.



        PADOFFSET pad_add_anon(CV *func, I32 optype)



pad_add_name_pv Exactly like pad_add_name_pvn, but takes a nul-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        PADOFFSET pad_add_name_pv(const char *name, U32 flags,
                                  HV *typestash, HV *ourstash)



pad_add_name_pvn Allocates a place in the currently-compiling pad for a named lexical variable. Stores the name and other metadata in the name part of the pad, and makes preparations to manage the variable’s lexical scoping. Returns the offset of the allocated pad slot.

namepv/namelen specify the variable’s name, including leading sigil. If typestash is non-null, the name is for a typed lexical, and this identifies the type. If ourstash is non-null, it’s a lexical reference to a package variable, and this identifies the package. The following flags can be OR’ed together:



 padadd_OUR          redundantly specifies if its a package var
 padadd_STATE        variable will retain value persistently
 padadd_NO_DUP_CHECK skip check for lexical shadowing

        PADOFFSET pad_add_name_pvn(const char *namepv,
                                   STRLEN namelen, U32 flags,
                                   HV *typestash, HV *ourstash)



pad_add_name_sv Exactly like pad_add_name_pvn, but takes the name string in the form of an SV instead of a string/length pair.



        PADOFFSET pad_add_name_sv(SV *name, U32 flags,
                                  HV *typestash, HV *ourstash)



pad_alloc NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Allocates a place in the currently-compiling pad, returning the offset of the allocated pad slot. No name is initially attached to the pad slot. tmptype is a set of flags indicating the kind of pad entry required, which will be set in the value SV for the allocated pad entry:



    SVs_PADMY    named lexical variable ("my", "our", "state")
    SVs_PADTMP   unnamed temporary store
    SVf_READONLY constant shared between recursion levels



SVf_READONLY has been supported here only since perl 5.20. To work with earlier versions as well, use SVf_READONLY|SVs_PADTMP. SVf_READONLY does not cause the SV in the pad slot to be marked read-only, but simply tells pad_alloc that it will be made read-only (by the caller), or at least should be treated as such.

optype should be an opcode indicating the type of operation that the pad entry is to support. This doesn’t affect operational semantics, but is used for debugging.



        PADOFFSET pad_alloc(I32 optype, U32 tmptype)



pad_findmy_pv Exactly like pad_findmy_pvn, but takes a nul-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        PADOFFSET pad_findmy_pv(const char *name, U32 flags)



pad_findmy_pvn Given the name of a lexical variable, find its position in the currently-compiling pad. namepv/namelen specify the variable’s name, including leading sigil. flags is reserved and must be zero. If it is not in the current pad but appears in the pad of any lexically enclosing scope, then a pseudo-entry for it is added in the current pad. Returns the offset in the current pad, or NOT_IN_PAD if no such lexical is in scope.



        PADOFFSET pad_findmy_pvn(const char *namepv,
                                 STRLEN namelen, U32 flags)



pad_findmy_sv Exactly like pad_findmy_pvn, but takes the name string in the form of an SV instead of a string/length pair.



        PADOFFSET pad_findmy_sv(SV *name, U32 flags)



pad_setsv Set the value at offset po in the current (compiling or executing) pad. Use the macro PAD_SETSV() rather than calling this function directly.



        void    pad_setsv(PADOFFSET po, SV *sv)



pad_sv Get the value at offset po in the current (compiling or executing) pad. Use macro PAD_SV instead of calling this function directly.



        SV *    pad_sv(PADOFFSET po)



pad_tidy NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Tidy up a pad at the end of compilation of the code to which it belongs. Jobs performed here are: remove most stuff from the pads of anonsub prototypes; give it a @_; mark temporaries as such. type indicates the kind of subroutine:



    padtidy_SUB        ordinary subroutine
    padtidy_SUBCLONE   prototype for lexical closure
    padtidy_FORMAT     format

        void    pad_tidy(padtidy_type type)



perl_alloc Allocates a new Perl interpreter. See perlembed.



        PerlInterpreter* perl_alloc()



perl_construct Initializes a new Perl interpreter. See perlembed.



        void    perl_construct(PerlInterpreter *my_perl)



perl_destruct Shuts down a Perl interpreter. See perlembed.



        int     perl_destruct(PerlInterpreter *my_perl)



perl_free Releases a Perl interpreter. See perlembed.



        void    perl_free(PerlInterpreter *my_perl)



perl_parse Tells a Perl interpreter to parse a Perl script. See perlembed.



        int     perl_parse(PerlInterpreter *my_perl,
                           XSINIT_t xsinit, int argc,
                           char** argv, char** env)



perl_run Tells a Perl interpreter to run. See perlembed.



        int     perl_run(PerlInterpreter *my_perl)



require_pv Tells Perl to require the file named by the string argument. It is analogous to the Perl code eval "require $file". It’s even implemented that way; consider using load_module instead.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        void    require_pv(const char* pv)



Exception Handling (simple) Macros

dXCPT Set up necessary local variables for exception handling. See Exception Handling in perlguts.



                dXCPT;



XCPT_CATCH Introduces a catch block. See Exception Handling in perlguts.
XCPT_RETHROW Rethrows a previously caught exception. See Exception Handling in perlguts.



                XCPT_RETHROW;



XCPT_TRY_END Ends a try block. See Exception Handling in perlguts.
XCPT_TRY_START Starts a try block. See Exception Handling in perlguts.

Global Variables

These variables are global to an entire process. They are shared between all interpreters and all threads in a process.
PL_check Array, indexed by opcode, of functions that will be called for the check phase of optree building during compilation of Perl code. For most (but not all) types of op, once the op has been initially built and populated with child ops it will be filtered through the check function referenced by the appropriate element of this array. The new op is passed in as the sole argument to the check function, and the check function returns the completed op. The check function may (as the name suggests) check the op for validity and signal errors. It may also initialise or modify parts of the ops, or perform more radical surgery such as adding or removing child ops, or even throw the op away and return a different op in its place.

This array of function pointers is a convenient place to hook into the compilation process. An XS module can put its own custom check function in place of any of the standard ones, to influence the compilation of a particular type of op. However, a custom check function must never fully replace a standard check function (or even a custom check function from another module). A module modifying checking must instead <B>wrapB> the preexisting check function. A custom check function must be selective about when to apply its custom behaviour. In the usual case where it decides not to do anything special with an op, it must chain the preexisting op function. Check functions are thus linked in a chain, with the core’s base checker at the end.

For thread safety, modules should not write directly to this array. Instead, use the function wrap_op_checker.

PL_keyword_plugin NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Function pointer, pointing at a function used to handle extended keywords. The function should be declared as



        int keyword_plugin_function(pTHX_
                char *keyword_ptr, STRLEN keyword_len,
                OP **op_ptr)



The function is called from the tokeniser, whenever a possible keyword is seen. keyword_ptr points at the word in the parser’s input buffer, and keyword_len gives its length; it is not null-terminated. The function is expected to examine the word, and possibly other state such as %^H, to decide whether it wants to handle it as an extended keyword. If it does not, the function should return KEYWORD_PLUGIN_DECLINE, and the normal parser process will continue.

If the function wants to handle the keyword, it first must parse anything following the keyword that is part of the syntax introduced by the keyword. See Lexer interface for details.

When a keyword is being handled, the plugin function must build a tree of OP structures, representing the code that was parsed. The root of the tree must be stored in *op_ptr. The function then returns a constant indicating the syntactic role of the construct that it has parsed: KEYWORD_PLUGIN_STMT if it is a complete statement, or KEYWORD_PLUGIN_EXPR if it is an expression. Note that a statement construct cannot be used inside an expression (except via do BLOCK and similar), and an expression is not a complete statement (it requires at least a terminating semicolon).

When a keyword is handled, the plugin function may also have (compile-time) side effects. It may modify %^H, define functions, and so on. Typically, if side effects are the main purpose of a handler, it does not wish to generate any ops to be included in the normal compilation. In this case it is still required to supply an op tree, but it suffices to generate a single null op.

That’s how the *PL_keyword_plugin function needs to behave overall. Conventionally, however, one does not completely replace the existing handler function. Instead, take a copy of PL_keyword_plugin before assigning your own function pointer to it. Your handler function should look for keywords that it is interested in and handle those. Where it is not interested, it should call the saved plugin function, passing on the arguments it received. Thus PL_keyword_plugin actually points at a chain of handler functions, all of which have an opportunity to handle keywords, and only the last function in the chain (built into the Perl core) will normally return KEYWORD_PLUGIN_DECLINE.

GV Functions

A GV is a structure which corresponds to to a Perl typeglob, ie *foo. It is a structure that holds a pointer to a scalar, an array, a hash etc, corresponding to $foo, @foo, %foo.

GVs are usually found as values in stashes (symbol table hashes) where Perl stores its global variables.
GvAV Return the AV from the GV.



        AV*     GvAV(GV* gv)



GvCV Return the CV from the GV.



        CV*     GvCV(GV* gv)



GvHV Return the HV from the GV.



        HV*     GvHV(GV* gv)



GvSV Return the SV from the GV.



        SV*     GvSV(GV* gv)



gv_const_sv If gv is a typeglob whose subroutine entry is a constant sub eligible for inlining, or gv is a placeholder reference that would be promoted to such a typeglob, then returns the value returned by the sub. Otherwise, returns NULL.



        SV*     gv_const_sv(GV* gv)



gv_fetchmeth Like gv_fetchmeth_pvn, but lacks a flags parameter.



        GV*     gv_fetchmeth(HV* stash, const char* name,
                             STRLEN len, I32 level)



gv_fetchmethod_autoload Returns the glob which contains the subroutine to call to invoke the method on the stash. In fact in the presence of autoloading this may be the glob for AUTOLOAD. In this case the corresponding variable $AUTOLOAD is already setup.

The third parameter of gv_fetchmethod_autoload determines whether AUTOLOAD lookup is performed if the given method is not present: non-zero means yes, look for AUTOLOAD; zero means no, don’t look for AUTOLOAD. Calling gv_fetchmethod is equivalent to calling gv_fetchmethod_autoload with a non-zero autoload parameter.

These functions grant "SUPER" token as a prefix of the method name. Note that if you want to keep the returned glob for a long time, you need to check for it being AUTOLOAD, since at the later time the call may load a different subroutine due to $AUTOLOAD changing its value. Use the glob created as a side effect to do this.

These functions have the same side-effects as gv_fetchmeth with level==0. The warning against passing the GV returned by gv_fetchmeth to call_sv applies equally to these functions.



        GV*     gv_fetchmethod_autoload(HV* stash,
                                        const char* name,
                                        I32 autoload)



gv_fetchmeth_autoload This is the old form of gv_fetchmeth_pvn_autoload, which has no flags parameter.



        GV*     gv_fetchmeth_autoload(HV* stash,
                                      const char* name,
                                      STRLEN len, I32 level)



gv_fetchmeth_pv Exactly like gv_fetchmeth_pvn, but takes a nul-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        GV*     gv_fetchmeth_pv(HV* stash, const char* name,
                                I32 level, U32 flags)



gv_fetchmeth_pvn Returns the glob with the given name and a defined subroutine or NULL. The glob lives in the given stash, or in the stashes accessible via @ISA and UNIVERSAL::.

The argument level should be either 0 or -1. If level==0, as a side-effect creates a glob with the given name in the given stash which in the case of success contains an alias for the subroutine, and sets up caching info for this glob.

The only significant values for flags are GV_SUPER and SVf_UTF8.

GV_SUPER indicates that we want to look up the method in the superclasses of the stash.

The GV returned from gv_fetchmeth may be a method cache entry, which is not visible to Perl code. So when calling call_sv, you should not use the GV directly; instead, you should use the method’s CV, which can be obtained from the GV with the GvCV macro.



        GV*     gv_fetchmeth_pvn(HV* stash, const char* name,
                                 STRLEN len, I32 level,
                                 U32 flags)



gv_fetchmeth_pvn_autoload Same as gv_fetchmeth_pvn(), but looks for autoloaded subroutines too. Returns a glob for the subroutine.

For an autoloaded subroutine without a GV, will create a GV even if level < 0. For an autoloaded subroutine without a stub, GvCV() of the result may be zero.

Currently, the only significant value for flags is SVf_UTF8.



        GV*     gv_fetchmeth_pvn_autoload(HV* stash,
                                          const char* name,
                                          STRLEN len, I32 level,
                                          U32 flags)



gv_fetchmeth_pv_autoload Exactly like gv_fetchmeth_pvn_autoload, but takes a nul-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        GV*     gv_fetchmeth_pv_autoload(HV* stash,
                                         const char* name,
                                         I32 level, U32 flags)



gv_fetchmeth_sv Exactly like gv_fetchmeth_pvn, but takes the name string in the form of an SV instead of a string/length pair.



        GV*     gv_fetchmeth_sv(HV* stash, SV* namesv,
                                I32 level, U32 flags)



gv_fetchmeth_sv_autoload Exactly like gv_fetchmeth_pvn_autoload, but takes the name string in the form of an SV instead of a string/length pair.



        GV*     gv_fetchmeth_sv_autoload(HV* stash, SV* namesv,
                                         I32 level, U32 flags)



gv_init The old form of gv_init_pvn(). It does not work with UTF8 strings, as it has no flags parameter. If the multi parameter is set, the GV_ADDMULTI flag will be passed to gv_init_pvn().



        void    gv_init(GV* gv, HV* stash, const char* name,
                        STRLEN len, int multi)



gv_init_pv Same as gv_init_pvn(), but takes a nul-terminated string for the name instead of separate char * and length parameters.



        void    gv_init_pv(GV* gv, HV* stash, const char* name,
                           U32 flags)



gv_init_pvn Converts a scalar into a typeglob. This is an incoercible typeglob; assigning a reference to it will assign to one of its slots, instead of overwriting it as happens with typeglobs created by SvSetSV. Converting any scalar that is SvOK() may produce unpredictable results and is reserved for perl’s internal use.

gv is the scalar to be converted.

stash is the parent stash/package, if any.

name and len give the name. The name must be unqualified; that is, it must not include the package name. If gv is a stash element, it is the caller’s responsibility to ensure that the name passed to this function matches the name of the element. If it does not match, perl’s internal bookkeeping will get out of sync.

flags can be set to SVf_UTF8 if name is a UTF8 string, or the return value of SvUTF8(sv). It can also take the GV_ADDMULTI flag, which means to pretend that the GV has been seen before (i.e., suppress Used once warnings).



        void    gv_init_pvn(GV* gv, HV* stash, const char* name,
                            STRLEN len, U32 flags)



gv_init_sv Same as gv_init_pvn(), but takes an SV * for the name instead of separate char * and length parameters. flags is currently unused.



        void    gv_init_sv(GV* gv, HV* stash, SV* namesv,
                           U32 flags)



gv_stashpv Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package. Uses strlen to determine the length of name, then calls gv_stashpvn().



        HV*     gv_stashpv(const char* name, I32 flags)



gv_stashpvn Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package. The namelen parameter indicates the length of the name, in bytes. flags is passed to gv_fetchpvn_flags(), so if set to GV_ADD then the package will be created if it does not already exist. If the package does not exist and flags is 0 (or any other setting that does not create packages) then NULL is returned.

Flags may be one of:



    GV_ADD
    SVf_UTF8
    GV_NOADD_NOINIT
    GV_NOINIT
    GV_NOEXPAND
    GV_ADDMG



The most important of which are probably GV_ADD and SVf_UTF8.

Note, use of gv_stashsv instead of gv_stashpvn where possible is strongly recommended for performance reasons.



        HV*     gv_stashpvn(const char* name, U32 namelen,
                            I32 flags)



gv_stashpvs Like gv_stashpvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        HV*     gv_stashpvs(const char* name, I32 create)



gv_stashsv Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package. See gv_stashpvn.

Note this interface is strongly preferred over gv_stashpvn for performance reasons.



        HV*     gv_stashsv(SV* sv, I32 flags)



setdefout Sets PL_defoutgv, the default file handle for output, to the passed in typeglob. As PL_defoutgv owns a reference on its typeglob, the reference count of the passed in typeglob is increased by one, and the reference count of the typeglob that PL_defoutgv points to is decreased by one.



        void    setdefout(GV* gv)



Handy Values

Nullav Null AV pointer.

(deprecated - use (AV *)NULL instead)

Nullch Null character pointer. (No longer available when PERL_CORE is defined.)
Nullcv Null CV pointer.

(deprecated - use (CV *)NULL instead)

Nullhv Null HV pointer.

(deprecated - use (HV *)NULL instead)

Nullsv Null SV pointer. (No longer available when PERL_CORE is defined.)

Hash Manipulation Functions

A HV structure represents a Perl hash. It consists mainly of an array of pointers, each of which points to a linked list of HE structures. The array is indexed by the hash function of the key, so each linked list represents all the hash entries with the same hash value. Each HE contains a pointer to the actual value, plus a pointer to a HEK structure which holds the key and hash value.
cop_fetch_label NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Returns the label attached to a cop. The flags pointer may be set to SVf_UTF8 or 0.



        const char * cop_fetch_label(COP *const cop,
                                     STRLEN *len, U32 *flags)



cop_store_label NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Save a label into a cop_hints_hash. You need to set flags to SVf_UTF8 for a utf-8 label.



        void    cop_store_label(COP *const cop,
                                const char *label, STRLEN len,
                                U32 flags)



get_hv Returns the HV of the specified Perl hash. flags are passed to gv_fetchpv. If GV_ADD is set and the Perl variable does not exist then it will be created. If flags is zero and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        HV*     get_hv(const char *name, I32 flags)



HEf_SVKEY This flag, used in the length slot of hash entries and magic structures, specifies the structure contains an SV* pointer where a char* pointer is to be expected. (For information only—not to be used).
HeHASH Returns the computed hash stored in the hash entry.



        U32     HeHASH(HE* he)



HeKEY Returns the actual pointer stored in the key slot of the hash entry. The pointer may be either char* or SV*, depending on the value of HeKLEN(). Can be assigned to. The HePV() or HeSVKEY() macros are usually preferable for finding the value of a key.



        void*   HeKEY(HE* he)



HeKLEN If this is negative, and amounts to HEf_SVKEY, it indicates the entry holds an SV* key. Otherwise, holds the actual length of the key. Can be assigned to. The HePV() macro is usually preferable for finding key lengths.



        STRLEN  HeKLEN(HE* he)



HePV Returns the key slot of the hash entry as a char* value, doing any necessary dereferencing of possibly SV* keys. The length of the string is placed in len (this is a macro, so do not use &len). If you do not care about what the length of the key is, you may use the global variable PL_na, though this is rather less efficient than using a local variable. Remember though, that hash keys in perl are free to contain embedded nulls, so using strlen() or similar is not a good way to find the length of hash keys. This is very similar to the SvPV() macro described elsewhere in this document. See also HeUTF8.

If you are using HePV to get values to pass to newSVpvn() to create a new SV, you should consider using newSVhek(HeKEY_hek(he)) as it is more efficient.



        char*   HePV(HE* he, STRLEN len)



HeSVKEY Returns the key as an SV*, or NULL if the hash entry does not contain an SV* key.



        SV*     HeSVKEY(HE* he)



HeSVKEY_force Returns the key as an SV*. Will create and return a temporary mortal SV* if the hash entry contains only a char* key.



        SV*     HeSVKEY_force(HE* he)



HeSVKEY_set Sets the key to a given SV*, taking care to set the appropriate flags to indicate the presence of an SV* key, and returns the same SV*.



        SV*     HeSVKEY_set(HE* he, SV* sv)



HeUTF8 Returns whether the char * value returned by HePV is encoded in UTF-8, doing any necessary dereferencing of possibly SV* keys. The value returned will be 0 or non-0, not necessarily 1 (or even a value with any low bits set), so <B>do notB> blindly assign this to a bool variable, as bool may be a typedef for char.



        U32     HeUTF8(HE* he)



HeVAL Returns the value slot (type SV*) stored in the hash entry. Can be assigned to.



  SV *foo= HeVAL(hv);
  HeVAL(hv)= sv;


        SV*     HeVAL(HE* he)



HvENAME Returns the effective name of a stash, or NULL if there is none. The effective name represents a location in the symbol table where this stash resides. It is updated automatically when packages are aliased or deleted. A stash that is no longer in the symbol table has no effective name. This name is preferable to HvNAME for use in MRO linearisations and isa caches.



        char*   HvENAME(HV* stash)



HvENAMELEN Returns the length of the stash’s effective name.



        STRLEN  HvENAMELEN(HV *stash)



HvENAMEUTF8 Returns true if the effective name is in UTF8 encoding.



        unsigned char HvENAMEUTF8(HV *stash)



HvNAME Returns the package name of a stash, or NULL if stash isn’t a stash. See SvSTASH, CvSTASH.



        char*   HvNAME(HV* stash)



HvNAMELEN Returns the length of the stash’s name.



        STRLEN  HvNAMELEN(HV *stash)



HvNAMEUTF8 Returns true if the name is in UTF8 encoding.



        unsigned char HvNAMEUTF8(HV *stash)



hv_assert Check that a hash is in an internally consistent state.



        void    hv_assert(HV *hv)



hv_clear Frees the all the elements of a hash, leaving it empty. The XS equivalent of %hash = (). See also hv_undef.

See av_clear for a note about the hash possibly being invalid on return.



        void    hv_clear(HV *hv)



hv_clear_placeholders Clears any placeholders from a hash. If a restricted hash has any of its keys marked as readonly and the key is subsequently deleted, the key is not actually deleted but is marked by assigning it a value of &PL_sv_placeholder. This tags it so it will be ignored by future operations such as iterating over the hash, but will still allow the hash to have a value reassigned to the key at some future point. This function clears any such placeholder keys from the hash. See Hash::Util::lock_keys() for an example of its use.



        void    hv_clear_placeholders(HV *hv)



hv_copy_hints_hv A specialised version of newHVhv for copying %^H. ohv must be a pointer to a hash (which may have %^H magic, but should be generally non-magical), or NULL (interpreted as an empty hash). The content of ohv is copied to a new hash, which has the %^H-specific magic added to it. A pointer to the new hash is returned.



        HV *    hv_copy_hints_hv(HV *ohv)



hv_delete Deletes a key/value pair in the hash. The value’s SV is removed from the hash, made mortal, and returned to the caller. The absolute value of klen is the length of the key. If klen is negative the key is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode. The flags value will normally be zero; if set to G_DISCARD then NULL will be returned. NULL will also be returned if the key is not found.



        SV*     hv_delete(HV *hv, const char *key, I32 klen,
                          I32 flags)



hv_delete_ent Deletes a key/value pair in the hash. The value SV is removed from the hash, made mortal, and returned to the caller. The flags value will normally be zero; if set to G_DISCARD then NULL will be returned. NULL will also be returned if the key is not found. hash can be a valid precomputed hash value, or 0 to ask for it to be computed.



        SV*     hv_delete_ent(HV *hv, SV *keysv, I32 flags,
                              U32 hash)



hv_exists Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key exists. The absolute value of klen is the length of the key. If klen is negative the key is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode.



        bool    hv_exists(HV *hv, const char *key, I32 klen)



hv_exists_ent Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key exists. hash can be a valid precomputed hash value, or 0 to ask for it to be computed.



        bool    hv_exists_ent(HV *hv, SV *keysv, U32 hash)



hv_fetch Returns the SV which corresponds to the specified key in the hash. The absolute value of klen is the length of the key. If klen is negative the key is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode. If lval is set then the fetch will be part of a store. This means that if there is no value in the hash associated with the given key, then one is created and a pointer to it is returned. The SV* it points to can be assigned to. But always check that the return value is non-null before dereferencing it to an SV*.

See Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays in perlguts for more information on how to use this function on tied hashes.



        SV**    hv_fetch(HV *hv, const char *key, I32 klen,
                         I32 lval)



hv_fetchs Like hv_fetch, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        SV**    hv_fetchs(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 lval)



hv_fetch_ent Returns the hash entry which corresponds to the specified key in the hash. hash must be a valid precomputed hash number for the given key, or 0 if you want the function to compute it. IF lval is set then the fetch will be part of a store. Make sure the return value is non-null before accessing it. The return value when hv is a tied hash is a pointer to a static location, so be sure to make a copy of the structure if you need to store it somewhere.

See Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays in perlguts for more information on how to use this function on tied hashes.



        HE*     hv_fetch_ent(HV *hv, SV *keysv, I32 lval,
                             U32 hash)



hv_fill Returns the number of hash buckets that happen to be in use. This function is wrapped by the macro HvFILL.

Previously this value was always stored in the HV structure, which created an overhead on every hash (and pretty much every object) for something that was rarely used. Now we calculate it on demand the first time that it is needed, and cache it if that calculation is going to be costly to repeat. The cached value is updated by insertions and deletions, but (currently) discarded if the hash is split.



        STRLEN  hv_fill(HV *const hv)



hv_iterinit Prepares a starting point to traverse a hash table. Returns the number of keys in the hash (i.e. the same as HvUSEDKEYS(hv)). The return value is currently only meaningful for hashes without tie magic.

NOTE: Before version 5.004_65, hv_iterinit used to return the number of hash buckets that happen to be in use. If you still need that esoteric value, you can get it through the macro HvFILL(hv).



        I32     hv_iterinit(HV *hv)



hv_iterkey Returns the key from the current position of the hash iterator. See hv_iterinit.



        char*   hv_iterkey(HE* entry, I32* retlen)



hv_iterkeysv Returns the key as an SV* from the current position of the hash iterator. The return value will always be a mortal copy of the key. Also see hv_iterinit.



        SV*     hv_iterkeysv(HE* entry)



hv_iternext Returns entries from a hash iterator. See hv_iterinit.

You may call hv_delete or hv_delete_ent on the hash entry that the iterator currently points to, without losing your place or invalidating your iterator. Note that in this case the current entry is deleted from the hash with your iterator holding the last reference to it. Your iterator is flagged to free the entry on the next call to hv_iternext, so you must not discard your iterator immediately else the entry will leak - call hv_iternext to trigger the resource deallocation.



        HE*     hv_iternext(HV *hv)



hv_iternextsv Performs an hv_iternext, hv_iterkey, and hv_iterval in one operation.



        SV*     hv_iternextsv(HV *hv, char **key, I32 *retlen)



hv_iternext_flags NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Returns entries from a hash iterator. See hv_iterinit and hv_iternext. The flags value will normally be zero; if HV_ITERNEXT_WANTPLACEHOLDERS is set the placeholders keys (for restricted hashes) will be returned in addition to normal keys. By default placeholders are automatically skipped over. Currently a placeholder is implemented with a value that is &PL_sv_placeholder. Note that the implementation of placeholders and restricted hashes may change, and the implementation currently is insufficiently abstracted for any change to be tidy.



        HE*     hv_iternext_flags(HV *hv, I32 flags)



hv_iterval Returns the value from the current position of the hash iterator. See hv_iterkey.



        SV*     hv_iterval(HV *hv, HE *entry)



hv_magic Adds magic to a hash. See sv_magic.



        void    hv_magic(HV *hv, GV *gv, int how)



hv_scalar Evaluates the hash in scalar context and returns the result. Handles magic when the hash is tied.



        SV*     hv_scalar(HV *hv)



hv_store Stores an SV in a hash. The hash key is specified as key and the absolute value of klen is the length of the key. If klen is negative the key is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode. The hash parameter is the precomputed hash value; if it is zero then Perl will compute it.

The return value will be NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not need to be actually stored within the hash (as in the case of tied hashes). Otherwise it can be dereferenced to get the original SV*. Note that the caller is responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of val before the call, and decrementing it if the function returned NULL. Effectively a successful hv_store takes ownership of one reference to val. This is usually what you want; a newly created SV has a reference count of one, so if all your code does is create SVs then store them in a hash, hv_store will own the only reference to the new SV, and your code doesn’t need to do anything further to tidy up. hv_store is not implemented as a call to hv_store_ent, and does not create a temporary SV for the key, so if your key data is not already in SV form then use hv_store in preference to hv_store_ent.

See Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays in perlguts for more information on how to use this function on tied hashes.



        SV**    hv_store(HV *hv, const char *key, I32 klen,
                         SV *val, U32 hash)



hv_stores Like hv_store, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair and omits the hash parameter.



        SV**    hv_stores(HV* tb, const char* key,
                          NULLOK SV* val)



hv_store_ent Stores val in a hash. The hash key is specified as key. The hash parameter is the precomputed hash value; if it is zero then Perl will compute it. The return value is the new hash entry so created. It will be NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not need to be actually stored within the hash (as in the case of tied hashes). Otherwise the contents of the return value can be accessed using the He? macros described here. Note that the caller is responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of val before the call, and decrementing it if the function returned NULL. Effectively a successful hv_store_ent takes ownership of one reference to val. This is usually what you want; a newly created SV has a reference count of one, so if all your code does is create SVs then store them in a hash, hv_store will own the only reference to the new SV, and your code doesn’t need to do anything further to tidy up. Note that hv_store_ent only reads the key; unlike val it does not take ownership of it, so maintaining the correct reference count on key is entirely the caller’s responsibility. hv_store is not implemented as a call to hv_store_ent, and does not create a temporary SV for the key, so if your key data is not already in SV form then use hv_store in preference to hv_store_ent.

See Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays in perlguts for more information on how to use this function on tied hashes.



        HE*     hv_store_ent(HV *hv, SV *key, SV *val, U32 hash)



hv_undef Undefines the hash. The XS equivalent of undef(%hash).

As well as freeing all the elements of the hash (like hv_clear()), this also frees any auxiliary data and storage associated with the hash.

See av_clear for a note about the hash possibly being invalid on return.



        void    hv_undef(HV *hv)



newHV Creates a new HV. The reference count is set to 1.



        HV*     newHV()



Hook manipulation

These functions provide convenient and thread-safe means of manipulating hook variables.
wrap_op_checker Puts a C function into the chain of check functions for a specified op type. This is the preferred way to manipulate the PL_check array. opcode specifies which type of op is to be affected. new_checker is a pointer to the C function that is to be added to that opcode’s check chain, and old_checker_p points to the storage location where a pointer to the next function in the chain will be stored. The value of new_pointer is written into the PL_check array, while the value previously stored there is written to *old_checker_p.

The function should be defined like this:



    static OP *new_checker(pTHX_ OP *op) { ... }



It is intended to be called in this manner:



    new_checker(aTHX_ op)



old_checker_p should be defined like this:



    static Perl_check_t old_checker_p;



PL_check is global to an entire process, and a module wishing to hook op checking may find itself invoked more than once per process, typically in different threads. To handle that situation, this function is idempotent. The location *old_checker_p must initially (once per process) contain a null pointer. A C variable of static duration (declared at file scope, typically also marked static to give it internal linkage) will be implicitly initialised appropriately, if it does not have an explicit initialiser. This function will only actually modify the check chain if it finds *old_checker_p to be null. This function is also thread safe on the small scale. It uses appropriate locking to avoid race conditions in accessing PL_check.

When this function is called, the function referenced by new_checker must be ready to be called, except for *old_checker_p being unfilled. In a threading situation, new_checker may be called immediately, even before this function has returned. *old_checker_p will always be appropriately set before new_checker is called. If new_checker decides not to do anything special with an op that it is given (which is the usual case for most uses of op check hooking), it must chain the check function referenced by *old_checker_p.

If you want to influence compilation of calls to a specific subroutine, then use cv_set_call_checker rather than hooking checking of all entersub ops.



        void    wrap_op_checker(Optype opcode,
                                Perl_check_t new_checker,
                                Perl_check_t *old_checker_p)



Lexer interface

This is the lower layer of the Perl parser, managing characters and tokens.
lex_bufutf8 NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Indicates whether the octets in the lexer buffer (PL_parser->linestr) should be interpreted as the UTF-8 encoding of Unicode characters. If not, they should be interpreted as Latin-1 characters. This is analogous to the SvUTF8 flag for scalars.

In UTF-8 mode, it is not guaranteed that the lexer buffer actually contains valid UTF-8. Lexing code must be robust in the face of invalid encoding.

The actual SvUTF8 flag of the PL_parser->linestr scalar is significant, but not the whole story regarding the input character encoding. Normally, when a file is being read, the scalar contains octets and its SvUTF8 flag is off, but the octets should be interpreted as UTF-8 if the use utf8 pragma is in effect. During a string eval, however, the scalar may have the SvUTF8 flag on, and in this case its octets should be interpreted as UTF-8 unless the use bytes pragma is in effect. This logic may change in the future; use this function instead of implementing the logic yourself.



        bool    lex_bufutf8()



lex_discard_to NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Discards the first part of the PL_parser->linestr buffer, up to ptr. The remaining content of the buffer will be moved, and all pointers into the buffer updated appropriately. ptr must not be later in the buffer than the position of PL_parser->bufptr: it is not permitted to discard text that has yet to be lexed.

Normally it is not necessarily to do this directly, because it suffices to use the implicit discarding behaviour of lex_next_chunk and things based on it. However, if a token stretches across multiple lines, and the lexing code has kept multiple lines of text in the buffer for that purpose, then after completion of the token it would be wise to explicitly discard the now-unneeded earlier lines, to avoid future multi-line tokens growing the buffer without bound.



        void    lex_discard_to(char *ptr)



lex_grow_linestr NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Reallocates the lexer buffer (PL_parser->linestr) to accommodate at least len octets (including terminating NUL). Returns a pointer to the reallocated buffer. This is necessary before making any direct modification of the buffer that would increase its length. lex_stuff_pvn provides a more convenient way to insert text into the buffer.

Do not use SvGROW or sv_grow directly on PL_parser->linestr; this function updates all of the lexer’s variables that point directly into the buffer.



        char *  lex_grow_linestr(STRLEN len)



lex_next_chunk NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Reads in the next chunk of text to be lexed, appending it to PL_parser->linestr. This should be called when lexing code has looked to the end of the current chunk and wants to know more. It is usual, but not necessary, for lexing to have consumed the entirety of the current chunk at this time.

If PL_parser->bufptr is pointing to the very end of the current chunk (i.e., the current chunk has been entirely consumed), normally the current chunk will be discarded at the same time that the new chunk is read in. If flags includes LEX_KEEP_PREVIOUS, the current chunk will not be discarded. If the current chunk has not been entirely consumed, then it will not be discarded regardless of the flag.

Returns true if some new text was added to the buffer, or false if the buffer has reached the end of the input text.



        bool    lex_next_chunk(U32 flags)



lex_peek_unichar NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Looks ahead one (Unicode) character in the text currently being lexed. Returns the codepoint (unsigned integer value) of the next character, or -1 if lexing has reached the end of the input text. To consume the peeked character, use lex_read_unichar.

If the next character is in (or extends into) the next chunk of input text, the next chunk will be read in. Normally the current chunk will be discarded at the same time, but if flags includes LEX_KEEP_PREVIOUS then the current chunk will not be discarded.

If the input is being interpreted as UTF-8 and a UTF-8 encoding error is encountered, an exception is generated.



        I32     lex_peek_unichar(U32 flags)



lex_read_space NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Reads optional spaces, in Perl style, in the text currently being lexed. The spaces may include ordinary whitespace characters and Perl-style comments. #line directives are processed if encountered. PL_parser->bufptr is moved past the spaces, so that it points at a non-space character (or the end of the input text).

If spaces extend into the next chunk of input text, the next chunk will be read in. Normally the current chunk will be discarded at the same time, but if flags includes LEX_KEEP_PREVIOUS then the current chunk will not be discarded.



        void    lex_read_space(U32 flags)



lex_read_to NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Consume text in the lexer buffer, from PL_parser->bufptr up to ptr. This advances PL_parser->bufptr to match ptr, performing the correct bookkeeping whenever a newline character is passed. This is the normal way to consume lexed text.

Interpretation of the buffer’s octets can be abstracted out by using the slightly higher-level functions lex_peek_unichar and lex_read_unichar.



        void    lex_read_to(char *ptr)



lex_read_unichar NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Reads the next (Unicode) character in the text currently being lexed. Returns the codepoint (unsigned integer value) of the character read, and moves PL_parser->bufptr past the character, or returns -1 if lexing has reached the end of the input text. To non-destructively examine the next character, use lex_peek_unichar instead.

If the next character is in (or extends into) the next chunk of input text, the next chunk will be read in. Normally the current chunk will be discarded at the same time, but if flags includes LEX_KEEP_PREVIOUS then the current chunk will not be discarded.

If the input is being interpreted as UTF-8 and a UTF-8 encoding error is encountered, an exception is generated.



        I32     lex_read_unichar(U32 flags)



lex_start NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Creates and initialises a new lexer/parser state object, supplying a context in which to lex and parse from a new source of Perl code. A pointer to the new state object is placed in PL_parser. An entry is made on the save stack so that upon unwinding the new state object will be destroyed and the former value of PL_parser will be restored. Nothing else need be done to clean up the parsing context.

The code to be parsed comes from line and rsfp. line, if non-null, provides a string (in SV form) containing code to be parsed. A copy of the string is made, so subsequent modification of line does not affect parsing. rsfp, if non-null, provides an input stream from which code will be read to be parsed. If both are non-null, the code in line comes first and must consist of complete lines of input, and rsfp supplies the remainder of the source.

The flags parameter is reserved for future use. Currently it is only used by perl internally, so extensions should always pass zero.



        void    lex_start(SV *line, PerlIO *rsfp, U32 flags)



lex_stuff_pv NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Insert characters into the lexer buffer (PL_parser->linestr), immediately after the current lexing point (PL_parser->bufptr), reallocating the buffer if necessary. This means that lexing code that runs later will see the characters as if they had appeared in the input. It is not recommended to do this as part of normal parsing, and most uses of this facility run the risk of the inserted characters being interpreted in an unintended manner.

The string to be inserted is represented by octets starting at pv and continuing to the first nul. These octets are interpreted as either UTF-8 or Latin-1, according to whether the LEX_STUFF_UTF8 flag is set in flags. The characters are recoded for the lexer buffer, according to how the buffer is currently being interpreted (lex_bufutf8). If it is not convenient to nul-terminate a string to be inserted, the lex_stuff_pvn function is more appropriate.



        void    lex_stuff_pv(const char *pv, U32 flags)



lex_stuff_pvn NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Insert characters into the lexer buffer (PL_parser->linestr), immediately after the current lexing point (PL_parser->bufptr), reallocating the buffer if necessary. This means that lexing code that runs later will see the characters as if they had appeared in the input. It is not recommended to do this as part of normal parsing, and most uses of this facility run the risk of the inserted characters being interpreted in an unintended manner.

The string to be inserted is represented by len octets starting at pv. These octets are interpreted as either UTF-8 or Latin-1, according to whether the LEX_STUFF_UTF8 flag is set in flags. The characters are recoded for the lexer buffer, according to how the buffer is currently being interpreted (lex_bufutf8). If a string to be inserted is available as a Perl scalar, the lex_stuff_sv function is more convenient.



        void    lex_stuff_pvn(const char *pv, STRLEN len,
                              U32 flags)



lex_stuff_pvs NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Like lex_stuff_pvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        void    lex_stuff_pvs(const char *pv, U32 flags)



lex_stuff_sv NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Insert characters into the lexer buffer (PL_parser->linestr), immediately after the current lexing point (PL_parser->bufptr), reallocating the buffer if necessary. This means that lexing code that runs later will see the characters as if they had appeared in the input. It is not recommended to do this as part of normal parsing, and most uses of this facility run the risk of the inserted characters being interpreted in an unintended manner.

The string to be inserted is the string value of sv. The characters are recoded for the lexer buffer, according to how the buffer is currently being interpreted (lex_bufutf8). If a string to be inserted is not already a Perl scalar, the lex_stuff_pvn function avoids the need to construct a scalar.



        void    lex_stuff_sv(SV *sv, U32 flags)



lex_unstuff NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Discards text about to be lexed, from PL_parser->bufptr up to ptr. Text following ptr will be moved, and the buffer shortened. This hides the discarded text from any lexing code that runs later, as if the text had never appeared.

This is not the normal way to consume lexed text. For that, use lex_read_to.



        void    lex_unstuff(char *ptr)



parse_arithexpr NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Parse a Perl arithmetic expression. This may contain operators of precedence down to the bit shift operators. The expression must be followed (and thus terminated) either by a comparison or lower-precedence operator or by something that would normally terminate an expression such as semicolon. If flags includes PARSE_OPTIONAL then the expression is optional, otherwise it is mandatory. It is up to the caller to ensure that the dynamic parser state (PL_parser et al) is correctly set to reflect the source of the code to be parsed and the lexical context for the expression.

The op tree representing the expression is returned. If an optional expression is absent, a null pointer is returned, otherwise the pointer will be non-null.

If an error occurs in parsing or compilation, in most cases a valid op tree is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. Some compilation errors, however, will throw an exception immediately.



        OP *    parse_arithexpr(U32 flags)



parse_barestmt NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Parse a single unadorned Perl statement. This may be a normal imperative statement or a declaration that has compile-time effect. It does not include any label or other affixture. It is up to the caller to ensure that the dynamic parser state (PL_parser et al) is correctly set to reflect the source of the code to be parsed and the lexical context for the statement.

The op tree representing the statement is returned. This may be a null pointer if the statement is null, for example if it was actually a subroutine definition (which has compile-time side effects). If not null, it will be ops directly implementing the statement, suitable to pass to newSTATEOP. It will not normally include a nextstate or equivalent op (except for those embedded in a scope contained entirely within the statement).

If an error occurs in parsing or compilation, in most cases a valid op tree (most likely null) is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. Some compilation errors, however, will throw an exception immediately.

The flags parameter is reserved for future use, and must always be zero.



        OP *    parse_barestmt(U32 flags)



parse_block NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Parse a single complete Perl code block. This consists of an opening brace, a sequence of statements, and a closing brace. The block constitutes a lexical scope, so my variables and various compile-time effects can be contained within it. It is up to the caller to ensure that the dynamic parser state (PL_parser et al) is correctly set to reflect the source of the code to be parsed and the lexical context for the statement.

The op tree representing the code block is returned. This is always a real op, never a null pointer. It will normally be a lineseq list, including nextstate or equivalent ops. No ops to construct any kind of runtime scope are included by virtue of it being a block.

If an error occurs in parsing or compilation, in most cases a valid op tree (most likely null) is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. Some compilation errors, however, will throw an exception immediately.

The flags parameter is reserved for future use, and must always be zero.



        OP *    parse_block(U32 flags)



parse_fullexpr NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Parse a single complete Perl expression. This allows the full expression grammar, including the lowest-precedence operators such as or. The expression must be followed (and thus terminated) by a token that an expression would normally be terminated by: end-of-file, closing bracketing punctuation, semicolon, or one of the keywords that signals a postfix expression-statement modifier. If flags includes PARSE_OPTIONAL then the expression is optional, otherwise it is mandatory. It is up to the caller to ensure that the dynamic parser state (PL_parser et al) is correctly set to reflect the source of the code to be parsed and the lexical context for the expression.

The op tree representing the expression is returned. If an optional expression is absent, a null pointer is returned, otherwise the pointer will be non-null.

If an error occurs in parsing or compilation, in most cases a valid op tree is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. Some compilation errors, however, will throw an exception immediately.



        OP *    parse_fullexpr(U32 flags)



parse_fullstmt NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Parse a single complete Perl statement. This may be a normal imperative statement or a declaration that has compile-time effect, and may include optional labels. It is up to the caller to ensure that the dynamic parser state (PL_parser et al) is correctly set to reflect the source of the code to be parsed and the lexical context for the statement.

The op tree representing the statement is returned. This may be a null pointer if the statement is null, for example if it was actually a subroutine definition (which has compile-time side effects). If not null, it will be the result of a newSTATEOP call, normally including a nextstate or equivalent op.

If an error occurs in parsing or compilation, in most cases a valid op tree (most likely null) is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. Some compilation errors, however, will throw an exception immediately.

The flags parameter is reserved for future use, and must always be zero.



        OP *    parse_fullstmt(U32 flags)



parse_label NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Parse a single label, possibly optional, of the type that may prefix a Perl statement. It is up to the caller to ensure that the dynamic parser state (PL_parser et al) is correctly set to reflect the source of the code to be parsed. If flags includes PARSE_OPTIONAL then the label is optional, otherwise it is mandatory.

The name of the label is returned in the form of a fresh scalar. If an optional label is absent, a null pointer is returned.

If an error occurs in parsing, which can only occur if the label is mandatory, a valid label is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred.



        SV *    parse_label(U32 flags)



parse_listexpr NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Parse a Perl list expression. This may contain operators of precedence down to the comma operator. The expression must be followed (and thus terminated) either by a low-precedence logic operator such as or or by something that would normally terminate an expression such as semicolon. If flags includes PARSE_OPTIONAL then the expression is optional, otherwise it is mandatory. It is up to the caller to ensure that the dynamic parser state (PL_parser et al) is correctly set to reflect the source of the code to be parsed and the lexical context for the expression.

The op tree representing the expression is returned. If an optional expression is absent, a null pointer is returned, otherwise the pointer will be non-null.

If an error occurs in parsing or compilation, in most cases a valid op tree is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. Some compilation errors, however, will throw an exception immediately.



        OP *    parse_listexpr(U32 flags)



parse_stmtseq NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Parse a sequence of zero or more Perl statements. These may be normal imperative statements, including optional labels, or declarations that have compile-time effect, or any mixture thereof. The statement sequence ends when a closing brace or end-of-file is encountered in a place where a new statement could have validly started. It is up to the caller to ensure that the dynamic parser state (PL_parser et al) is correctly set to reflect the source of the code to be parsed and the lexical context for the statements.

The op tree representing the statement sequence is returned. This may be a null pointer if the statements were all null, for example if there were no statements or if there were only subroutine definitions (which have compile-time side effects). If not null, it will be a lineseq list, normally including nextstate or equivalent ops.

If an error occurs in parsing or compilation, in most cases a valid op tree is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. Some compilation errors, however, will throw an exception immediately.

The flags parameter is reserved for future use, and must always be zero.



        OP *    parse_stmtseq(U32 flags)



parse_termexpr NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Parse a Perl term expression. This may contain operators of precedence down to the assignment operators. The expression must be followed (and thus terminated) either by a comma or lower-precedence operator or by something that would normally terminate an expression such as semicolon. If flags includes PARSE_OPTIONAL then the expression is optional, otherwise it is mandatory. It is up to the caller to ensure that the dynamic parser state (PL_parser et al) is correctly set to reflect the source of the code to be parsed and the lexical context for the expression.

The op tree representing the expression is returned. If an optional expression is absent, a null pointer is returned, otherwise the pointer will be non-null.

If an error occurs in parsing or compilation, in most cases a valid op tree is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. Some compilation errors, however, will throw an exception immediately.



        OP *    parse_termexpr(U32 flags)



PL_parser Pointer to a structure encapsulating the state of the parsing operation currently in progress. The pointer can be locally changed to perform a nested parse without interfering with the state of an outer parse. Individual members of PL_parser have their own documentation.
PL_parser->bufend NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Direct pointer to the end of the chunk of text currently being lexed, the end of the lexer buffer. This is equal to SvPVX(PL_parser->linestr) + SvCUR(PL_parser->linestr). A NUL character (zero octet) is always located at the end of the buffer, and does not count as part of the buffer’s contents.

PL_parser->bufptr NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Points to the current position of lexing inside the lexer buffer. Characters around this point may be freely examined, within the range delimited by SvPVX("PL_parser->linestr") and PL_parser->bufend. The octets of the buffer may be intended to be interpreted as either UTF-8 or Latin-1, as indicated by lex_bufutf8.

Lexing code (whether in the Perl core or not) moves this pointer past the characters that it consumes. It is also expected to perform some bookkeeping whenever a newline character is consumed. This movement can be more conveniently performed by the function lex_read_to, which handles newlines appropriately.

Interpretation of the buffer’s octets can be abstracted out by using the slightly higher-level functions lex_peek_unichar and lex_read_unichar.

PL_parser->linestart NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Points to the start of the current line inside the lexer buffer. This is useful for indicating at which column an error occurred, and not much else. This must be updated by any lexing code that consumes a newline; the function lex_read_to handles this detail.

PL_parser->linestr NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Buffer scalar containing the chunk currently under consideration of the text currently being lexed. This is always a plain string scalar (for which SvPOK is true). It is not intended to be used as a scalar by normal scalar means; instead refer to the buffer directly by the pointer variables described below.

The lexer maintains various char* pointers to things in the PL_parser->linestr buffer. If PL_parser->linestr is ever reallocated, all of these pointers must be updated. Don’t attempt to do this manually, but rather use lex_grow_linestr if you need to reallocate the buffer.

The content of the text chunk in the buffer is commonly exactly one complete line of input, up to and including a newline terminator, but there are situations where it is otherwise. The octets of the buffer may be intended to be interpreted as either UTF-8 or Latin-1. The function lex_bufutf8 tells you which. Do not use the SvUTF8 flag on this scalar, which may disagree with it.

For direct examination of the buffer, the variable PL_parser->bufend points to the end of the buffer. The current lexing position is pointed to by PL_parser->bufptr. Direct use of these pointers is usually preferable to examination of the scalar through normal scalar means.

Locale-related functions and macros

DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION This macro should be used as a statement. It declares a private variable (whose name begins with an underscore) that is needed by the other macros in this section. Failing to include this correctly should lead to a syntax error. For compatibility with C89 C compilers it should be placed in a block before any executable statements.



        void    DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION



RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC This is used in conjunction with one of the macros STORE_LC_NUMERIC_SET_TO_NEEDED and STORE_LC_NUMERIC_FORCE_TO_UNDERLYING

to properly restore the LC_NUMERIC state.

A call to DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION must have been made to declare at compile time a private variable used by this macro and the two STORE ones. This macro should be called as a single statement, not an expression, but with an empty argument list, like this:



 {
    DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION;
     ...
    RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC();
     ...
 }

        void    RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC()



STORE_LC_NUMERIC_FORCE_TO_UNDERLYING This is used by XS code that that is LC_NUMERIC locale-aware to force the locale for category LC_NUMERIC to be what perl thinks is the current underlying locale. (The perl interpreter could be wrong about what the underlying locale actually is if some C or XS code has called the C library function setlocale(3) behind its back; calling sync_locale before calling this macro will update perl’s records.)

A call to DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION must have been made to declare at compile time a private variable used by this macro. This macro should be called as a single statement, not an expression, but with an empty argument list, like this:



 {
    DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION;
     ...
    STORE_LC_NUMERIC_FORCE_TO_UNDERLYING();
     ...
    RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC();
     ...
 }



The private variable is used to save the current locale state, so that the requisite matching call to RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC can restore it.



        void    STORE_LC_NUMERIC_FORCE_TO_UNDERLYING()



STORE_LC_NUMERIC_SET_TO_NEEDED This is used to help wrap XS or C code that that is LC_NUMERIC locale-aware. This locale category is generally kept set to the C locale by Perl for backwards compatibility, and because most XS code that reads floating point values can cope only with the decimal radix character being a dot.

This macro makes sure the current LC_NUMERIC state is set properly, to be aware of locale if the call to the XS or C code from the Perl program is from within the scope of a use locale; or to ignore locale if the call is instead from outside such scope.

This macro is the start of wrapping the C or XS code; the wrap ending is done by calling the RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC macro after the operation. Otherwise the state can be changed that will adversely affect other XS code.

A call to DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION must have been made to declare at compile time a private variable used by this macro. This macro should be called as a single statement, not an expression, but with an empty argument list, like this:



 {
    DECLARATION_FOR_LC_NUMERIC_MANIPULATION;
     ...
    STORE_LC_NUMERIC_SET_TO_NEEDED();
     ...
    RESTORE_LC_NUMERIC();
     ...
 }

        void    STORE_LC_NUMERIC_SET_TO_NEEDED()



sync_locale Changing the program’s locale should be avoided by XS code. Nevertheless, certain non-Perl libraries called from XS, such as Gtk do so. When this happens, Perl needs to be told that the locale has changed. Use this function to do so, before returning to Perl.



        void    sync_locale()



Magical Functions

mg_clear Clear something magical that the SV represents. See sv_magic.



        int     mg_clear(SV* sv)



mg_copy Copies the magic from one SV to another. See sv_magic.



        int     mg_copy(SV *sv, SV *nsv, const char *key,
                        I32 klen)



mg_find Finds the magic pointer for type matching the SV. See sv_magic.



        MAGIC*  mg_find(const SV* sv, int type)



mg_findext Finds the magic pointer of type with the given vtbl for the SV. See sv_magicext.



        MAGIC*  mg_findext(const SV* sv, int type,
                           const MGVTBL *vtbl)



mg_free Free any magic storage used by the SV. See sv_magic.



        int     mg_free(SV* sv)



mg_free_type Remove any magic of type how from the SV sv. See sv_magic.



        void    mg_free_type(SV *sv, int how)



mg_get Do magic before a value is retrieved from the SV. The type of SV must be >= SVt_PVMG. See sv_magic.



        int     mg_get(SV* sv)



mg_length DEPRECATED! It is planned to remove this function from a future release of Perl. Do not use it for new code; remove it from existing code.

Reports on the SV’s length in bytes, calling length magic if available, but does not set the UTF8 flag on the sv. It will fall back to ’get’ magic if there is no ’length’ magic, but with no indication as to whether it called ’get’ magic. It assumes the sv is a PVMG or higher. Use sv_len() instead.



        U32     mg_length(SV* sv)



mg_magical Turns on the magical status of an SV. See sv_magic.



        void    mg_magical(SV* sv)



mg_set Do magic after a value is assigned to the SV. See sv_magic.



        int     mg_set(SV* sv)



SvGETMAGIC Invokes mg_get on an SV if it has ’get’ magic. For example, this will call FETCH on a tied variable. This macro evaluates its argument more than once.



        void    SvGETMAGIC(SV* sv)



SvLOCK Arranges for a mutual exclusion lock to be obtained on sv if a suitable module has been loaded.



        void    SvLOCK(SV* sv)



SvSETMAGIC Invokes mg_set on an SV if it has ’set’ magic. This is necessary after modifying a scalar, in case it is a magical variable like $| or a tied variable (it calls STORE). This macro evaluates its argument more than once.



        void    SvSETMAGIC(SV* sv)



SvSetMagicSV Like SvSetSV, but does any set magic required afterwards.



        void    SvSetMagicSV(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)



SvSetMagicSV_nosteal Like SvSetSV_nosteal, but does any set magic required afterwards.



        void    SvSetMagicSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)



SvSetSV Calls sv_setsv if dsv is not the same as ssv. May evaluate arguments more than once. Does not handle ’set’ magic on the destination SV.



        void    SvSetSV(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)



SvSetSV_nosteal Calls a non-destructive version of sv_setsv if dsv is not the same as ssv. May evaluate arguments more than once.



        void    SvSetSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)



SvSHARE Arranges for sv to be shared between threads if a suitable module has been loaded.



        void    SvSHARE(SV* sv)



SvUNLOCK Releases a mutual exclusion lock on sv if a suitable module has been loaded.



        void    SvUNLOCK(SV* sv)



Memory Management

Copy The XSUB-writer’s interface to the C memcpy function. The src is the source, dest is the destination, nitems is the number of items, and type is the type. May fail on overlapping copies. See also Move.



        void    Copy(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)



CopyD Like Copy but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call optimise.



        void *  CopyD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)



Move The XSUB-writer’s interface to the C memmove function. The src is the source, dest is the destination, nitems is the number of items, and type is the type. Can do overlapping moves. See also Copy.



        void    Move(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)



MoveD Like Move but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call optimise.



        void *  MoveD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)



Newx The XSUB-writer’s interface to the C malloc function.

Memory obtained by this should <B>ONLYB> be freed with Safefree.

In 5.9.3, Newx() and friends replace the older New() API, and drops the first parameter, x, a debug aid which allowed callers to identify themselves. This aid has been superseded by a new build option, PERL_MEM_LOG (see PERL_MEM_LOG in perlhacktips). The older API is still there for use in XS modules supporting older perls.



        void    Newx(void* ptr, int nitems, type)



Newxc The XSUB-writer’s interface to the C malloc function, with cast. See also Newx.

Memory obtained by this should <B>ONLYB> be freed with Safefree.



        void    Newxc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)



Newxz The XSUB-writer’s interface to the C malloc function. The allocated memory is zeroed with memzero. See also Newx.

Memory obtained by this should <B>ONLYB> be freed with Safefree.



        void    Newxz(void* ptr, int nitems, type)



Poison PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.



        void    Poison(void* dest, int nitems, type)



PoisonFree PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.



        void    PoisonFree(void* dest, int nitems, type)



PoisonNew PoisonWith(0xAB) for catching access to allocated but uninitialized memory.



        void    PoisonNew(void* dest, int nitems, type)



PoisonWith Fill up memory with a byte pattern (a byte repeated over and over again) that hopefully catches attempts to access uninitialized memory.



        void    PoisonWith(void* dest, int nitems, type,
                           U8 byte)



Renew The XSUB-writer’s interface to the C realloc function.

Memory obtained by this should <B>ONLYB> be freed with Safefree.



        void    Renew(void* ptr, int nitems, type)



Renewc The XSUB-writer’s interface to the C realloc function, with cast.

Memory obtained by this should <B>ONLYB> be freed with Safefree.



        void    Renewc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)



Safefree The XSUB-writer’s interface to the C free function.

This should <B>ONLYB> be used on memory obtained using Newx and friends.



        void    Safefree(void* ptr)



savepv Perl’s version of strdup(). Returns a pointer to a newly allocated string which is a duplicate of pv. The size of the string is determined by strlen(), which means it may not contain embedded NUL characters and must have a trailing NUL. The memory allocated for the new string can be freed with the Safefree() function.

On some platforms, Windows for example, all allocated memory owned by a thread is deallocated when that thread ends. So if you need that not to happen, you need to use the shared memory functions, such as "savesharedpv".



        char*   savepv(const char* pv)



savepvn Perl’s version of what strndup() would be if it existed. Returns a pointer to a newly allocated string which is a duplicate of the first len bytes from pv, plus a trailing NUL byte. The memory allocated for the new string can be freed with the Safefree() function.

On some platforms, Windows for example, all allocated memory owned by a thread is deallocated when that thread ends. So if you need that not to happen, you need to use the shared memory functions, such as "savesharedpvn".



        char*   savepvn(const char* pv, I32 len)



savepvs Like savepvn, but takes a literal NUL-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        char*   savepvs(const char* s)



savesharedpv A version of savepv() which allocates the duplicate string in memory which is shared between threads.



        char*   savesharedpv(const char* pv)



savesharedpvn A version of savepvn() which allocates the duplicate string in memory which is shared between threads. (With the specific difference that a NULL pointer is not acceptable)



        char*   savesharedpvn(const char *const pv,
                              const STRLEN len)



savesharedpvs A version of savepvs() which allocates the duplicate string in memory which is shared between threads.



        char*   savesharedpvs(const char* s)



savesharedsvpv A version of savesharedpv() which allocates the duplicate string in memory which is shared between threads.



        char*   savesharedsvpv(SV *sv)



savesvpv A version of savepv()/savepvn() which gets the string to duplicate from the passed in SV using SvPV()

On some platforms, Windows for example, all allocated memory owned by a thread is deallocated when that thread ends. So if you need that not to happen, you need to use the shared memory functions, such as "savesharedsvpv".



        char*   savesvpv(SV* sv)



StructCopy This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure to another.



        void    StructCopy(type *src, type *dest, type)



Zero The XSUB-writer’s interface to the C memzero function. The dest is the destination, nitems is the number of items, and type is the type.



        void    Zero(void* dest, int nitems, type)



ZeroD Like Zero but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call optimise.



        void *  ZeroD(void* dest, int nitems, type)



Miscellaneous Functions

dump_c_backtrace Dumps the C backtrace to the given fp.

Returns true if a backtrace could be retrieved, false if not.



        bool    dump_c_backtrace(PerlIO* fp, int max_depth,
                                 int skip)



fbm_compile Analyses the string in order to make fast searches on it using fbm_instr() — the Boyer-Moore algorithm.



        void    fbm_compile(SV* sv, U32 flags)



fbm_instr Returns the location of the SV in the string delimited by big and bigend. It returns NULL if the string can’t be found. The sv does not have to be fbm_compiled, but the search will not be as fast then.



        char*   fbm_instr(unsigned char* big,
                          unsigned char* bigend, SV* littlestr,
                          U32 flags)



foldEQ Returns true if the leading len bytes of the strings s1 and s2 are the same case-insensitively; false otherwise. Uppercase and lowercase ASCII range bytes match themselves and their opposite case counterparts. Non-cased and non-ASCII range bytes match only themselves.



        I32     foldEQ(const char* a, const char* b, I32 len)



foldEQ_locale Returns true if the leading len bytes of the strings s1 and s2 are the same case-insensitively in the current locale; false otherwise.



        I32     foldEQ_locale(const char* a, const char* b,
                              I32 len)



form Takes a sprintf-style format pattern and conventional (non-SV) arguments and returns the formatted string.



    (char *) Perl_form(pTHX_ const char* pat, ...)



can be used any place a string (char *) is required:



    char * s = Perl_form("%d.%d",major,minor);



Uses a single private buffer so if you want to format several strings you must explicitly copy the earlier strings away (and free the copies when you are done).



        char*   form(const char* pat, ...)



getcwd_sv Fill the sv with current working directory



        int     getcwd_sv(SV* sv)



get_c_backtrace_dump Returns a SV a dump of |depth| frames of the call stack, skipping the |skip| innermost ones. depth of 20 is usually enough.

The appended output looks like:

... 1 10e004812:0082 Perl_croak util.c:1716 /usr/bin/perl 2 10df8d6d2:1d72 perl_parse perl.c:3975 /usr/bin/perl ...

The fields are tab-separated. The first column is the depth (zero being the innermost non-skipped frame). In the hex:offset, the hex is where the program counter was in S_parse_body, and the :offset (might be missing) tells how much inside the S_parse_body the program counter was.

The util.c:1716 is the source code file and line number.

The /usr/bin/perl is obvious (hopefully).

Unknowns are "-". Unknowns can happen unfortunately quite easily: if the platform doesn’t support retrieving the information; if the binary is missing the debug information; if the optimizer has transformed the code by for example inlining.



        SV*     get_c_backtrace_dump(int max_depth, int skip)



ibcmp This is a synonym for (! foldEQ())



        I32     ibcmp(const char* a, const char* b, I32 len)



ibcmp_locale This is a synonym for (! foldEQ_locale())



        I32     ibcmp_locale(const char* a, const char* b,
                             I32 len)



is_safe_syscall Test that the given pv doesn’t contain any internal NUL characters. If it does, set errno to ENOENT, optionally warn, and return FALSE.

Return TRUE if the name is safe.

Used by the IS_SAFE_SYSCALL() macro.



        bool    is_safe_syscall(const char *pv, STRLEN len,
                                const char *what,
                                const char *op_name)



memEQ Test two buffers (which may contain embedded NUL characters, to see if they are equal. The len parameter indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns zero if equal, or non-zero if non-equal.



        bool    memEQ(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)



memNE Test two buffers (which may contain embedded NUL characters, to see if they are not equal. The len parameter indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns zero if non-equal, or non-zero if equal.



        bool    memNE(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)



mess Take a sprintf-style format pattern and argument list. These are used to generate a string message. If the message does not end with a newline, then it will be extended with some indication of the current location in the code, as described for mess_sv.

Normally, the resulting message is returned in a new mortal SV. During global destruction a single SV may be shared between uses of this function.



        SV *    mess(const char *pat, ...)



mess_sv Expands a message, intended for the user, to include an indication of the current location in the code, if the message does not already appear to be complete.

basemsg is the initial message or object. If it is a reference, it will be used as-is and will be the result of this function. Otherwise it is used as a string, and if it already ends with a newline, it is taken to be complete, and the result of this function will be the same string. If the message does not end with a newline, then a segment such as at foo.pl line 37 will be appended, and possibly other clauses indicating the current state of execution. The resulting message will end with a dot and a newline.

Normally, the resulting message is returned in a new mortal SV. During global destruction a single SV may be shared between uses of this function. If consume is true, then the function is permitted (but not required) to modify and return basemsg instead of allocating a new SV.



        SV *    mess_sv(SV *basemsg, bool consume)



my_snprintf The C library snprintf functionality, if available and standards-compliant (uses vsnprintf, actually). However, if the vsnprintf is not available, will unfortunately use the unsafe vsprintf which can overrun the buffer (there is an overrun check, but that may be too late). Consider using sv_vcatpvf instead, or getting vsnprintf.



        int     my_snprintf(char *buffer, const Size_t len,
                            const char *format, ...)



my_sprintf The C library sprintf, wrapped if necessary, to ensure that it will return the length of the string written to the buffer. Only rare pre-ANSI systems need the wrapper function - usually this is a direct call to sprintf.



        int     my_sprintf(char *buffer, const char *pat, ...)



my_strlcat The C library strlcat if available, or a Perl implementation of it. This operates on C NUL-terminated strings.

my_strlcat() appends string src to the end of dst. It will append at most size - strlen(dst) - 1 characters. It will then NUL-terminate, unless size is 0 or the original dst string was longer than size (in practice this should not happen as it means that either size is incorrect or that dst is not a proper NUL-terminated string).

Note that size is the full size of the destination buffer and the result is guaranteed to be NUL-terminated if there is room. Note that room for the NUL should be included in size.



        Size_t  my_strlcat(char *dst, const char *src,
                           Size_t size)



my_strlcpy The C library strlcpy if available, or a Perl implementation of it. This operates on C NUL-terminated strings.

my_strlcpy() copies up to size - 1 characters from the string src to dst, NUL-terminating the result if size is not 0.



        Size_t  my_strlcpy(char *dst, const char *src,
                           Size_t size)



my_vsnprintf The C library vsnprintf if available and standards-compliant. However, if if the vsnprintf is not available, will unfortunately use the unsafe vsprintf which can overrun the buffer (there is an overrun check, but that may be too late). Consider using sv_vcatpvf instead, or getting vsnprintf.



        int     my_vsnprintf(char *buffer, const Size_t len,
                             const char *format, va_list ap)



PERL_SYS_INIT Provides system-specific tune up of the C runtime environment necessary to run Perl interpreters. This should be called only once, before creating any Perl interpreters.



        void    PERL_SYS_INIT(int *argc, char*** argv)



PERL_SYS_INIT3 Provides system-specific tune up of the C runtime environment necessary to run Perl interpreters. This should be called only once, before creating any Perl interpreters.



        void    PERL_SYS_INIT3(int *argc, char*** argv,
                               char*** env)



PERL_SYS_TERM Provides system-specific clean up of the C runtime environment after running Perl interpreters. This should be called only once, after freeing any remaining Perl interpreters.



        void    PERL_SYS_TERM()



quadmath_format_needed quadmath_format_needed() returns true if the format string seems to contain at least one non-Q-prefixed %[efgaEFGA] format specifier, or returns false otherwise.

The format specifier detection is not complete printf-syntax detection, but it should catch most common cases.

If true is returned, those arguments <B>shouldB> in theory be processed with quadmath_snprintf(), but in case there is more than one such format specifier (see quadmath_format_single), and if there is anything else beyond that one (even just a single byte), they <B>cannotB> be processed because quadmath_snprintf() is very strict, accepting only one format spec, and nothing else. In this case, the code should probably fail.



        bool    quadmath_format_needed(const char* format)



quadmath_format_single quadmath_snprintf() is very strict about its format string and will fail, returning -1, if the format is invalid. It acccepts exactly one format spec.

quadmath_format_single() checks that the intended single spec looks sane: begins with %, has only one %, ends with [efgaEFGA], and has Q before it. This is not a full printf syntax check, just the basics.

Returns the format if it is valid, NULL if not.

quadmath_format_single() can and will actually patch in the missing Q, if necessary. In this case it will return the modified copy of the format, <B>which the caller will need to free.B>

See also quadmath_format_needed.



        const char* quadmath_format_single(const char* format)



READ_XDIGIT Returns the value of an ASCII-range hex digit and advances the string pointer. Behaviour is only well defined when isXDIGIT(*str) is true.



        U8      READ_XDIGIT(char str*)



strEQ Test two strings to see if they are equal. Returns true or false.



        bool    strEQ(char* s1, char* s2)



strGE Test two strings to see if the first, s1, is greater than or equal to the second, s2. Returns true or false.



        bool    strGE(char* s1, char* s2)



strGT Test two strings to see if the first, s1, is greater than the second, s2. Returns true or false.



        bool    strGT(char* s1, char* s2)



strLE Test two strings to see if the first, s1, is less than or equal to the second, s2. Returns true or false.



        bool    strLE(char* s1, char* s2)



strLT Test two strings to see if the first, s1, is less than the second, s2. Returns true or false.



        bool    strLT(char* s1, char* s2)



strNE Test two strings to see if they are different. Returns true or false.



        bool    strNE(char* s1, char* s2)



strnEQ Test two strings to see if they are equal. The len parameter indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A wrapper for strncmp).



        bool    strnEQ(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)



strnNE Test two strings to see if they are different. The len parameter indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A wrapper for strncmp).



        bool    strnNE(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)



sv_destroyable Dummy routine which reports that object can be destroyed when there is no sharing module present. It ignores its single SV argument, and returns ’true’. Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.



        bool    sv_destroyable(SV *sv)



sv_nosharing Dummy routine which shares an SV when there is no sharing module present. Or locks it. Or unlocks it. In other words, ignores its single SV argument. Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.



        void    sv_nosharing(SV *sv)



vmess pat and args are a sprintf-style format pattern and encapsulated argument list. These are used to generate a string message. If the message does not end with a newline, then it will be extended with some indication of the current location in the code, as described for mess_sv.

Normally, the resulting message is returned in a new mortal SV. During global destruction a single SV may be shared between uses of this function.



        SV *    vmess(const char *pat, va_list *args)



MRO Functions

These functions are related to the method resolution order of perl classes
mro_get_linear_isa Returns the mro linearisation for the given stash. By default, this will be whatever mro_get_linear_isa_dfs returns unless some other MRO is in effect for the stash. The return value is a read-only AV*.

You are responsible for SvREFCNT_inc() on the return value if you plan to store it anywhere semi-permanently (otherwise it might be deleted out from under you the next time the cache is invalidated).



        AV*     mro_get_linear_isa(HV* stash)



mro_method_changed_in Invalidates method caching on any child classes of the given stash, so that they might notice the changes in this one.

Ideally, all instances of PL_sub_generation++ in perl source outside of mro.c should be replaced by calls to this.

Perl automatically handles most of the common ways a method might be redefined. However, there are a few ways you could change a method in a stash without the cache code noticing, in which case you need to call this method afterwards:

1) Directly manipulating the stash HV entries from XS code.

2) Assigning a reference to a readonly scalar constant into a stash entry in order to create a constant subroutine (like constant.pm does).

This same method is available from pure perl via, mro::method_changed_in(classname).



        void    mro_method_changed_in(HV* stash)



mro_register Registers a custom mro plugin. See perlmroapi for details.



        void    mro_register(const struct mro_alg *mro)



Multicall Functions

dMULTICALL Declare local variables for a multicall. See LIGHTWEIGHT CALLBACKS in perlcall.



                dMULTICALL;



MULTICALL Make a lightweight callback. See LIGHTWEIGHT CALLBACKS in perlcall.



                MULTICALL;



POP_MULTICALL Closing bracket for a lightweight callback. See LIGHTWEIGHT CALLBACKS in perlcall.



                POP_MULTICALL;



PUSH_MULTICALL Opening bracket for a lightweight callback. See LIGHTWEIGHT CALLBACKS in perlcall.



                PUSH_MULTICALL;



Numeric functions

grok_bin converts a string representing a binary number to numeric form.

On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives conversion flags, and result should be NULL or a pointer to an NV. The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first invalid character. Unless PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT is set in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trigger a warning. On return *len is set to the length of the scanned string, and *flags gives output flags.

If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear, and nothing is written to *result. If the value is > UV_MAX grok_bin returns UV_MAX, sets PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX in the output flags, and writes the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

The binary number may optionally be prefixed with 0b or b unless PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX is set in *flags on entry. If PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES is set in *flags then the binary number may use ’_’ characters to separate digits.



        UV      grok_bin(const char* start, STRLEN* len_p,
                         I32* flags, NV *result)



grok_hex converts a string representing a hex number to numeric form.

On entry start and *len_p give the string to scan, *flags gives conversion flags, and result should be NULL or a pointer to an NV. The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first invalid character. Unless PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT is set in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trigger a warning. On return *len is set to the length of the scanned string, and *flags gives output flags.

If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear, and nothing is written to *result. If the value is > UV_MAX grok_hex returns UV_MAX, sets PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX in the output flags, and writes the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

The hex number may optionally be prefixed with 0x or x unless PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX is set in *flags on entry. If PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES is set in *flags then the hex number may use ’_’ characters to separate digits.



        UV      grok_hex(const char* start, STRLEN* len_p,
                         I32* flags, NV *result)



grok_infnan Helper for grok_number(), accepts various ways of spelling infinity or not a number, and returns one of the following flag combinations:



  IS_NUMBER_INFINITE
  IS_NUMBER_NAN
  IS_NUMBER_INFINITE | IS_NUMBER_NEG
  IS_NUMBER_NAN | IS_NUMBER_NEG
  0



possibly |-ed with IS_NUMBER_TRAILING.

If an infinity or a not-a-number is recognized, the *sp will point to one byte past the end of the recognized string. If the recognition fails, zero is returned, and the *sp will not move.



        int     grok_infnan(const char** sp, const char *send)



grok_number Identical to grok_number_flags() with flags set to zero.



        int     grok_number(const char *pv, STRLEN len,
                            UV *valuep)



grok_number_flags Recognise (or not) a number. The type of the number is returned (0 if unrecognised), otherwise it is a bit-ORed combination of IS_NUMBER_IN_UV, IS_NUMBER_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX, IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT, IS_NUMBER_NEG, IS_NUMBER_INFINITY, IS_NUMBER_NAN (defined in perl.h).

If the value of the number can fit in a UV, it is returned in the *valuep IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set to indicate that *valuep is valid, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will never be set unless *valuep is valid, but *valuep may have been assigned to during processing even though IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set on return. If valuep is NULL, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set for the same cases as when valuep is non-NULL, but no actual assignment (or SEGV) will occur.

IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT will be set with IS_NUMBER_IN_UV if trailing decimals were seen (in which case *valuep gives the true value truncated to an integer), and IS_NUMBER_NEG if the number is negative (in which case *valuep holds the absolute value). IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set if e notation was used or the number is larger than a UV.

flags allows only PERL_SCAN_TRAILING, which allows for trailing non-numeric text on an otherwise successful grok, setting IS_NUMBER_TRAILING on the result.



        int     grok_number_flags(const char *pv, STRLEN len,
                                  UV *valuep, U32 flags)



grok_numeric_radix Scan and skip for a numeric decimal separator (radix).



        bool    grok_numeric_radix(const char **sp,
                                   const char *send)



grok_oct converts a string representing an octal number to numeric form.

On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives conversion flags, and result should be NULL or a pointer to an NV. The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first invalid character. Unless PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT is set in *flags, encountering an 8 or 9 will also trigger a warning. On return *len is set to the length of the scanned string, and *flags gives output flags.

If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear, and nothing is written to *result. If the value is > UV_MAX grok_oct returns UV_MAX, sets PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX in the output flags, and writes the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

If PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES is set in *flags then the octal number may use ’_’ characters to separate digits.



        UV      grok_oct(const char* start, STRLEN* len_p,
                         I32* flags, NV *result)



isinfnan Perl_isinfnan() is utility function that returns true if the NV argument is either an infinity or a NaN, false otherwise. To test in more detail, use Perl_isinf() and Perl_isnan().

This is also the logical inverse of Perl_isfinite().



        bool    isinfnan(NV nv)



Perl_signbit NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Return a non-zero integer if the sign bit on an NV is set, and 0 if it is not.

If Configure detects this system has a signbit() that will work with our NVs, then we just use it via the #define in perl.h. Otherwise, fall back on this implementation. The main use of this function is catching -0.0.

Configure notes: This function is called ’Perl_signbit’ instead of a plain ’signbit’ because it is easy to imagine a system having a signbit() function or macro that doesn’t happen to work with our particular choice of NVs. We shouldn’t just re-#define signbit as Perl_signbit and expect the standard system headers to be happy. Also, this is a no-context function (no pTHX_) because Perl_signbit() is usually re-#defined in perl.h as a simple macro call to the system’s signbit(). Users should just always call Perl_signbit().



        int     Perl_signbit(NV f)



scan_bin For backwards compatibility. Use grok_bin instead.



        NV      scan_bin(const char* start, STRLEN len,
                         STRLEN* retlen)



scan_hex For backwards compatibility. Use grok_hex instead.



        NV      scan_hex(const char* start, STRLEN len,
                         STRLEN* retlen)



scan_oct For backwards compatibility. Use grok_oct instead.



        NV      scan_oct(const char* start, STRLEN len,
                         STRLEN* retlen)



Obsolete backwards compatibility functions

Some of these are also deprecated. You can exclude these from your compiled Perl by adding this option to Configure: -Accflags=-DNO_MATHOMS
custom_op_desc Return the description of a given custom op. This was once used by the OP_DESC macro, but is no longer: it has only been kept for compatibility, and should not be used.



        const char * custom_op_desc(const OP *o)



custom_op_name Return the name for a given custom op. This was once used by the OP_NAME macro, but is no longer: it has only been kept for compatibility, and should not be used.



        const char * custom_op_name(const OP *o)



gv_fetchmethod See gv_fetchmethod_autoload.



        GV*     gv_fetchmethod(HV* stash, const char* name)



is_utf8_char DEPRECATED! It is planned to remove this function from a future release of Perl. Do not use it for new code; remove it from existing code.

Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8 character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines) character is a valid UTF-8 character. The actual number of bytes in the UTF-8 character will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.

This function is deprecated due to the possibility that malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer. Use isUTF8_CHAR instead.



        STRLEN  is_utf8_char(const U8 *s)



is_utf8_char_buf This is identical to the macro isUTF8_CHAR.



        STRLEN  is_utf8_char_buf(const U8 *buf,
                                 const U8 *buf_end)



pack_cat The engine implementing pack() Perl function. Note: parameters next_in_list and flags are not used. This call should not be used; use packlist instead.



        void    pack_cat(SV *cat, const char *pat,
                         const char *patend, SV **beglist,
                         SV **endlist, SV ***next_in_list,
                         U32 flags)



pad_compname_type Looks up the type of the lexical variable at position po in the currently-compiling pad. If the variable is typed, the stash of the class to which it is typed is returned. If not, NULL is returned.



        HV *    pad_compname_type(PADOFFSET po)



sv_2pvbyte_nolen Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV. May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a side-effect.

Usually accessed via the SvPVbyte_nolen macro.



        char*   sv_2pvbyte_nolen(SV* sv)



sv_2pvutf8_nolen Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV. May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.

Usually accessed via the SvPVutf8_nolen macro.



        char*   sv_2pvutf8_nolen(SV* sv)



sv_2pv_nolen Like sv_2pv(), but doesn’t return the length too. You should usually use the macro wrapper SvPV_nolen(sv) instead.



        char*   sv_2pv_nolen(SV* sv)



sv_catpvn_mg Like sv_catpvn, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_catpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr,
                             STRLEN len)



sv_catsv_mg Like sv_catsv, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_catsv_mg(SV *dsv, SV *ssv)



sv_force_normal Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is a shared string, make a private copy; if we’re a ref, stop refing; if we’re a glob, downgrade to an xpvmg. See also sv_force_normal_flags.



        void    sv_force_normal(SV *sv)



sv_iv A private implementation of the SvIVx macro for compilers which can’t cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.



        IV      sv_iv(SV* sv)



sv_nolocking Dummy routine which locks an SV when there is no locking module present. Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.

Superseded by sv_nosharing().



        void    sv_nolocking(SV *sv)



sv_nounlocking Dummy routine which unlocks an SV when there is no locking module present. Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.

Superseded by sv_nosharing().



        void    sv_nounlocking(SV *sv)



sv_nv A private implementation of the SvNVx macro for compilers which can’t cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.



        NV      sv_nv(SV* sv)



sv_pv Use the SvPV_nolen macro instead



        char*   sv_pv(SV *sv)



sv_pvbyte Use SvPVbyte_nolen instead.



        char*   sv_pvbyte(SV *sv)



sv_pvbyten A private implementation of the SvPVbyte macro for compilers which can’t cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.



        char*   sv_pvbyten(SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)



sv_pvn A private implementation of the SvPV macro for compilers which can’t cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.



        char*   sv_pvn(SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)



sv_pvutf8 Use the SvPVutf8_nolen macro instead



        char*   sv_pvutf8(SV *sv)



sv_pvutf8n A private implementation of the SvPVutf8 macro for compilers which can’t cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.



        char*   sv_pvutf8n(SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)



sv_taint Taint an SV. Use SvTAINTED_on instead.



        void    sv_taint(SV* sv)



sv_unref Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference count of whatever was being referenced by the RV. This can almost be thought of as a reversal of newSVrv. This is sv_unref_flags with the flag being zero. See SvROK_off.



        void    sv_unref(SV* sv)



sv_usepvn Tells an SV to use ptr to find its string value. Implemented by calling sv_usepvn_flags with flags of 0, hence does not handle ’set’ magic. See sv_usepvn_flags.



        void    sv_usepvn(SV* sv, char* ptr, STRLEN len)



sv_usepvn_mg Like sv_usepvn, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_usepvn_mg(SV *sv, char *ptr, STRLEN len)



sv_uv A private implementation of the SvUVx macro for compilers which can’t cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.



        UV      sv_uv(SV* sv)



unpack_str The engine implementing unpack() Perl function. Note: parameters strbeg, new_s and ocnt are not used. This call should not be used, use unpackstring instead.



        I32     unpack_str(const char *pat, const char *patend,
                           const char *s, const char *strbeg,
                           const char *strend, char **new_s,
                           I32 ocnt, U32 flags)



utf8_to_uvchr DEPRECATED! It is planned to remove this function from a future release of Perl. Do not use it for new code; remove it from existing code.

Returns the native code point of the first character in the string s which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; retlen will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact, some malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer, which is why this function is deprecated. Use utf8_to_uvchr_buf instead.

If s points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8 warnings are enabled, zero is returned and *retlen is set (if retlen isn’t NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and *retlen is set (if retlen isn’t NULL) so that (s + *retlen) is the next possible position in s that could begin a non-malformed character. See utf8n_to_uvchr for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.



        UV      utf8_to_uvchr(const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)



utf8_to_uvuni DEPRECATED! It is planned to remove this function from a future release of Perl. Do not use it for new code; remove it from existing code.

Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string s which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; retlen will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact, some malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer, which is one reason why this function is deprecated. The other is that only in extremely limited circumstances should the Unicode versus native code point be of any interest to you. See utf8_to_uvuni_buf for alternatives.

If s points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8 warnings are enabled, zero is returned and *retlen is set (if retlen doesn’t point to NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and *retlen is set (if retlen isn’t NULL) so that (s + *retlen) is the next possible position in s that could begin a non-malformed character. See utf8n_to_uvchr for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.



        UV      utf8_to_uvuni(const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)



Optree construction

newASSIGNOP Constructs, checks, and returns an assignment op. left and right supply the parameters of the assignment; they are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree.

If optype is OP_ANDASSIGN, OP_ORASSIGN, or OP_DORASSIGN, then a suitable conditional optree is constructed. If optype is the opcode of a binary operator, such as OP_BIT_OR, then an op is constructed that performs the binary operation and assigns the result to the left argument. Either way, if optype is non-zero then flags has no effect.

If optype is zero, then a plain scalar or list assignment is constructed. Which type of assignment it is is automatically determined. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags, except that OPf_KIDS will be set automatically, and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private, except that the bit with value 1 or 2 is automatically set as required.



        OP *    newASSIGNOP(I32 flags, OP *left, I32 optype,
                            OP *right)



newBINOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op of any binary type. type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags, except that OPf_KIDS will be set automatically, and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private, except that the bit with value 1 or 2 is automatically set as required. first and last supply up to two ops to be the direct children of the binary op; they are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree.



        OP *    newBINOP(I32 type, I32 flags, OP *first,
                         OP *last)



newCONDOP Constructs, checks, and returns a conditional-expression (cond_expr) op. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags, except that OPf_KIDS will be set automatically, and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private, except that the bit with value 1 is automatically set. first supplies the expression selecting between the two branches, and trueop and falseop supply the branches; they are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree.



        OP *    newCONDOP(I32 flags, OP *first, OP *trueop,
                          OP *falseop)



newDEFSVOP Constructs and returns an op to access $_, either as a lexical variable (if declared as my $_) in the current scope, or the global $_.



        OP *    newDEFSVOP()



newFOROP Constructs, checks, and returns an op tree expressing a foreach loop (iteration through a list of values). This is a heavyweight loop, with structure that allows exiting the loop by last and suchlike.

sv optionally supplies the variable that will be aliased to each item in turn; if null, it defaults to $_ (either lexical or global). expr supplies the list of values to iterate over. block supplies the main body of the loop, and cont optionally supplies a continue block that operates as a second half of the body. All of these optree inputs are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree.

flags gives the eight bits of op_flags for the leaveloop op and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private for the leaveloop op, except that (in both cases) some bits will be set automatically.



        OP *    newFOROP(I32 flags, OP *sv, OP *expr, OP *block,
                         OP *cont)



newGIVENOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op tree expressing a given block. cond supplies the expression that will be locally assigned to a lexical variable, and block supplies the body of the given construct; they are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree. defsv_off is the pad offset of the scalar lexical variable that will be affected. If it is 0, the global $_ will be used.



        OP *    newGIVENOP(OP *cond, OP *block,
                           PADOFFSET defsv_off)



newGVOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op of any type that involves an embedded reference to a GV. type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags. gv identifies the GV that the op should reference; calling this function does not transfer ownership of any reference to it.



        OP *    newGVOP(I32 type, I32 flags, GV *gv)



newLISTOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op of any list type. type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags, except that OPf_KIDS will be set automatically if required. first and last supply up to two ops to be direct children of the list op; they are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree.

For most list operators, the check function expects all the kid ops to be present already, so calling newLISTOP(OP_JOIN, ...) (e.g.) is not appropriate. What you want to do in that case is create an op of type OP_LIST, append more children to it, and then call op_convert_list. See op_convert_list for more information.



        OP *    newLISTOP(I32 type, I32 flags, OP *first,
                          OP *last)



newLOGOP Constructs, checks, and returns a logical (flow control) op. type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags, except that OPf_KIDS will be set automatically, and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private, except that the bit with value 1 is automatically set. first supplies the expression controlling the flow, and other supplies the side (alternate) chain of ops; they are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree.



        OP *    newLOGOP(I32 type, I32 flags, OP *first,
                         OP *other)



newLOOPEX Constructs, checks, and returns a loop-exiting op (such as goto or last). type is the opcode. label supplies the parameter determining the target of the op; it is consumed by this function and becomes part of the constructed op tree.



        OP *    newLOOPEX(I32 type, OP *label)



newLOOPOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op tree expressing a loop. This is only a loop in the control flow through the op tree; it does not have the heavyweight loop structure that allows exiting the loop by last and suchlike. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags for the top-level op, except that some bits will be set automatically as required. expr supplies the expression controlling loop iteration, and block supplies the body of the loop; they are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree. debuggable is currently unused and should always be 1.



        OP *    newLOOPOP(I32 flags, I32 debuggable, OP *expr,
                          OP *block)



newMETHOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op of method type with a method name evaluated at runtime. type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags, except that OPf_KIDS will be set automatically, and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private, except that the bit with value 1 is automatically set. dynamic_meth supplies an op which evaluates method name; it is consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree. Supported optypes: OP_METHOD.



        OP *    newMETHOP(I32 type, I32 flags, OP *first)



newMETHOP_named Constructs, checks, and returns an op of method type with a constant method name. type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags, and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private. const_meth supplies a constant method name; it must be a shared COW string. Supported optypes: OP_METHOD_NAMED.



        OP *    newMETHOP_named(I32 type, I32 flags,
                                SV *const_meth)



newNULLLIST Constructs, checks, and returns a new stub op, which represents an empty list expression.



        OP *    newNULLLIST()



newOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op of any base type (any type that has no extra fields). type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags, and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private.



        OP *    newOP(I32 type, I32 flags)



newPADOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op of any type that involves a reference to a pad element. type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags. A pad slot is automatically allocated, and is populated with sv; this function takes ownership of one reference to it.

This function only exists if Perl has been compiled to use ithreads.



        OP *    newPADOP(I32 type, I32 flags, SV *sv)



newPMOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op of any pattern matching type. type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private.



        OP *    newPMOP(I32 type, I32 flags)



newPVOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op of any type that involves an embedded C-level pointer (PV). type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags. pv supplies the C-level pointer, which must have been allocated using PerlMemShared_malloc; the memory will be freed when the op is destroyed.



        OP *    newPVOP(I32 type, I32 flags, char *pv)



newRANGE Constructs and returns a range op, with subordinate flip and flop ops. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags for the flip op and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private for both the flip and range ops, except that the bit with value 1 is automatically set. left and right supply the expressions controlling the endpoints of the range; they are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree.



        OP *    newRANGE(I32 flags, OP *left, OP *right)



newSLICEOP Constructs, checks, and returns an lslice (list slice) op. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags, except that OPf_KIDS will be set automatically, and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private, except that the bit with value 1 or 2 is automatically set as required. listval and subscript supply the parameters of the slice; they are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree.



        OP *    newSLICEOP(I32 flags, OP *subscript,
                           OP *listval)



newSTATEOP Constructs a state op (COP). The state op is normally a nextstate op, but will be a dbstate op if debugging is enabled for currently-compiled code. The state op is populated from PL_curcop (or PL_compiling). If label is non-null, it supplies the name of a label to attach to the state op; this function takes ownership of the memory pointed at by label, and will free it. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags for the state op.

If o is null, the state op is returned. Otherwise the state op is combined with o into a lineseq list op, which is returned. o is consumed by this function and becomes part of the returned op tree.



        OP *    newSTATEOP(I32 flags, char *label, OP *o)



newSVOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op of any type that involves an embedded SV. type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags. sv gives the SV to embed in the op; this function takes ownership of one reference to it.



        OP *    newSVOP(I32 type, I32 flags, SV *sv)



newUNOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op of any unary type. type is the opcode. flags gives the eight bits of op_flags, except that OPf_KIDS will be set automatically if required, and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private, except that the bit with value 1 is automatically set. first supplies an optional op to be the direct child of the unary op; it is consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree.



        OP *    newUNOP(I32 type, I32 flags, OP *first)



newUNOP_AUX Similar to newUNOP, but creates an UNOP_AUX struct instead, with op_aux initialised to aux



        OP*     newUNOP_AUX(I32 type, I32 flags, OP* first,
                            UNOP_AUX_item *aux)



newWHENOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op tree expressing a when block. cond supplies the test expression, and block supplies the block that will be executed if the test evaluates to true; they are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree. cond will be interpreted DWIMically, often as a comparison against $_, and may be null to generate a default block.



        OP *    newWHENOP(OP *cond, OP *block)



newWHILEOP Constructs, checks, and returns an op tree expressing a while loop. This is a heavyweight loop, with structure that allows exiting the loop by last and suchlike.

loop is an optional preconstructed enterloop op to use in the loop; if it is null then a suitable op will be constructed automatically. expr supplies the loop’s controlling expression. block supplies the main body of the loop, and cont optionally supplies a continue block that operates as a second half of the body. All of these optree inputs are consumed by this function and become part of the constructed op tree.

flags gives the eight bits of op_flags for the leaveloop op and, shifted up eight bits, the eight bits of op_private for the leaveloop op, except that (in both cases) some bits will be set automatically. debuggable is currently unused and should always be 1. has_my can be supplied as true to force the loop body to be enclosed in its own scope.



        OP *    newWHILEOP(I32 flags, I32 debuggable,
                           LOOP *loop, OP *expr, OP *block,
                           OP *cont, I32 has_my)



Optree Manipulation Functions

alloccopstash NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Available only under threaded builds, this function allocates an entry in PL_stashpad for the stash passed to it.



        PADOFFSET alloccopstash(HV *hv)



block_end Handles compile-time scope exit. floor is the savestack index returned by block_start, and seq is the body of the block. Returns the block, possibly modified.



        OP *    block_end(I32 floor, OP *seq)



block_start Handles compile-time scope entry. Arranges for hints to be restored on block exit and also handles pad sequence numbers to make lexical variables scope right. Returns a savestack index for use with block_end.



        int     block_start(int full)



ck_entersub_args_list Performs the default fixup of the arguments part of an entersub op tree. This consists of applying list context to each of the argument ops. This is the standard treatment used on a call marked with &, or a method call, or a call through a subroutine reference, or any other call where the callee can’t be identified at compile time, or a call where the callee has no prototype.



        OP *    ck_entersub_args_list(OP *entersubop)



ck_entersub_args_proto Performs the fixup of the arguments part of an entersub op tree based on a subroutine prototype. This makes various modifications to the argument ops, from applying context up to inserting refgen ops, and checking the number and syntactic types of arguments, as directed by the prototype. This is the standard treatment used on a subroutine call, not marked with &, where the callee can be identified at compile time and has a prototype.

protosv supplies the subroutine prototype to be applied to the call. It may be a normal defined scalar, of which the string value will be used. Alternatively, for convenience, it may be a subroutine object (a CV* that has been cast to SV*) which has a prototype. The prototype supplied, in whichever form, does not need to match the actual callee referenced by the op tree.

If the argument ops disagree with the prototype, for example by having an unacceptable number of arguments, a valid op tree is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. In the error message, the callee is referred to by the name defined by the namegv parameter.



        OP *    ck_entersub_args_proto(OP *entersubop,
                                       GV *namegv, SV *protosv)



ck_entersub_args_proto_or_list Performs the fixup of the arguments part of an entersub op tree either based on a subroutine prototype or using default list-context processing. This is the standard treatment used on a subroutine call, not marked with &, where the callee can be identified at compile time.

protosv supplies the subroutine prototype to be applied to the call, or indicates that there is no prototype. It may be a normal scalar, in which case if it is defined then the string value will be used as a prototype, and if it is undefined then there is no prototype. Alternatively, for convenience, it may be a subroutine object (a CV* that has been cast to SV*), of which the prototype will be used if it has one. The prototype (or lack thereof) supplied, in whichever form, does not need to match the actual callee referenced by the op tree.

If the argument ops disagree with the prototype, for example by having an unacceptable number of arguments, a valid op tree is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. In the error message, the callee is referred to by the name defined by the namegv parameter.



        OP *    ck_entersub_args_proto_or_list(OP *entersubop,
                                               GV *namegv,
                                               SV *protosv)



cv_const_sv If cv is a constant sub eligible for inlining, returns the constant value returned by the sub. Otherwise, returns NULL.

Constant subs can be created with newCONSTSUB or as described in Constant Functions in perlsub.



        SV*     cv_const_sv(const CV *const cv)



cv_get_call_checker Retrieves the function that will be used to fix up a call to cv. Specifically, the function is applied to an entersub op tree for a subroutine call, not marked with &, where the callee can be identified at compile time as cv.

The C-level function pointer is returned in *ckfun_p, and an SV argument for it is returned in *ckobj_p. The function is intended to be called in this manner:



 entersubop = (*ckfun_p)(aTHX_ entersubop, namegv, (*ckobj_p));



In this call, entersubop is a pointer to the entersub op, which may be replaced by the check function, and namegv is a GV supplying the name that should be used by the check function to refer to the callee of the entersub op if it needs to emit any diagnostics. It is permitted to apply the check function in non-standard situations, such as to a call to a different subroutine or to a method call.

By default, the function is Perl_ck_entersub_args_proto_or_list, and the SV parameter is cv itself. This implements standard prototype processing. It can be changed, for a particular subroutine, by cv_set_call_checker.



        void    cv_get_call_checker(CV *cv,
                                    Perl_call_checker *ckfun_p,
                                    SV **ckobj_p)



cv_set_call_checker The original form of cv_set_call_checker_flags, which passes it the CALL_CHECKER_REQUIRE_GV flag for backward-compatibility.



        void    cv_set_call_checker(CV *cv,
                                    Perl_call_checker ckfun,
                                    SV *ckobj)



cv_set_call_checker_flags Sets the function that will be used to fix up a call to cv. Specifically, the function is applied to an entersub op tree for a subroutine call, not marked with &, where the callee can be identified at compile time as cv.

The C-level function pointer is supplied in ckfun, and an SV argument for it is supplied in ckobj. The function should be defined like this:



    STATIC OP * ckfun(pTHX_ OP *op, GV *namegv, SV *ckobj)



It is intended to be called in this manner:



    entersubop = ckfun(aTHX_ entersubop, namegv, ckobj);



In this call, entersubop is a pointer to the entersub op, which may be replaced by the check function, and namegv supplies the name that should be used by the check function to refer to the callee of the entersub op if it needs to emit any diagnostics. It is permitted to apply the check function in non-standard situations, such as to a call to a different subroutine or to a method call.

namegv may not actually be a GV. For efficiency, perl may pass a CV or other SV instead. Whatever is passed can be used as the first argument to cv_name. You can force perl to pass a GV by including CALL_CHECKER_REQUIRE_GV in the flags.

The current setting for a particular CV can be retrieved by cv_get_call_checker.



        void    cv_set_call_checker_flags(
                    CV *cv, Perl_call_checker ckfun, SV *ckobj,
                    U32 flags
                )



LINKLIST Given the root of an optree, link the tree in execution order using the op_next pointers and return the first op executed. If this has already been done, it will not be redone, and o->op_next will be returned. If o->op_next is not already set, o should be at least an UNOP.



        OP*     LINKLIST(OP *o)



newCONSTSUB See newCONSTSUB_flags.



        CV*     newCONSTSUB(HV* stash, const char* name, SV* sv)



newCONSTSUB_flags Creates a constant sub equivalent to Perl sub FOO () { 123 } which is eligible for inlining at compile-time.

Currently, the only useful value for flags is SVf_UTF8.

The newly created subroutine takes ownership of a reference to the passed in SV.

Passing NULL for SV creates a constant sub equivalent to sub BAR () {}, which won’t be called if used as a destructor, but will suppress the overhead of a call to AUTOLOAD. (This form, however, isn’t eligible for inlining at compile time.)



        CV*     newCONSTSUB_flags(HV* stash, const char* name,
                                  STRLEN len, U32 flags, SV* sv)



newXS Used by xsubpp to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs. filename needs to be static storage, as it is used directly as CvFILE(), without a copy being made.
OpHAS_SIBLING Returns true if o has a sibling



        bool    OpHAS_SIBLING(OP *o)



OpLASTSIB_set Marks o as having no further siblings. On PERL_OP_PARENT builds, marks o as having the specified parent. See also OpMORESIB_set and OpMAYBESIB_set. For a higher-level interface, see op_sibling_splice.



        void    OpLASTSIB_set(OP *o, OP *parent)



OpMAYBESIB_set Conditionally does OpMORESIB_set or OpLASTSIB_set depending on whether sib is non-null. For a higher-level interface, see op_sibling_splice.



        void    OpMAYBESIB_set(OP *o, OP *sib, OP *parent)



OpMORESIB_set Sets the sibling of o to the non-zero value sib. See also OpLASTSIB_set and OpMAYBESIB_set. For a higher-level interface, see op_sibling_splice.



        void    OpMORESIB_set(OP *o, OP *sib)



OpSIBLING Returns the sibling of o, or NULL if there is no sibling



        OP*     OpSIBLING(OP *o)



op_append_elem Append an item to the list of ops contained directly within a list-type op, returning the lengthened list. first is the list-type op, and last is the op to append to the list. optype specifies the intended opcode for the list. If first is not already a list of the right type, it will be upgraded into one. If either first or last is null, the other is returned unchanged.



        OP *    op_append_elem(I32 optype, OP *first, OP *last)



op_append_list Concatenate the lists of ops contained directly within two list-type ops, returning the combined list. first and last are the list-type ops to concatenate. optype specifies the intended opcode for the list. If either first or last is not already a list of the right type, it will be upgraded into one. If either first or last is null, the other is returned unchanged.



        OP *    op_append_list(I32 optype, OP *first, OP *last)



OP_CLASS Return the class of the provided OP: that is, which of the *OP structures it uses. For core ops this currently gets the information out of PL_opargs, which does not always accurately reflect the type used. For custom ops the type is returned from the registration, and it is up to the registree to ensure it is accurate. The value returned will be one of the OA_* constants from op.h.



        U32     OP_CLASS(OP *o)



op_contextualize Applies a syntactic context to an op tree representing an expression. o is the op tree, and context must be G_SCALAR, G_ARRAY, or G_VOID to specify the context to apply. The modified op tree is returned.



        OP *    op_contextualize(OP *o, I32 context)



op_convert_list Converts o into a list op if it is not one already, and then converts it into the specified type, calling its check function, allocating a target if it needs one, and folding constants.

A list-type op is usually constructed one kid at a time via newLISTOP, op_prepend_elem and op_append_elem. Then finally it is passed to op_convert_list to make it the right type.



        OP *    op_convert_list(I32 type, I32 flags, OP *o)



OP_DESC Return a short description of the provided OP.



        const char * OP_DESC(OP *o)



op_free Free an op. Only use this when an op is no longer linked to from any optree.



        void    op_free(OP *o)



op_linklist This function is the implementation of the LINKLIST macro. It should not be called directly.



        OP*     op_linklist(OP *o)



op_lvalue NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Propagate lvalue (modifiable) context to an op and its children. type represents the context type, roughly based on the type of op that would do the modifying, although local() is represented by OP_NULL, because it has no op type of its own (it is signalled by a flag on the lvalue op).

This function detects things that can’t be modified, such as $x+1, and generates errors for them. For example, $x+1 = 2 would cause it to be called with an op of type OP_ADD and a type argument of OP_SASSIGN.

It also flags things that need to behave specially in an lvalue context, such as $$x = 5 which might have to vivify a reference in $x.



        OP *    op_lvalue(OP *o, I32 type)



OP_NAME Return the name of the provided OP. For core ops this looks up the name from the op_type; for custom ops from the op_ppaddr.



        const char * OP_NAME(OP *o)



op_null Neutralizes an op when it is no longer needed, but is still linked to from other ops.



        void    op_null(OP *o)



op_parent Returns the parent OP of o, if it has a parent. Returns NULL otherwise. This function is only available on perls built with -DPERL_OP_PARENT.



        OP*     op_parent(OP *o)



op_prepend_elem Prepend an item to the list of ops contained directly within a list-type op, returning the lengthened list. first is the op to prepend to the list, and last is the list-type op. optype specifies the intended opcode for the list. If last is not already a list of the right type, it will be upgraded into one. If either first or last is null, the other is returned unchanged.



        OP *    op_prepend_elem(I32 optype, OP *first, OP *last)



op_scope NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Wraps up an op tree with some additional ops so that at runtime a dynamic scope will be created. The original ops run in the new dynamic scope, and then, provided that they exit normally, the scope will be unwound. The additional ops used to create and unwind the dynamic scope will normally be an enter/leave pair, but a scope op may be used instead if the ops are simple enough to not need the full dynamic scope structure.



        OP *    op_scope(OP *o)



op_sibling_splice A general function for editing the structure of an existing chain of op_sibling nodes. By analogy with the perl-level splice() function, allows you to delete zero or more sequential nodes, replacing them with zero or more different nodes. Performs the necessary op_first/op_last housekeeping on the parent node and op_sibling manipulation on the children. The last deleted node will be marked as as the last node by updating the op_sibling/op_sibparent or op_moresib field as appropriate.

Note that op_next is not manipulated, and nodes are not freed; that is the responsibility of the caller. It also won’t create a new list op for an empty list etc; use higher-level functions like op_append_elem() for that.

parent is the parent node of the sibling chain. It may passed as NULL if the splicing doesn’t affect the first or last op in the chain.

start is the node preceding the first node to be spliced. Node(s) following it will be deleted, and ops will be inserted after it. If it is NULL, the first node onwards is deleted, and nodes are inserted at the beginning.

del_count is the number of nodes to delete. If zero, no nodes are deleted. If -1 or greater than or equal to the number of remaining kids, all remaining kids are deleted.

insert is the first of a chain of nodes to be inserted in place of the nodes. If NULL, no nodes are inserted.

The head of the chain of deleted ops is returned, or NULL if no ops were deleted.

For example:



    action                    before      after         returns
    ------                    -----       -----         -------

                              P           P
    splice(P, A, 2, X-Y-Z)    |           |             B-C
                              A-B-C-D     A-X-Y-Z-D

                              P           P
    splice(P, NULL, 1, X-Y)   |           |             A
                              A-B-C-D     X-Y-B-C-D

                              P           P
    splice(P, NULL, 3, NULL)  |           |             A-B-C
                              A-B-C-D     D

                              P           P
    splice(P, B, 0, X-Y)      |           |             NULL
                              A-B-C-D     A-B-X-Y-C-D



For lower-level direct manipulation of op_sibparent and op_moresib, see OpMORESIB_set, OpLASTSIB_set, OpMAYBESIB_set.



        OP*     op_sibling_splice(OP *parent, OP *start,
                                  int del_count, OP* insert)



OP_TYPE_IS Returns true if the given OP is not a NULL pointer and if it is of the given type.

The negation of this macro, OP_TYPE_ISNT is also available as well as OP_TYPE_IS_NN and OP_TYPE_ISNT_NN which elide the NULL pointer check.



        bool    OP_TYPE_IS(OP *o, Optype type)



OP_TYPE_IS_OR_WAS Returns true if the given OP is not a NULL pointer and if it is of the given type or used to be before being replaced by an OP of type OP_NULL.

The negation of this macro, OP_TYPE_ISNT_AND_WASNT is also available as well as OP_TYPE_IS_OR_WAS_NN and OP_TYPE_ISNT_AND_WASNT_NN which elide the NULL pointer check.



        bool    OP_TYPE_IS_OR_WAS(OP *o, Optype type)



rv2cv_op_cv Examines an op, which is expected to identify a subroutine at runtime, and attempts to determine at compile time which subroutine it identifies. This is normally used during Perl compilation to determine whether a prototype can be applied to a function call. cvop is the op being considered, normally an rv2cv op. A pointer to the identified subroutine is returned, if it could be determined statically, and a null pointer is returned if it was not possible to determine statically.

Currently, the subroutine can be identified statically if the RV that the rv2cv is to operate on is provided by a suitable gv or const op. A gv op is suitable if the GV’s CV slot is populated. A const op is suitable if the constant value must be an RV pointing to a CV. Details of this process may change in future versions of Perl. If the rv2cv op has the OPpENTERSUB_AMPER flag set then no attempt is made to identify the subroutine statically: this flag is used to suppress compile-time magic on a subroutine call, forcing it to use default runtime behaviour.

If flags has the bit RV2CVOPCV_MARK_EARLY set, then the handling of a GV reference is modified. If a GV was examined and its CV slot was found to be empty, then the gv op has the OPpEARLY_CV flag set. If the op is not optimised away, and the CV slot is later populated with a subroutine having a prototype, that flag eventually triggers the warning called too early to check prototype.

If flags has the bit RV2CVOPCV_RETURN_NAME_GV set, then instead of returning a pointer to the subroutine it returns a pointer to the GV giving the most appropriate name for the subroutine in this context. Normally this is just the CvGV of the subroutine, but for an anonymous (CvANON) subroutine that is referenced through a GV it will be the referencing GV. The resulting GV* is cast to CV* to be returned. A null pointer is returned as usual if there is no statically-determinable subroutine.



        CV *    rv2cv_op_cv(OP *cvop, U32 flags)



Pack and Unpack

packlist The engine implementing pack() Perl function.



        void    packlist(SV *cat, const char *pat,
                         const char *patend, SV **beglist,
                         SV **endlist)



unpackstring The engine implementing the unpack() Perl function.

Using the template pat..patend, this function unpacks the string s..strend into a number of mortal SVs, which it pushes onto the perl argument (@_) stack (so you will need to issue a PUTBACK before and SPAGAIN after the call to this function). It returns the number of pushed elements.

The strend and patend pointers should point to the byte following the last character of each string.

Although this function returns its values on the perl argument stack, it doesn’t take any parameters from that stack (and thus in particular there’s no need to do a PUSHMARK before calling it, unlike call_pv for example).



        I32     unpackstring(const char *pat,
                             const char *patend, const char *s,
                             const char *strend, U32 flags)



Pad Data Structures

CvPADLIST NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

CV’s can have CvPADLIST(cv) set to point to a PADLIST. This is the CV’s scratchpad, which stores lexical variables and opcode temporary and per-thread values.

For these purposes formats are a kind-of CV; eval"s are too (except they’re not callable at will and are always thrown away after the eval" is done executing). Require’d files are simply evals without any outer lexical scope.

XSUBs do not have a CvPADLIST. dXSTARG fetches values from PL_curpad, but that is really the callers pad (a slot of which is allocated by every entersub). Do not get or set CvPADLIST if a CV is an XSUB (as determined by CvISXSUB()), CvPADLIST slot is reused for a different internal purpose in XSUBs.

The PADLIST has a C array where pads are stored.

The 0th entry of the PADLIST is a PADNAMELIST which represents the names or rather the static type information for lexicals. The individual elements of a PADNAMELIST are PADNAMEs. Future refactorings might stop the PADNAMELIST from being stored in the PADLIST’s array, so don’t rely on it. See PadlistNAMES.

The CvDEPTH’th entry of a PADLIST is a PAD (an AV) which is the stack frame at that depth of recursion into the CV. The 0th slot of a frame AV is an AV which is @_. Other entries are storage for variables and op targets.

Iterating over the PADNAMELIST iterates over all possible pad items. Pad slots for targets (SVs_PADTMP) and GVs end up having &PL_padname_undef names, while slots for constants have &PL_padname_const names (see pad_alloc()). That &PL_padname_undef and &PL_padname_const are used is an implementation detail subject to change. To test for them, use !PadnamePV(name) and PadnamePV(name) && !PadnameLEN(name), respectively.

Only my/our variable slots get valid names. The rest are op targets/GVs/constants which are statically allocated or resolved at compile time. These don’t have names by which they can be looked up from Perl code at run time through eval" the way my/our variables can be. Since they can’t be looked up by name" but only by their index allocated at compile time (which is usually in PL_op->op_targ), wasting a name SV for them doesn’t make sense.

The pad names in the PADNAMELIST have their PV holding the name of the variable. The COP_SEQ_RANGE_LOW and _HIGH fields form a range (low+1..high inclusive) of cop_seq numbers for which the name is valid. During compilation, these fields may hold the special value PERL_PADSEQ_INTRO to indicate various stages:



 COP_SEQ_RANGE_LOW        _HIGH
 -----------------        -----
 PERL_PADSEQ_INTRO            0   variable not yet introduced:
                                  { my ($x
 valid-seq#   PERL_PADSEQ_INTRO   variable in scope:
                                  { my ($x)
 valid-seq#          valid-seq#   compilation of scope complete:
                                  { my ($x) }



For typed lexicals PadnameTYPE points at the type stash. For our lexicals, PadnameOURSTASH points at the stash of the associated global (so that duplicate our declarations in the same package can be detected). PadnameGEN is sometimes used to store the generation number during compilation.

If PadnameOUTER is set on the pad name, then that slot in the frame AV is a REFCNT’ed reference to a lexical from outside. Such entries are sometimes referred to as ’fake’. In this case, the name does not use ’low’ and ’high’ to store a cop_seq range, since it is in scope throughout. Instead ’high’ stores some flags containing info about the real lexical (is it declared in an anon, and is it capable of being instantiated multiple times?), and for fake ANONs, ’low’ contains the index within the parent’s pad where the lexical’s value is stored, to make cloning quicker.

If the ’name’ is ’&’ the corresponding entry in the PAD is a CV representing a possible closure.

Note that formats are treated as anon subs, and are cloned each time write is called (if necessary).

The flag SVs_PADSTALE is cleared on lexicals each time the my() is executed, and set on scope exit. This allows the ’Variable $x is not available’ warning to be generated in evals, such as



    { my $x = 1; sub f { eval $x} } f();



For state vars, SVs_PADSTALE is overloaded to mean ’not yet initialised’, but this internal state is stored in a separate pad entry.



        PADLIST * CvPADLIST(CV *cv)



PadARRAY NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The C array of pad entries.



        SV **   PadARRAY(PAD pad)



PadlistARRAY NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The C array of a padlist, containing the pads. Only subscript it with numbers >= 1, as the 0th entry is not guaranteed to remain usable.



        PAD **  PadlistARRAY(PADLIST padlist)



PadlistMAX NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The index of the last allocated space in the padlist. Note that the last pad may be in an earlier slot. Any entries following it will be NULL in that case.



        SSize_t PadlistMAX(PADLIST padlist)



PadlistNAMES NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The names associated with pad entries.



        PADNAMELIST * PadlistNAMES(PADLIST padlist)



PadlistNAMESARRAY NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The C array of pad names.



        PADNAME ** PadlistNAMESARRAY(PADLIST padlist)



PadlistNAMESMAX NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The index of the last pad name.



        SSize_t PadlistNAMESMAX(PADLIST padlist)



PadlistREFCNT NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The reference count of the padlist. Currently this is always 1.



        U32     PadlistREFCNT(PADLIST padlist)



PadMAX NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The index of the last pad entry.



        SSize_t PadMAX(PAD pad)



PadnameLEN NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The length of the name.



        STRLEN  PadnameLEN(PADNAME pn)



PadnamelistARRAY NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The C array of pad names.



        PADNAME ** PadnamelistARRAY(PADNAMELIST pnl)



PadnamelistMAX NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The index of the last pad name.



        SSize_t PadnamelistMAX(PADNAMELIST pnl)



PadnamelistREFCNT NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The reference count of the pad name list.



        SSize_t PadnamelistREFCNT(PADNAMELIST pnl)



PadnamelistREFCNT_dec NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Lowers the reference count of the pad name list.



        void    PadnamelistREFCNT_dec(PADNAMELIST pnl)



PadnamePV NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The name stored in the pad name struct. This returns NULL for a target slot.



        char *  PadnamePV(PADNAME pn)



PadnameREFCNT NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

The reference count of the pad name.



        SSize_t PadnameREFCNT(PADNAME pn)



PadnameREFCNT_dec NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Lowers the reference count of the pad name.



        void    PadnameREFCNT_dec(PADNAME pn)



PadnameSV NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Returns the pad name as a mortal SV.



        SV *    PadnameSV(PADNAME pn)



PadnameUTF8 NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Whether PadnamePV is in UTF8. Currently, this is always true.



        bool    PadnameUTF8(PADNAME pn)



pad_add_name_pvs Exactly like pad_add_name_pvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        PADOFFSET pad_add_name_pvs(const char *name, U32 flags,
                                   HV *typestash, HV *ourstash)



pad_findmy_pvs Exactly like pad_findmy_pvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        PADOFFSET pad_findmy_pvs(const char *name, U32 flags)



pad_new Create a new padlist, updating the global variables for the currently-compiling padlist to point to the new padlist. The following flags can be OR’ed together:



    padnew_CLONE        this pad is for a cloned CV
    padnew_SAVE         save old globals on the save stack
    padnew_SAVESUB      also save extra stuff for start of sub

        PADLIST * pad_new(int flags)



PL_comppad NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

During compilation, this points to the array containing the values part of the pad for the currently-compiling code. (At runtime a CV may have many such value arrays; at compile time just one is constructed.) At runtime, this points to the array containing the currently-relevant values for the pad for the currently-executing code.

PL_comppad_name NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

During compilation, this points to the array containing the names part of the pad for the currently-compiling code.

PL_curpad NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Points directly to the body of the PL_comppad array. (I.e., this is PAD_ARRAY(PL_comppad).)

Per-Interpreter Variables

PL_modglobal PL_modglobal is a general purpose, interpreter global HV for use by extensions that need to keep information on a per-interpreter basis. In a pinch, it can also be used as a symbol table for extensions to share data among each other. It is a good idea to use keys prefixed by the package name of the extension that owns the data.



        HV*     PL_modglobal



PL_na A convenience variable which is typically used with SvPV when one doesn’t care about the length of the string. It is usually more efficient to either declare a local variable and use that instead or to use the SvPV_nolen macro.



        STRLEN  PL_na



PL_opfreehook When non-NULL, the function pointed by this variable will be called each time an OP is freed with the corresponding OP as the argument. This allows extensions to free any extra attribute they have locally attached to an OP. It is also assured to first fire for the parent OP and then for its kids.

When you replace this variable, it is considered a good practice to store the possibly previously installed hook and that you recall it inside your own.



        Perl_ophook_t   PL_opfreehook



PL_peepp Pointer to the per-subroutine peephole optimiser. This is a function that gets called at the end of compilation of a Perl subroutine (or equivalently independent piece of Perl code) to perform fixups of some ops and to perform small-scale optimisations. The function is called once for each subroutine that is compiled, and is passed, as sole parameter, a pointer to the op that is the entry point to the subroutine. It modifies the op tree in place.

The peephole optimiser should never be completely replaced. Rather, add code to it by wrapping the existing optimiser. The basic way to do this can be seen in Compile pass 3: peephole optimization in perlguts. If the new code wishes to operate on ops throughout the subroutine’s structure, rather than just at the top level, it is likely to be more convenient to wrap the PL_rpeepp hook.



        peep_t  PL_peepp



PL_rpeepp Pointer to the recursive peephole optimiser. This is a function that gets called at the end of compilation of a Perl subroutine (or equivalently independent piece of Perl code) to perform fixups of some ops and to perform small-scale optimisations. The function is called once for each chain of ops linked through their op_next fields; it is recursively called to handle each side chain. It is passed, as sole parameter, a pointer to the op that is at the head of the chain. It modifies the op tree in place.

The peephole optimiser should never be completely replaced. Rather, add code to it by wrapping the existing optimiser. The basic way to do this can be seen in Compile pass 3: peephole optimization in perlguts. If the new code wishes to operate only on ops at a subroutine’s top level, rather than throughout the structure, it is likely to be more convenient to wrap the PL_peepp hook.



        peep_t  PL_rpeepp



PL_sv_no This is the false SV. See PL_sv_yes. Always refer to this as &PL_sv_no.



        SV      PL_sv_no



PL_sv_undef This is the undef SV. Always refer to this as &PL_sv_undef.



        SV      PL_sv_undef



PL_sv_yes This is the true SV. See PL_sv_no. Always refer to this as &PL_sv_yes.



        SV      PL_sv_yes



REGEXP Functions

SvRX Convenience macro to get the REGEXP from a SV. This is approximately equivalent to the following snippet:



    if (SvMAGICAL(sv))
        mg_get(sv);
    if (SvROK(sv))
        sv = MUTABLE_SV(SvRV(sv));
    if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_REGEXP)
        return (REGEXP*) sv;



NULL will be returned if a REGEXP* is not found.



        REGEXP * SvRX(SV *sv)



SvRXOK Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV (or the one it references) is a REGEXP.

If you want to do something with the REGEXP* later use SvRX instead and check for NULL.



        bool    SvRXOK(SV* sv)



Stack Manipulation Macros

dMARK Declare a stack marker variable, mark, for the XSUB. See MARK and dORIGMARK.



                dMARK;



dORIGMARK Saves the original stack mark for the XSUB. See ORIGMARK.



                dORIGMARK;



dSP Declares a local copy of perl’s stack pointer for the XSUB, available via the SP macro. See SP.



                dSP;



EXTEND Used to extend the argument stack for an XSUB’s return values. Once used, guarantees that there is room for at least nitems to be pushed onto the stack.



        void    EXTEND(SP, SSize_t nitems)



MARK Stack marker variable for the XSUB. See dMARK.
mPUSHi Push an integer onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element. Does not use TARG. See also PUSHi, mXPUSHi and XPUSHi.



        void    mPUSHi(IV iv)



mPUSHn Push a double onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element. Does not use TARG. See also PUSHn, mXPUSHn and XPUSHn.



        void    mPUSHn(NV nv)



mPUSHp Push a string onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element. The len indicates the length of the string. Does not use TARG. See also PUSHp, mXPUSHp and XPUSHp.



        void    mPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)



mPUSHs Push an SV onto the stack and mortalizes the SV. The stack must have room for this element. Does not use TARG. See also PUSHs and mXPUSHs.



        void    mPUSHs(SV* sv)



mPUSHu Push an unsigned integer onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element. Does not use TARG. See also PUSHu, mXPUSHu and XPUSHu.



        void    mPUSHu(UV uv)



mXPUSHi Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Does not use TARG. See also XPUSHi, mPUSHi and PUSHi.



        void    mXPUSHi(IV iv)



mXPUSHn Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Does not use TARG. See also XPUSHn, mPUSHn and PUSHn.



        void    mXPUSHn(NV nv)



mXPUSHp Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. The len indicates the length of the string. Does not use TARG. See also XPUSHp, mPUSHp and PUSHp.



        void    mXPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)



mXPUSHs Push an SV onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary and mortalizes the SV. Does not use TARG. See also XPUSHs and mPUSHs.



        void    mXPUSHs(SV* sv)



mXPUSHu Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Does not use TARG. See also XPUSHu, mPUSHu and PUSHu.



        void    mXPUSHu(UV uv)



ORIGMARK The original stack mark for the XSUB. See dORIGMARK.
POPi Pops an integer off the stack.



        IV      POPi



POPl Pops a long off the stack.



        long    POPl



POPn Pops a double off the stack.



        NV      POPn



POPp Pops a string off the stack.



        char*   POPp



POPpbytex Pops a string off the stack which must consist of bytes i.e. characters < 256.



        char*   POPpbytex



POPpx Pops a string off the stack. Identical to POPp. There are two names for historical reasons.



        char*   POPpx



POPs Pops an SV off the stack.



        SV*     POPs



PUSHi Push an integer onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element. Handles ’set’ magic. Uses TARG, so dTARGET or dXSTARG should be called to declare it. Do not call multiple TARG-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB’s - see mPUSHi instead. See also XPUSHi and mXPUSHi.



        void    PUSHi(IV iv)



PUSHMARK Opening bracket for arguments on a callback. See PUTBACK and perlcall.



        void    PUSHMARK(SP)



PUSHmortal Push a new mortal SV onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element. Does not use TARG. See also PUSHs, XPUSHmortal and XPUSHs.



        void    PUSHmortal()



PUSHn Push a double onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element. Handles ’set’ magic. Uses TARG, so dTARGET or dXSTARG should be called to declare it. Do not call multiple TARG-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB’s - see mPUSHn instead. See also XPUSHn and mXPUSHn.



        void    PUSHn(NV nv)



PUSHp Push a string onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element. The len indicates the length of the string. Handles ’set’ magic. Uses TARG, so dTARGET or dXSTARG should be called to declare it. Do not call multiple TARG-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB’s - see mPUSHp instead. See also XPUSHp and mXPUSHp.



        void    PUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)



PUSHs Push an SV onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element. Does not handle ’set’ magic. Does not use TARG. See also PUSHmortal, XPUSHs and XPUSHmortal.



        void    PUSHs(SV* sv)



PUSHu Push an unsigned integer onto the stack. The stack must have room for this element. Handles ’set’ magic. Uses TARG, so dTARGET or dXSTARG should be called to declare it. Do not call multiple TARG-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB’s - see mPUSHu instead. See also XPUSHu and mXPUSHu.



        void    PUSHu(UV uv)



PUTBACK Closing bracket for XSUB arguments. This is usually handled by xsubpp. See PUSHMARK and perlcall for other uses.



                PUTBACK;



SP Stack pointer. This is usually handled by xsubpp. See dSP and SPAGAIN.
SPAGAIN Refetch the stack pointer. Used after a callback. See perlcall.



                SPAGAIN;



XPUSHi Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Handles ’set’ magic. Uses TARG, so dTARGET or dXSTARG should be called to declare it. Do not call multiple TARG-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB’s - see mXPUSHi instead. See also PUSHi and mPUSHi.



        void    XPUSHi(IV iv)



XPUSHmortal Push a new mortal SV onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Does not use TARG. See also XPUSHs, PUSHmortal and PUSHs.



        void    XPUSHmortal()



XPUSHn Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Handles ’set’ magic. Uses TARG, so dTARGET or dXSTARG should be called to declare it. Do not call multiple TARG-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB’s - see mXPUSHn instead. See also PUSHn and mPUSHn.



        void    XPUSHn(NV nv)



XPUSHp Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. The len indicates the length of the string. Handles ’set’ magic. Uses TARG, so dTARGET or dXSTARG should be called to declare it. Do not call multiple TARG-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB’s - see mXPUSHp instead. See also PUSHp and mPUSHp.



        void    XPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)



XPUSHs Push an SV onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Does not handle ’set’ magic. Does not use TARG. See also XPUSHmortal, PUSHs and PUSHmortal.



        void    XPUSHs(SV* sv)



XPUSHu Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary. Handles ’set’ magic. Uses TARG, so dTARGET or dXSTARG should be called to declare it. Do not call multiple TARG-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB’s - see mXPUSHu instead. See also PUSHu and mPUSHu.



        void    XPUSHu(UV uv)



XSRETURN Return from XSUB, indicating number of items on the stack. This is usually handled by xsubpp.



        void    XSRETURN(int nitems)



XSRETURN_EMPTY Return an empty list from an XSUB immediately.



                XSRETURN_EMPTY;



XSRETURN_IV Return an integer from an XSUB immediately. Uses XST_mIV.



        void    XSRETURN_IV(IV iv)



XSRETURN_NO Return &PL_sv_no from an XSUB immediately. Uses XST_mNO.



                XSRETURN_NO;



XSRETURN_NV Return a double from an XSUB immediately. Uses XST_mNV.



        void    XSRETURN_NV(NV nv)



XSRETURN_PV Return a copy of a string from an XSUB immediately. Uses XST_mPV.



        void    XSRETURN_PV(char* str)



XSRETURN_UNDEF Return &PL_sv_undef from an XSUB immediately. Uses XST_mUNDEF.



                XSRETURN_UNDEF;



XSRETURN_UV Return an integer from an XSUB immediately. Uses XST_mUV.



        void    XSRETURN_UV(IV uv)



XSRETURN_YES Return &PL_sv_yes from an XSUB immediately. Uses XST_mYES.



                XSRETURN_YES;



XST_mIV Place an integer into the specified position pos on the stack. The value is stored in a new mortal SV.



        void    XST_mIV(int pos, IV iv)



XST_mNO Place &PL_sv_no into the specified position pos on the stack.



        void    XST_mNO(int pos)



XST_mNV Place a double into the specified position pos on the stack. The value is stored in a new mortal SV.



        void    XST_mNV(int pos, NV nv)



XST_mPV Place a copy of a string into the specified position pos on the stack. The value is stored in a new mortal SV.



        void    XST_mPV(int pos, char* str)



XST_mUNDEF Place &PL_sv_undef into the specified position pos on the stack.



        void    XST_mUNDEF(int pos)



XST_mYES Place &PL_sv_yes into the specified position pos on the stack.



        void    XST_mYES(int pos)



SV Flags

svtype An enum of flags for Perl types. These are found in the file <B>sv.hB> in the svtype enum. Test these flags with the SvTYPE macro.

The types are:



    SVt_NULL
    SVt_IV
    SVt_NV
    SVt_RV
    SVt_PV
    SVt_PVIV
    SVt_PVNV
    SVt_PVMG
    SVt_INVLIST
    SVt_REGEXP
    SVt_PVGV
    SVt_PVLV
    SVt_PVAV
    SVt_PVHV
    SVt_PVCV
    SVt_PVFM
    SVt_PVIO



These are most easily explained from the bottom up.

SVt_PVIO is for I/O objects, SVt_PVFM for formats, SVt_PVCV for subroutines, SVt_PVHV for hashes and SVt_PVAV for arrays.

All the others are scalar types, that is, things that can be bound to a $ variable. For these, the internal types are mostly orthogonal to types in the Perl language.

Hence, checking SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVAV is the best way to see whether something is a scalar.

SVt_PVGV represents a typeglob. If !SvFAKE(sv), then it is a real, incoercible typeglob. If SvFAKE(sv), then it is a scalar to which a typeglob has been assigned. Assigning to it again will stop it from being a typeglob. SVt_PVLV represents a scalar that delegates to another scalar behind the scenes. It is used, e.g., for the return value of substr and for tied hash and array elements. It can hold any scalar value, including a typeglob. SVt_REGEXP is for regular expressions. SVt_INVLIST is for Perl core internal use only.

SVt_PVMG represents a normal scalar (not a typeglob, regular expression, or delegate). Since most scalars do not need all the internal fields of a PVMG, we save memory by allocating smaller structs when possible. All the other types are just simpler forms of SVt_PVMG, with fewer internal fields.
SVt_NULL can only hold undef. SVt_IV can hold undef, an integer, or a reference. (SVt_RV is an alias for SVt_IV, which exists for backward compatibility.) SVt_NV can hold any of those or a double. SVt_PV can only hold undef or a string. SVt_PVIV is a superset of SVt_PV and SVt_IV. SVt_PVNV is similar. SVt_PVMG can hold anything SVt_PVNV can hold, but it can, but does not have to, be blessed or magical.

SVt_INVLIST Type flag for scalars. See svtype.
SVt_IV Type flag for scalars. See svtype.
SVt_NULL Type flag for scalars. See svtype.
SVt_NV Type flag for scalars. See svtype.
SVt_PV Type flag for scalars. See svtype.
SVt_PVAV Type flag for arrays. See svtype.
SVt_PVCV Type flag for subroutines. See svtype.
SVt_PVFM Type flag for formats. See svtype.
SVt_PVGV Type flag for typeglobs. See svtype.
SVt_PVHV Type flag for hashes. See svtype.
SVt_PVIO Type flag for I/O objects. See svtype.
SVt_PVIV Type flag for scalars. See svtype.
SVt_PVLV Type flag for scalars. See svtype.
SVt_PVMG Type flag for scalars. See svtype.
SVt_PVNV Type flag for scalars. See svtype.
SVt_REGEXP Type flag for regular expressions. See svtype.

SV Manipulation Functions

boolSV Returns a true SV if b is a true value, or a false SV if b is 0.

See also PL_sv_yes and PL_sv_no.



        SV *    boolSV(bool b)



croak_xs_usage A specialised variant of croak() for emitting the usage message for xsubs



    croak_xs_usage(cv, "eee_yow");



works out the package name and subroutine name from cv, and then calls croak(). Hence if cv is &ouch::awk, it would call croak as:



 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Usage: %"SVf"::%"SVf"(%s)", "ouch" "awk",
                                                     "eee_yow");

        void    croak_xs_usage(const CV *const cv,
                               const char *const params)



get_sv Returns the SV of the specified Perl scalar. flags are passed to gv_fetchpv. If GV_ADD is set and the Perl variable does not exist then it will be created. If flags is zero and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.



        SV*     get_sv(const char *name, I32 flags)



newRV_inc Creates an RV wrapper for an SV. The reference count for the original SV is incremented.



        SV*     newRV_inc(SV* sv)



newSVpadname NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Creates a new SV containing the pad name.



        SV*     newSVpadname(PADNAME *pn)



newSVpvn_utf8 Creates a new SV and copies a string (which may contain NUL (\0) characters) into it. If utf8 is true, calls SvUTF8_on on the new SV. Implemented as a wrapper around newSVpvn_flags.



        SV*     newSVpvn_utf8(NULLOK const char* s, STRLEN len,
                              U32 utf8)



SvCUR Returns the length of the string which is in the SV. See SvLEN.



        STRLEN  SvCUR(SV* sv)



SvCUR_set Set the current length of the string which is in the SV. See SvCUR and SvIV_set.



        void    SvCUR_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvEND Returns a pointer to the spot just after the last character in the string which is in the SV, where there is usually a trailing NUL character (even though Perl scalars do not strictly require it). See SvCUR. Access the character as *(SvEND(sv)).

Warning: If SvCUR is equal to SvLEN, then SvEND points to unallocated memory.



        char*   SvEND(SV* sv)



SvGAMAGIC Returns true if the SV has get magic or overloading. If either is true then the scalar is active data, and has the potential to return a new value every time it is accessed. Hence you must be careful to only read it once per user logical operation and work with that returned value. If neither is true then the scalar’s value cannot change unless written to.



        U32     SvGAMAGIC(SV* sv)



SvGROW Expands the character buffer in the SV so that it has room for the indicated number of bytes (remember to reserve space for an extra trailing NUL character). Calls sv_grow to perform the expansion if necessary. Returns a pointer to the character buffer. SV must be of type >= SVt_PV. One alternative is to call sv_grow if you are not sure of the type of SV.



        char *  SvGROW(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvIOK Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains an integer.



        U32     SvIOK(SV* sv)



SvIOKp Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains an integer. Checks the <B>privateB> setting. Use SvIOK instead.



        U32     SvIOKp(SV* sv)



SvIOK_notUV Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a signed integer.



        bool    SvIOK_notUV(SV* sv)



SvIOK_off Unsets the IV status of an SV.



        void    SvIOK_off(SV* sv)



SvIOK_on Tells an SV that it is an integer.



        void    SvIOK_on(SV* sv)



SvIOK_only Tells an SV that it is an integer and disables all other OK bits.



        void    SvIOK_only(SV* sv)



SvIOK_only_UV Tells an SV that it is an unsigned integer and disables all other OK bits.



        void    SvIOK_only_UV(SV* sv)



SvIOK_UV Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an integer that must be interpreted as unsigned. A non-negative integer whose value is within the range of both an IV and a UV may be be flagged as either SvUOK or SVIOK.



        bool    SvIOK_UV(SV* sv)



SvIsCOW Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV is Copy-On-Write (either shared hash key scalars, or full Copy On Write scalars if 5.9.0 is configured for COW).



        U32     SvIsCOW(SV* sv)



SvIsCOW_shared_hash Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is Copy-On-Write shared hash key scalar.



        bool    SvIsCOW_shared_hash(SV* sv)



SvIV Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it. See SvIVx for a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.



        IV      SvIV(SV* sv)



SvIVX Returns the raw value in the SV’s IV slot, without checks or conversions. Only use when you are sure SvIOK is true. See also SvIV().



        IV      SvIVX(SV* sv)



SvIVx Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Only use this if sv is an expression with side effects, otherwise use the more efficient SvIV.



        IV      SvIVx(SV* sv)



SvIV_nomg Like SvIV but doesn’t process magic.



        IV      SvIV_nomg(SV* sv)



SvIV_set Set the value of the IV pointer in sv to val. It is possible to perform the same function of this macro with an lvalue assignment to SvIVX. With future Perls, however, it will be more efficient to use SvIV_set instead of the lvalue assignment to SvIVX.



        void    SvIV_set(SV* sv, IV val)



SvLEN Returns the size of the string buffer in the SV, not including any part attributable to SvOOK. See SvCUR.



        STRLEN  SvLEN(SV* sv)



SvLEN_set Set the actual length of the string which is in the SV. See SvIV_set.



        void    SvLEN_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvMAGIC_set Set the value of the MAGIC pointer in sv to val. See SvIV_set.



        void    SvMAGIC_set(SV* sv, MAGIC* val)



SvNIOK Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a number, integer or double.



        U32     SvNIOK(SV* sv)



SvNIOKp Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a number, integer or double. Checks the <B>privateB> setting. Use SvNIOK instead.



        U32     SvNIOKp(SV* sv)



SvNIOK_off Unsets the NV/IV status of an SV.



        void    SvNIOK_off(SV* sv)



SvNOK Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a double.



        U32     SvNOK(SV* sv)



SvNOKp Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a double. Checks the <B>privateB> setting. Use SvNOK instead.



        U32     SvNOKp(SV* sv)



SvNOK_off Unsets the NV status of an SV.



        void    SvNOK_off(SV* sv)



SvNOK_on Tells an SV that it is a double.



        void    SvNOK_on(SV* sv)



SvNOK_only Tells an SV that it is a double and disables all other OK bits.



        void    SvNOK_only(SV* sv)



SvNV Coerce the given SV to a double and return it. See SvNVx for a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.



        NV      SvNV(SV* sv)



SvNVX Returns the raw value in the SV’s NV slot, without checks or conversions. Only use when you are sure SvNOK is true. See also SvNV().



        NV      SvNVX(SV* sv)



SvNVx Coerces the given SV to a double and returns it. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Only use this if sv is an expression with side effects, otherwise use the more efficient SvNV.



        NV      SvNVx(SV* sv)



SvNV_nomg Like SvNV but doesn’t process magic.



        NV      SvNV_nomg(SV* sv)



SvNV_set Set the value of the NV pointer in sv to val. See SvIV_set.



        void    SvNV_set(SV* sv, NV val)



SvOK Returns a U32 value indicating whether the value is defined. This is only meaningful for scalars.



        U32     SvOK(SV* sv)



SvOOK Returns a U32 indicating whether the pointer to the string buffer is offset. This hack is used internally to speed up removal of characters from the beginning of a SvPV. When SvOOK is true, then the start of the allocated string buffer is actually SvOOK_offset() bytes before SvPVX. This offset used to be stored in SvIVX, but is now stored within the spare part of the buffer.



        U32     SvOOK(SV* sv)



SvOOK_offset Reads into len the offset from SvPVX back to the true start of the allocated buffer, which will be non-zero if sv_chop has been used to efficiently remove characters from start of the buffer. Implemented as a macro, which takes the address of len, which must be of type STRLEN. Evaluates sv more than once. Sets len to 0 if SvOOK(sv) is false.



        void    SvOOK_offset(NN SV*sv, STRLEN len)



SvPOK Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a character string.



        U32     SvPOK(SV* sv)



SvPOKp Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a character string. Checks the <B>privateB> setting. Use SvPOK instead.



        U32     SvPOKp(SV* sv)



SvPOK_off Unsets the PV status of an SV.



        void    SvPOK_off(SV* sv)



SvPOK_on Tells an SV that it is a string.



        void    SvPOK_on(SV* sv)



SvPOK_only Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits. Will also turn off the UTF-8 status.



        void    SvPOK_only(SV* sv)



SvPOK_only_UTF8 Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits, and leaves the UTF-8 status as it was.



        void    SvPOK_only_UTF8(SV* sv)



SvPV Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified form of the SV if the SV does not contain a string. The SV may cache the stringified version becoming SvPOK. Handles ’get’ magic. The len variable will be set to the length of the string (this is a macro, so don’t use &len). See also SvPVx for a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

Note that there is no guarantee that the return value of SvPV() is equal to SvPVX(sv), or that SvPVX(sv) contains valid data, or that successive calls to SvPV(sv) will return the same pointer value each time. This is due to the way that things like overloading and Copy-On-Write are handled. In these cases, the return value may point to a temporary buffer or similar. If you absolutely need the SvPVX field to be valid (for example, if you intend to write to it), then see SvPV_force.



        char*   SvPV(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPVbyte Like SvPV, but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.



        char*   SvPVbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPVbytex Like SvPV, but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient SvPVbyte otherwise.



        char*   SvPVbytex(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPVbytex_force Like SvPV_force, but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient SvPVbyte_force otherwise.



        char*   SvPVbytex_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPVbyte_force Like SvPV_force, but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.



        char*   SvPVbyte_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPVbyte_nolen Like SvPV_nolen, but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.



        char*   SvPVbyte_nolen(SV* sv)



SvPVutf8 Like SvPV, but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.



        char*   SvPVutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPVutf8x Like SvPV, but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient SvPVutf8 otherwise.



        char*   SvPVutf8x(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPVutf8x_force Like SvPV_force, but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient SvPVutf8_force otherwise.



        char*   SvPVutf8x_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPVutf8_force Like SvPV_force, but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.



        char*   SvPVutf8_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPVutf8_nolen Like SvPV_nolen, but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.



        char*   SvPVutf8_nolen(SV* sv)



SvPVX Returns a pointer to the physical string in the SV. The SV must contain a string. Prior to 5.9.3 it is not safe to execute this macro unless the SV’s type >= SVt_PV.

This is also used to store the name of an autoloaded subroutine in an XS AUTOLOAD routine. See Autoloading with XSUBs in perlguts.



        char*   SvPVX(SV* sv)



SvPVx A version of SvPV which guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Only use this if sv is an expression with side effects, otherwise use the more efficient SvPV.



        char*   SvPVx(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPV_force Like SvPV but will force the SV into containing a string (SvPOK), and only a string (SvPOK_only), by hook or by crook. You need force if you are going to update the SvPVX directly. Processes get magic.

Note that coercing an arbitrary scalar into a plain PV will potentially strip useful data from it. For example if the SV was SvROK, then the referent will have its reference count decremented, and the SV itself may be converted to an SvPOK scalar with a string buffer containing a value such as "ARRAY(0x1234)".



        char*   SvPV_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPV_force_nomg Like SvPV_force, but doesn’t process get magic.



        char*   SvPV_force_nomg(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPV_nolen Like SvPV but doesn’t set a length variable.



        char*   SvPV_nolen(SV* sv)



SvPV_nomg Like SvPV but doesn’t process magic.



        char*   SvPV_nomg(SV* sv, STRLEN len)



SvPV_nomg_nolen Like SvPV_nolen but doesn’t process magic.



        char*   SvPV_nomg_nolen(SV* sv)



SvPV_set This is probably not what you want to use, you probably wanted sv_usepvn_flags or sv_setpvn or sv_setpvs.

Set the value of the PV pointer in sv to the Perl allocated NUL-terminated string val. See also SvIV_set.

Remember to free the previous PV buffer. There are many things to check. Beware that the existing pointer may be involved in copy-on-write or other mischief, so do SvOOK_off(sv) and use sv_force_normal or SvPV_force (or check the SvIsCOW flag) first to make sure this modification is safe. Then finally, if it is not a COW, call SvPV_free to free the previous PV buffer.



        void    SvPV_set(SV* sv, char* val)



SvREFCNT Returns the value of the object’s reference count.



        U32     SvREFCNT(SV* sv)



SvREFCNT_dec Decrements the reference count of the given SV. sv may be NULL.



        void    SvREFCNT_dec(SV* sv)



SvREFCNT_dec_NN Same as SvREFCNT_dec, but can only be used if you know sv is not NULL. Since we don’t have to check the NULLness, it’s faster and smaller.



        void    SvREFCNT_dec_NN(SV* sv)



SvREFCNT_inc Increments the reference count of the given SV, returning the SV.

All of the following SvREFCNT_inc* macros are optimized versions of SvREFCNT_inc, and can be replaced with SvREFCNT_inc.



        SV*     SvREFCNT_inc(SV* sv)



SvREFCNT_inc_NN Same as SvREFCNT_inc, but can only be used if you know sv is not NULL. Since we don’t have to check the NULLness, it’s faster and smaller.



        SV*     SvREFCNT_inc_NN(SV* sv)



SvREFCNT_inc_simple Same as SvREFCNT_inc, but can only be used with expressions without side effects. Since we don’t have to store a temporary value, it’s faster.



        SV*     SvREFCNT_inc_simple(SV* sv)



SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN Same as SvREFCNT_inc_simple, but can only be used if you know sv is not NULL. Since we don’t have to check the NULLness, it’s faster and smaller.



        SV*     SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(SV* sv)



SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void Same as SvREFCNT_inc_simple, but can only be used if you don’t need the return value. The macro doesn’t need to return a meaningful value.



        void    SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void(SV* sv)



SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN Same as SvREFCNT_inc, but can only be used if you don’t need the return value, and you know that sv is not NULL. The macro doesn’t need to return a meaningful value, or check for NULLness, so it’s smaller and faster.



        void    SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(SV* sv)



SvREFCNT_inc_void Same as SvREFCNT_inc, but can only be used if you don’t need the return value. The macro doesn’t need to return a meaningful value.



        void    SvREFCNT_inc_void(SV* sv)



SvREFCNT_inc_void_NN Same as SvREFCNT_inc, but can only be used if you don’t need the return value, and you know that sv is not NULL. The macro doesn’t need to return a meaningful value, or check for NULLness, so it’s smaller and faster.



        void    SvREFCNT_inc_void_NN(SV* sv)



SvROK Tests if the SV is an RV.



        U32     SvROK(SV* sv)



SvROK_off Unsets the RV status of an SV.



        void    SvROK_off(SV* sv)



SvROK_on Tells an SV that it is an RV.



        void    SvROK_on(SV* sv)



SvRV Dereferences an RV to return the SV.



        SV*     SvRV(SV* sv)



SvRV_set Set the value of the RV pointer in sv to val. See SvIV_set.



        void    SvRV_set(SV* sv, SV* val)



SvSTASH Returns the stash of the SV.



        HV*     SvSTASH(SV* sv)



SvSTASH_set Set the value of the STASH pointer in sv to val. See SvIV_set.



        void    SvSTASH_set(SV* sv, HV* val)



SvTAINT Taints an SV if tainting is enabled, and if some input to the current expression is tainted—usually a variable, but possibly also implicit inputs such as locale settings. SvTAINT propagates that taintedness to the outputs of an expression in a pessimistic fashion; i.e., without paying attention to precisely which outputs are influenced by which inputs.



        void    SvTAINT(SV* sv)



SvTAINTED Checks to see if an SV is tainted. Returns TRUE if it is, FALSE if not.



        bool    SvTAINTED(SV* sv)



SvTAINTED_off Untaints an SV. Be very careful with this routine, as it short-circuits some of Perl’s fundamental security features. XS module authors should not use this function unless they fully understand all the implications of unconditionally untainting the value. Untainting should be done in the standard perl fashion, via a carefully crafted regexp, rather than directly untainting variables.



        void    SvTAINTED_off(SV* sv)



SvTAINTED_on Marks an SV as tainted if tainting is enabled.



        void    SvTAINTED_on(SV* sv)



SvTRUE Returns a boolean indicating whether Perl would evaluate the SV as true or false. See SvOK() for a defined/undefined test. Handles ’get’ magic unless the scalar is already SvPOK, SvIOK or SvNOK (the public, not the private flags).



        bool    SvTRUE(SV* sv)



SvTRUE_nomg Returns a boolean indicating whether Perl would evaluate the SV as true or false. See SvOK() for a defined/undefined test. Does not handle ’get’ magic.



        bool    SvTRUE_nomg(SV* sv)



SvTYPE Returns the type of the SV. See svtype.



        svtype  SvTYPE(SV* sv)



SvUOK Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an integer that must be interpreted as unsigned. A non-negative integer whose value is within the range of both an IV and a UV may be be flagged as either SvUOK or SVIOK.



        bool    SvUOK(SV* sv)



SvUPGRADE Used to upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Uses sv_upgrade to perform the upgrade if necessary. See svtype.



        void    SvUPGRADE(SV* sv, svtype type)



SvUTF8 Returns a U32 value indicating the UTF-8 status of an SV. If things are set-up properly, this indicates whether or not the SV contains UTF-8 encoded data. You should use this after a call to SvPV() or one of its variants, in case any call to string overloading updates the internal flag.

If you want to take into account the bytes pragma, use "DO_UTF8" instead.



        U32     SvUTF8(SV* sv)



SvUTF8_off Unsets the UTF-8 status of an SV (the data is not changed, just the flag). Do not use frivolously.



        void    SvUTF8_off(SV *sv)



SvUTF8_on Turn on the UTF-8 status of an SV (the data is not changed, just the flag). Do not use frivolously.



        void    SvUTF8_on(SV *sv)



SvUV Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it. See SvUVx for a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.



        UV      SvUV(SV* sv)



SvUVX Returns the raw value in the SV’s UV slot, without checks or conversions. Only use when you are sure SvIOK is true. See also SvUV().



        UV      SvUVX(SV* sv)



SvUVx Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Only use this if sv is an expression with side effects, otherwise use the more efficient SvUV.



        UV      SvUVx(SV* sv)



SvUV_nomg Like SvUV but doesn’t process magic.



        UV      SvUV_nomg(SV* sv)



SvUV_set Set the value of the UV pointer in sv to val. See SvIV_set.



        void    SvUV_set(SV* sv, UV val)



SvVOK Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a v-string.



        bool    SvVOK(SV* sv)



sv_catpvn_nomg Like sv_catpvn but doesn’t process magic.



        void    sv_catpvn_nomg(SV* sv, const char* ptr,
                               STRLEN len)



sv_catpv_nomg Like sv_catpv but doesn’t process magic.



        void    sv_catpv_nomg(SV* sv, const char* ptr)



sv_catsv_nomg Like sv_catsv but doesn’t process magic.



        void    sv_catsv_nomg(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)



sv_derived_from Exactly like sv_derived_from_pv, but doesn’t take a flags parameter.



        bool    sv_derived_from(SV* sv, const char *const name)



sv_derived_from_pv Exactly like sv_derived_from_pvn, but takes a nul-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        bool    sv_derived_from_pv(SV* sv,
                                   const char *const name,
                                   U32 flags)



sv_derived_from_pvn Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is derived from the specified class at the C level. To check derivation at the Perl level, call isa() as a normal Perl method.

Currently, the only significant value for flags is SVf_UTF8.



        bool    sv_derived_from_pvn(SV* sv,
                                    const char *const name,
                                    const STRLEN len, U32 flags)



sv_derived_from_sv Exactly like sv_derived_from_pvn, but takes the name string in the form of an SV instead of a string/length pair.



        bool    sv_derived_from_sv(SV* sv, SV *namesv,
                                   U32 flags)



sv_does Like sv_does_pv, but doesn’t take a flags parameter.



        bool    sv_does(SV* sv, const char *const name)



sv_does_pv Like sv_does_sv, but takes a nul-terminated string instead of an SV.



        bool    sv_does_pv(SV* sv, const char *const name,
                           U32 flags)



sv_does_pvn Like sv_does_sv, but takes a string/length pair instead of an SV.



        bool    sv_does_pvn(SV* sv, const char *const name,
                            const STRLEN len, U32 flags)



sv_does_sv Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV performs a specific, named role. The SV can be a Perl object or the name of a Perl class.



        bool    sv_does_sv(SV* sv, SV* namesv, U32 flags)



sv_report_used Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed (debugging aid).



        void    sv_report_used()



sv_setsv_nomg Like sv_setsv but doesn’t process magic.



        void    sv_setsv_nomg(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)



sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg Like sv_utf8_upgrade, but doesn’t do magic on sv.



        STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(NN SV *sv)



SV-Body Allocation

looks_like_number Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a number). Inf and Infinity are treated as numbers (so will not issue a non-numeric warning), even if your atof() doesn’t grok them. Get-magic is ignored.



        I32     looks_like_number(SV *const sv)



newRV_noinc Creates an RV wrapper for an SV. The reference count for the original SV is <B>notB> incremented.



        SV*     newRV_noinc(SV *const tmpRef)



newSV Creates a new SV. A non-zero len parameter indicates the number of bytes of preallocated string space the SV should have. An extra byte for a trailing NUL is also reserved. (SvPOK is not set for the SV even if string space is allocated.) The reference count for the new SV is set to 1.

In 5.9.3, newSV() replaces the older NEWSV() API, and drops the first parameter, x, a debug aid which allowed callers to identify themselves. This aid has been superseded by a new build option, PERL_MEM_LOG (see PERL_MEM_LOG in perlhacktips). The older API is still there for use in XS modules supporting older perls.



        SV*     newSV(const STRLEN len)



newSVhek Creates a new SV from the hash key structure. It will generate scalars that point to the shared string table where possible. Returns a new (undefined) SV if the hek is NULL.



        SV*     newSVhek(const HEK *const hek)



newSViv Creates a new SV and copies an integer into it. The reference count for the SV is set to 1.



        SV*     newSViv(const IV i)



newSVnv Creates a new SV and copies a floating point value into it. The reference count for the SV is set to 1.



        SV*     newSVnv(const NV n)



newSVpv Creates a new SV and copies a string (which may contain NUL (\0) characters) into it. The reference count for the SV is set to 1. If len is zero, Perl will compute the length using strlen(), (which means if you use this option, that s can’t have embedded NUL characters and has to have a terminating NUL byte).

For efficiency, consider using newSVpvn instead.



        SV*     newSVpv(const char *const s, const STRLEN len)



newSVpvf Creates a new SV and initializes it with the string formatted like sprintf.



        SV*     newSVpvf(const char *const pat, ...)



newSVpvn Creates a new SV and copies a string into it, which may contain NUL characters (\0) and other binary data. The reference count for the SV is set to 1. Note that if len is zero, Perl will create a zero length (Perl) string. You are responsible for ensuring that the source buffer is at least len bytes long. If the buffer argument is NULL the new SV will be undefined.



        SV*     newSVpvn(const char *const s, const STRLEN len)



newSVpvn_flags Creates a new SV and copies a string (which may contain NUL (\0) characters) into it. The reference count for the SV is set to 1. Note that if len is zero, Perl will create a zero length string. You are responsible for ensuring that the source string is at least len bytes long. If the s argument is NULL the new SV will be undefined. Currently the only flag bits accepted are SVf_UTF8 and SVs_TEMP. If SVs_TEMP is set, then sv_2mortal() is called on the result before returning. If SVf_UTF8 is set, s is considered to be in UTF-8 and the SVf_UTF8 flag will be set on the new SV. newSVpvn_utf8() is a convenience wrapper for this function, defined as



    #define newSVpvn_utf8(s, len, u)                    \
        newSVpvn_flags((s), (len), (u) ? SVf_UTF8 : 0)

        SV*     newSVpvn_flags(const char *const s,
                               const STRLEN len,
                               const U32 flags)



newSVpvn_share Creates a new SV with its SvPVX_const pointing to a shared string in the string table. If the string does not already exist in the table, it is created first. Turns on the SvIsCOW flag (or READONLY and FAKE in 5.16 and earlier). If the hash parameter is non-zero, that value is used; otherwise the hash is computed. The string’s hash can later be retrieved from the SV with the SvSHARED_HASH() macro. The idea here is that as the string table is used for shared hash keys these strings will have SvPVX_const == HeKEY and hash lookup will avoid string compare.



        SV*     newSVpvn_share(const char* s, I32 len, U32 hash)



newSVpvs Like newSVpvn, but takes a literal NUL-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        SV*     newSVpvs(const char* s)



newSVpvs_flags Like newSVpvn_flags, but takes a literal NUL-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        SV*     newSVpvs_flags(const char* s, U32 flags)



newSVpvs_share Like newSVpvn_share, but takes a literal NUL-terminated string instead of a string/length pair and omits the hash parameter.



        SV*     newSVpvs_share(const char* s)



newSVpv_share Like newSVpvn_share, but takes a NUL-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        SV*     newSVpv_share(const char* s, U32 hash)



newSVrv Creates a new SV for the existing RV, rv, to point to. If rv is not an RV then it will be upgraded to one. If classname is non-null then the new SV will be blessed in the specified package. The new SV is returned and its reference count is 1. The reference count 1 is owned by rv.



        SV*     newSVrv(SV *const rv,
                        const char *const classname)



newSVsv Creates a new SV which is an exact duplicate of the original SV. (Uses sv_setsv.)



        SV*     newSVsv(SV *const old)



newSVuv Creates a new SV and copies an unsigned integer into it. The reference count for the SV is set to 1.



        SV*     newSVuv(const UV u)



newSV_type Creates a new SV, of the type specified. The reference count for the new SV is set to 1.



        SV*     newSV_type(const svtype type)



sv_2bool This macro is only used by sv_true() or its macro equivalent, and only if the latter’s argument is neither SvPOK, SvIOK nor SvNOK. It calls sv_2bool_flags with the SV_GMAGIC flag.



        bool    sv_2bool(SV *const sv)



sv_2bool_flags This function is only used by sv_true() and friends, and only if the latter’s argument is neither SvPOK, SvIOK nor SvNOK. If the flags contain SV_GMAGIC, then it does an mg_get() first.



        bool    sv_2bool_flags(SV *sv, I32 flags)



sv_2cv Using various gambits, try to get a CV from an SV; in addition, try if possible to set *st and *gvp to the stash and GV associated with it. The flags in lref are passed to gv_fetchsv.



        CV*     sv_2cv(SV* sv, HV **const st, GV **const gvp,
                       const I32 lref)



sv_2io Using various gambits, try to get an IO from an SV: the IO slot if its a GV; or the recursive result if we’re an RV; or the IO slot of the symbol named after the PV if we’re a string.

’Get’ magic is ignored on the sv passed in, but will be called on SvRV(sv) if sv is an RV.



        IO*     sv_2io(SV *const sv)



sv_2iv_flags Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Normally used via the SvIV(sv) and SvIVx(sv) macros.



        IV      sv_2iv_flags(SV *const sv, const I32 flags)



sv_2mortal Marks an existing SV as mortal. The SV will be destroyed soon, either by an explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places such as statement boundaries. SvTEMP() is turned on which means that the SV’s string buffer can be stolen if this SV is copied. See also sv_newmortal and sv_mortalcopy.



        SV*     sv_2mortal(SV *const sv)



sv_2nv_flags Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or integer conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Normally used via the SvNV(sv) and SvNVx(sv) macros.



        NV      sv_2nv_flags(SV *const sv, const I32 flags)



sv_2pvbyte Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp to its length. May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a side-effect.

Usually accessed via the SvPVbyte macro.



        char*   sv_2pvbyte(SV *sv, STRLEN *const lp)



sv_2pvutf8 Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp to its length. May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.

Usually accessed via the SvPVutf8 macro.



        char*   sv_2pvutf8(SV *sv, STRLEN *const lp)



sv_2pv_flags Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to its length. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Coerces sv to a string if necessary. Normally invoked via the SvPV_flags macro. sv_2pv() and sv_2pv_nomg usually end up here too.



        char*   sv_2pv_flags(SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp,
                             const I32 flags)



sv_2uv_flags Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Normally used via the SvUV(sv) and SvUVx(sv) macros.



        UV      sv_2uv_flags(SV *const sv, const I32 flags)



sv_backoff Remove any string offset. You should normally use the SvOOK_off macro wrapper instead.



        int     sv_backoff(SV *const sv)



sv_bless Blesses an SV into a specified package. The SV must be an RV. The package must be designated by its stash (see gv_stashpv()). The reference count of the SV is unaffected.



        SV*     sv_bless(SV *const sv, HV *const stash)



sv_catpv Concatenates the NUL-terminated string onto the end of the string which is in the SV. If the SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes appended should be valid UTF-8. Handles ’get’ magic, but not ’set’ magic. See sv_catpv_mg.



        void    sv_catpv(SV *const sv, const char* ptr)



sv_catpvf Processes its arguments like sprintf and appends the formatted output to an SV. If the appended data contains wide characters (including, but not limited to, SVs with a UTF-8 PV formatted with %s, and characters >255 formatted with %c), the original SV might get upgraded to UTF-8. Handles ’get’ magic, but not ’set’ magic. See sv_catpvf_mg. If the original SV was UTF-8, the pattern should be valid UTF-8; if the original SV was bytes, the pattern should be too.



        void    sv_catpvf(SV *const sv, const char *const pat,
                          ...)



sv_catpvf_mg Like sv_catpvf, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_catpvf_mg(SV *const sv,
                             const char *const pat, ...)



sv_catpvn Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in the SV. The len indicates number of bytes to copy. If the SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes appended should be valid UTF-8. Handles ’get’ magic, but not ’set’ magic. See sv_catpvn_mg.



        void    sv_catpvn(SV *dsv, const char *sstr, STRLEN len)



sv_catpvn_flags Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in the SV. The len indicates number of bytes to copy.

By default, the string appended is assumed to be valid UTF-8 if the SV has the UTF-8 status set, and a string of bytes otherwise. One can force the appended string to be interpreted as UTF-8 by supplying the SV_CATUTF8 flag, and as bytes by supplying the SV_CATBYTES flag; the SV or the string appended will be upgraded to UTF-8 if necessary.

If flags has the SV_SMAGIC bit set, will mg_set on dsv afterwards if appropriate. sv_catpvn and sv_catpvn_nomg are implemented in terms of this function.



        void    sv_catpvn_flags(SV *const dstr,
                                const char *sstr,
                                const STRLEN len,
                                const I32 flags)



sv_catpvs Like sv_catpvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        void    sv_catpvs(SV* sv, const char* s)



sv_catpvs_flags Like sv_catpvn_flags, but takes a literal NUL-terminated string instead of a string/length pair.



        void    sv_catpvs_flags(SV* sv, const char* s,
                                I32 flags)



sv_catpvs_mg Like sv_catpvn_mg, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        void    sv_catpvs_mg(SV* sv, const char* s)



sv_catpvs_nomg Like sv_catpvn_nomg, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        void    sv_catpvs_nomg(SV* sv, const char* s)



sv_catpv_flags Concatenates the NUL-terminated string onto the end of the string which is in the SV. If the SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes appended should be valid UTF-8. If flags has the SV_SMAGIC bit set, will mg_set on the modified SV if appropriate.



        void    sv_catpv_flags(SV *dstr, const char *sstr,
                               const I32 flags)



sv_catpv_mg Like sv_catpv, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_catpv_mg(SV *const sv, const char *const ptr)



sv_catsv Concatenates the string from SV ssv onto the end of the string in SV dsv. If ssv is null, does nothing; otherwise modifies only dsv. Handles ’get’ magic on both SVs, but no ’set’ magic. See sv_catsv_mg and sv_catsv_nomg.



        void    sv_catsv(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)



sv_catsv_flags Concatenates the string from SV ssv onto the end of the string in SV dsv. If ssv is null, does nothing; otherwise modifies only dsv. If flags include SV_GMAGIC bit set, will call mg_get on both SVs if appropriate. If flags include SV_SMAGIC, mg_set will be called on the modified SV afterward, if appropriate. sv_catsv, sv_catsv_nomg, and sv_catsv_mg are implemented in terms of this function.



        void    sv_catsv_flags(SV *const dsv, SV *const ssv,
                               const I32 flags)



sv_chop Efficient removal of characters from the beginning of the string buffer. SvPOK(sv), or at least SvPOKp(sv), must be true and the ptr must be a pointer to somewhere inside the string buffer. The ptr becomes the first character of the adjusted string. Uses the OOK hack. On return, only SvPOK(sv) and SvPOKp(sv) among the OK flags will be true.

Beware: after this function returns, ptr and SvPVX_const(sv) may no longer refer to the same chunk of data.

The unfortunate similarity of this function’s name to that of Perl’s chop operator is strictly coincidental. This function works from the left; chop works from the right.



        void    sv_chop(SV *const sv, const char *const ptr)



sv_clear Clear an SV: call any destructors, free up any memory used by the body, and free the body itself. The SV’s head is not freed, although its type is set to all 1’s so that it won’t inadvertently be assumed to be live during global destruction etc. This function should only be called when REFCNT is zero. Most of the time you’ll want to call sv_free() (or its macro wrapper SvREFCNT_dec) instead.



        void    sv_clear(SV *const orig_sv)



sv_cmp Compares the strings in two SVs. Returns -1, 0, or 1 indicating whether the string in sv1 is less than, equal to, or greater than the string in sv2. Is UTF-8 and ’use bytes’ aware, handles get magic, and will coerce its args to strings if necessary. See also sv_cmp_locale.



        I32     sv_cmp(SV *const sv1, SV *const sv2)



sv_cmp_flags Compares the strings in two SVs. Returns -1, 0, or 1 indicating whether the string in sv1 is less than, equal to, or greater than the string in sv2. Is UTF-8 and ’use bytes’ aware and will coerce its args to strings if necessary. If the flags include SV_GMAGIC, it handles get magic. See also sv_cmp_locale_flags.



        I32     sv_cmp_flags(SV *const sv1, SV *const sv2,
                             const U32 flags)



sv_cmp_locale Compares the strings in two SVs in a locale-aware manner. Is UTF-8 and ’use bytes’ aware, handles get magic, and will coerce its args to strings if necessary. See also sv_cmp.



        I32     sv_cmp_locale(SV *const sv1, SV *const sv2)



sv_cmp_locale_flags Compares the strings in two SVs in a locale-aware manner. Is UTF-8 and ’use bytes’ aware and will coerce its args to strings if necessary. If the flags contain SV_GMAGIC, it handles get magic. See also sv_cmp_flags.



        I32     sv_cmp_locale_flags(SV *const sv1,
                                    SV *const sv2,
                                    const U32 flags)



sv_collxfrm This calls sv_collxfrm_flags with the SV_GMAGIC flag. See sv_collxfrm_flags.



        char*   sv_collxfrm(SV *const sv, STRLEN *const nxp)



sv_collxfrm_flags Add Collate Transform magic to an SV if it doesn’t already have it. If the flags contain SV_GMAGIC, it handles get-magic.

Any scalar variable may carry PERL_MAGIC_collxfrm magic that contains the scalar data of the variable, but transformed to such a format that a normal memory comparison can be used to compare the data according to the locale settings.



        char*   sv_collxfrm_flags(SV *const sv,
                                  STRLEN *const nxp,
                                  I32 const flags)



sv_copypv_flags Implementation of sv_copypv and sv_copypv_nomg. Calls get magic iff flags include SV_GMAGIC.



        void    sv_copypv_flags(SV *const dsv, SV *const ssv,
                                const I32 flags)



sv_copypv_nomg Like sv_copypv, but doesn’t invoke get magic first.



        void    sv_copypv_nomg(SV *const dsv, SV *const ssv)



sv_dec Auto-decrement of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric conversion if necessary. Handles ’get’ magic and operator overloading.



        void    sv_dec(SV *const sv)



sv_dec_nomg Auto-decrement of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric conversion if necessary. Handles operator overloading. Skips handling ’get’ magic.



        void    sv_dec_nomg(SV *const sv)



sv_eq Returns a boolean indicating whether the strings in the two SVs are identical. Is UTF-8 and ’use bytes’ aware, handles get magic, and will coerce its args to strings if necessary.



        I32     sv_eq(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)



sv_eq_flags Returns a boolean indicating whether the strings in the two SVs are identical. Is UTF-8 and ’use bytes’ aware and coerces its args to strings if necessary. If the flags include SV_GMAGIC, it handles get-magic, too.



        I32     sv_eq_flags(SV* sv1, SV* sv2, const U32 flags)



sv_force_normal_flags Undo various types of fakery on an SV, where fakery means more than a string: if the PV is a shared string, make a private copy; if we’re a ref, stop refing; if we’re a glob, downgrade to an xpvmg; if we’re a copy-on-write scalar, this is the on-write time when we do the copy, and is also used locally; if this is a vstring, drop the vstring magic. If SV_COW_DROP_PV is set then a copy-on-write scalar drops its PV buffer (if any) and becomes SvPOK_off rather than making a copy. (Used where this scalar is about to be set to some other value.) In addition, the flags parameter gets passed to sv_unref_flags() when unreffing. sv_force_normal calls this function with flags set to 0.

This function is expected to be used to signal to perl that this SV is about to be written to, and any extra book-keeping needs to be taken care of. Hence, it croaks on read-only values.



        void    sv_force_normal_flags(SV *const sv,
                                      const U32 flags)



sv_free Decrement an SV’s reference count, and if it drops to zero, call sv_clear to invoke destructors and free up any memory used by the body; finally, deallocate the SV’s head itself. Normally called via a wrapper macro SvREFCNT_dec.



        void    sv_free(SV *const sv)



sv_gets Get a line from the filehandle and store it into the SV, optionally appending to the currently-stored string. If append is not 0, the line is appended to the SV instead of overwriting it. append should be set to the byte offset that the appended string should start at in the SV (typically, SvCUR(sv) is a suitable choice).



        char*   sv_gets(SV *const sv, PerlIO *const fp,
                        I32 append)



sv_get_backrefs NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

If the sv is the target of a weak reference then it returns the back references structure associated with the sv; otherwise return NULL.

When returning a non-null result the type of the return is relevant. If it is an AV then the elements of the AV are the weak reference RVs which point at this item. If it is any other type then the item itself is the weak reference.

See also Perl_sv_add_backref(), Perl_sv_del_backref(), Perl_sv_kill_backrefs()



        SV*     sv_get_backrefs(SV *const sv)



sv_grow Expands the character buffer in the SV. If necessary, uses sv_unref and upgrades the SV to SVt_PV. Returns a pointer to the character buffer. Use the SvGROW wrapper instead.



        char*   sv_grow(SV *const sv, STRLEN newlen)



sv_inc Auto-increment of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric conversion if necessary. Handles ’get’ magic and operator overloading.



        void    sv_inc(SV *const sv)



sv_inc_nomg Auto-increment of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric conversion if necessary. Handles operator overloading. Skips handling ’get’ magic.



        void    sv_inc_nomg(SV *const sv)



sv_insert Inserts a string at the specified offset/length within the SV. Similar to the Perl substr() function. Handles get magic.



        void    sv_insert(SV *const bigstr, const STRLEN offset,
                          const STRLEN len,
                          const char *const little,
                          const STRLEN littlelen)



sv_insert_flags Same as sv_insert, but the extra flags are passed to the SvPV_force_flags that applies to bigstr.



        void    sv_insert_flags(SV *const bigstr,
                                const STRLEN offset,
                                const STRLEN len,
                                const char *const little,
                                const STRLEN littlelen,
                                const U32 flags)



sv_isa Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is blessed into the specified class. This does not check for subtypes; use sv_derived_from to verify an inheritance relationship.



        int     sv_isa(SV* sv, const char *const name)



sv_isobject Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is an RV pointing to a blessed object. If the SV is not an RV, or if the object is not blessed, then this will return false.



        int     sv_isobject(SV* sv)



sv_len Returns the length of the string in the SV. Handles magic and type coercion and sets the UTF8 flag appropriately. See also SvCUR, which gives raw access to the xpv_cur slot.



        STRLEN  sv_len(SV *const sv)



sv_len_utf8 Returns the number of characters in the string in an SV, counting wide UTF-8 bytes as a single character. Handles magic and type coercion.



        STRLEN  sv_len_utf8(SV *const sv)



sv_magic Adds magic to an SV. First upgrades sv to type SVt_PVMG if necessary, then adds a new magic item of type how to the head of the magic list.

See sv_magicext (which sv_magic now calls) for a description of the handling of the name and namlen arguments.

You need to use sv_magicext to add magic to SvREADONLY SVs and also to add more than one instance of the same ’how’.



        void    sv_magic(SV *const sv, SV *const obj,
                         const int how, const char *const name,
                         const I32 namlen)



sv_magicext Adds magic to an SV, upgrading it if necessary. Applies the supplied vtable and returns a pointer to the magic added.

Note that sv_magicext will allow things that sv_magic will not. In particular, you can add magic to SvREADONLY SVs, and add more than one instance of the same ’how’.

If namlen is greater than zero then a savepvn copy of name is stored, if namlen is zero then name is stored as-is and - as another special case - if (name && namlen == HEf_SVKEY) then name is assumed to contain an SV* and is stored as-is with its REFCNT incremented.

(This is now used as a subroutine by sv_magic.)



        MAGIC * sv_magicext(SV *const sv, SV *const obj,
                            const int how,
                            const MGVTBL *const vtbl,
                            const char *const name,
                            const I32 namlen)



sv_mortalcopy Creates a new SV which is a copy of the original SV (using sv_setsv). The new SV is marked as mortal. It will be destroyed soon, either by an explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places such as statement boundaries. See also sv_newmortal and sv_2mortal.



        SV*     sv_mortalcopy(SV *const oldsv)



sv_newmortal Creates a new null SV which is mortal. The reference count of the SV is set to 1. It will be destroyed soon, either by an explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places such as statement boundaries. See also sv_mortalcopy and sv_2mortal.



        SV*     sv_newmortal()



sv_newref Increment an SV’s reference count. Use the SvREFCNT_inc() wrapper instead.



        SV*     sv_newref(SV *const sv)



sv_pos_b2u Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a count of bytes from the start of the string, to a count of the equivalent number of UTF-8 chars. Handles magic and type coercion.

Use sv_pos_b2u_flags in preference, which correctly handles strings longer than 2Gb.



        void    sv_pos_b2u(SV *const sv, I32 *const offsetp)



sv_pos_b2u_flags Converts the offset from a count of bytes from the start of the string, to a count of the equivalent number of UTF-8 chars. Handles type coercion. flags is passed to SvPV_flags, and usually should be SV_GMAGIC|SV_CONST_RETURN to handle magic.



        STRLEN  sv_pos_b2u_flags(SV *const sv,
                                 STRLEN const offset, U32 flags)



sv_pos_u2b Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a count of UTF-8 chars from the start of the string, to a count of the equivalent number of bytes; if lenp is non-zero, it does the same to lenp, but this time starting from the offset, rather than from the start of the string. Handles magic and type coercion.

Use sv_pos_u2b_flags in preference, which correctly handles strings longer than 2Gb.



        void    sv_pos_u2b(SV *const sv, I32 *const offsetp,
                           I32 *const lenp)



sv_pos_u2b_flags Converts the offset from a count of UTF-8 chars from the start of the string, to a count of the equivalent number of bytes; if lenp is non-zero, it does the same to lenp, but this time starting from the offset, rather than from the start of the string. Handles type coercion. flags is passed to SvPV_flags, and usually should be SV_GMAGIC|SV_CONST_RETURN to handle magic.



        STRLEN  sv_pos_u2b_flags(SV *const sv, STRLEN uoffset,
                                 STRLEN *const lenp, U32 flags)



sv_pvbyten_force The backend for the SvPVbytex_force macro. Always use the macro instead.



        char*   sv_pvbyten_force(SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp)



sv_pvn_force Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow. A private implementation of the SvPV_force macro for compilers which can’t cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.



        char*   sv_pvn_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)



sv_pvn_force_flags Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow. If flags has SV_GMAGIC bit set, will mg_get on sv if appropriate, else not. sv_pvn_force and sv_pvn_force_nomg are implemented in terms of this function. You normally want to use the various wrapper macros instead: see SvPV_force and SvPV_force_nomg



        char*   sv_pvn_force_flags(SV *const sv,
                                   STRLEN *const lp,
                                   const I32 flags)



sv_pvutf8n_force The backend for the SvPVutf8x_force macro. Always use the macro instead.



        char*   sv_pvutf8n_force(SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp)



sv_reftype Returns a string describing what the SV is a reference to.



        const char* sv_reftype(const SV *const sv, const int ob)



sv_replace Make the first argument a copy of the second, then delete the original. The target SV physically takes over ownership of the body of the source SV and inherits its flags; however, the target keeps any magic it owns, and any magic in the source is discarded. Note that this is a rather specialist SV copying operation; most of the time you’ll want to use sv_setsv or one of its many macro front-ends.



        void    sv_replace(SV *const sv, SV *const nsv)



sv_reset Underlying implementation for the reset Perl function. Note that the perl-level function is vaguely deprecated.



        void    sv_reset(const char* s, HV *const stash)



sv_rvweaken Weaken a reference: set the SvWEAKREF flag on this RV; give the referred-to SV PERL_MAGIC_backref magic if it hasn’t already; and push a back-reference to this RV onto the array of backreferences associated with that magic. If the RV is magical, set magic will be called after the RV is cleared.



        SV*     sv_rvweaken(SV *const sv)



sv_setiv Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary. Does not handle ’set’ magic. See also sv_setiv_mg.



        void    sv_setiv(SV *const sv, const IV num)



sv_setiv_mg Like sv_setiv, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_setiv_mg(SV *const sv, const IV i)



sv_setnv Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary. Does not handle ’set’ magic. See also sv_setnv_mg.



        void    sv_setnv(SV *const sv, const NV num)



sv_setnv_mg Like sv_setnv, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_setnv_mg(SV *const sv, const NV num)



sv_setpv Copies a string into an SV. The string must be terminated with a NUL character. Does not handle ’set’ magic. See sv_setpv_mg.



        void    sv_setpv(SV *const sv, const char *const ptr)



sv_setpvf Works like sv_catpvf but copies the text into the SV instead of appending it. Does not handle ’set’ magic. See sv_setpvf_mg.



        void    sv_setpvf(SV *const sv, const char *const pat,
                          ...)



sv_setpvf_mg Like sv_setpvf, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_setpvf_mg(SV *const sv,
                             const char *const pat, ...)



sv_setpviv Copies an integer into the given SV, also updating its string value. Does not handle ’set’ magic. See sv_setpviv_mg.



        void    sv_setpviv(SV *const sv, const IV num)



sv_setpviv_mg Like sv_setpviv, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_setpviv_mg(SV *const sv, const IV iv)



sv_setpvn Copies a string (possibly containing embedded NUL characters) into an SV. The len parameter indicates the number of bytes to be copied. If the ptr argument is NULL the SV will become undefined. Does not handle ’set’ magic. See sv_setpvn_mg.



        void    sv_setpvn(SV *const sv, const char *const ptr,
                          const STRLEN len)



sv_setpvn_mg Like sv_setpvn, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_setpvn_mg(SV *const sv,
                             const char *const ptr,
                             const STRLEN len)



sv_setpvs Like sv_setpvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        void    sv_setpvs(SV* sv, const char* s)



sv_setpvs_mg Like sv_setpvn_mg, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        void    sv_setpvs_mg(SV* sv, const char* s)



sv_setpv_mg Like sv_setpv, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_setpv_mg(SV *const sv, const char *const ptr)



sv_setref_iv Copies an integer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV. The rv argument will be upgraded to an RV. That RV will be modified to point to the new SV. The classname argument indicates the package for the blessing. Set classname to NULL to avoid the blessing. The new SV will have a reference count of 1, and the RV will be returned.



        SV*     sv_setref_iv(SV *const rv,
                             const char *const classname,
                             const IV iv)



sv_setref_nv Copies a double into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV. The rv argument will be upgraded to an RV. That RV will be modified to point to the new SV. The classname argument indicates the package for the blessing. Set classname to NULL to avoid the blessing. The new SV will have a reference count of 1, and the RV will be returned.



        SV*     sv_setref_nv(SV *const rv,
                             const char *const classname,
                             const NV nv)



sv_setref_pv Copies a pointer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV. The rv argument will be upgraded to an RV. That RV will be modified to point to the new SV. If the pv argument is NULL then PL_sv_undef will be placed into the SV. The classname argument indicates the package for the blessing. Set classname to NULL to avoid the blessing. The new SV will have a reference count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

Do not use with other Perl types such as HV, AV, SV, CV, because those objects will become corrupted by the pointer copy process.

Note that sv_setref_pvn copies the string while this copies the pointer.



        SV*     sv_setref_pv(SV *const rv,
                             const char *const classname,
                             void *const pv)



sv_setref_pvn Copies a string into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV. The length of the string must be specified with n. The rv argument will be upgraded to an RV. That RV will be modified to point to the new SV. The classname argument indicates the package for the blessing. Set classname to NULL to avoid the blessing. The new SV will have a reference count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

Note that sv_setref_pv copies the pointer while this copies the string.



        SV*     sv_setref_pvn(SV *const rv,
                              const char *const classname,
                              const char *const pv,
                              const STRLEN n)



sv_setref_pvs Like sv_setref_pvn, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.



        SV *    sv_setref_pvs(const char* s)



sv_setref_uv Copies an unsigned integer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV. The rv argument will be upgraded to an RV. That RV will be modified to point to the new SV. The classname argument indicates the package for the blessing. Set classname to NULL to avoid the blessing. The new SV will have a reference count of 1, and the RV will be returned.



        SV*     sv_setref_uv(SV *const rv,
                             const char *const classname,
                             const UV uv)



sv_setsv Copies the contents of the source SV ssv into the destination SV dsv. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don’t use this function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle ’set’ magic on destination SV. Calls ’get’ magic on source SV. Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content of the destination.

You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as SvSetSV, SvSetSV_nosteal, SvSetMagicSV and SvSetMagicSV_nosteal.



        void    sv_setsv(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)



sv_setsv_flags Copies the contents of the source SV ssv into the destination SV dsv. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don’t use this function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle ’set’ magic. Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content of the destination. If the flags parameter has the SV_GMAGIC bit set, will mg_get on ssv if appropriate, else not. If the flags parameter has the SV_NOSTEAL bit set then the buffers of temps will not be stolen. <sv_setsv> and sv_setsv_nomg are implemented in terms of this function.

You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as SvSetSV, SvSetSV_nosteal, SvSetMagicSV and SvSetMagicSV_nosteal.

This is the primary function for copying scalars, and most other copy-ish functions and macros use this underneath.



        void    sv_setsv_flags(SV *dstr, SV *sstr,
                               const I32 flags)



sv_setsv_mg Like sv_setsv, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_setsv_mg(SV *const dstr, SV *const sstr)



sv_setuv Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary. Does not handle ’set’ magic. See also sv_setuv_mg.



        void    sv_setuv(SV *const sv, const UV num)



sv_setuv_mg Like sv_setuv, but also handles ’set’ magic.



        void    sv_setuv_mg(SV *const sv, const UV u)



sv_tainted Test an SV for taintedness. Use SvTAINTED instead.



        bool    sv_tainted(SV *const sv)



sv_true Returns true if the SV has a true value by Perl’s rules. Use the SvTRUE macro instead, which may call sv_true() or may instead use an in-line version.



        I32     sv_true(SV *const sv)



sv_unmagic Removes all magic of type type from an SV.



        int     sv_unmagic(SV *const sv, const int type)



sv_unmagicext Removes all magic of type type with the specified vtbl from an SV.



        int     sv_unmagicext(SV *const sv, const int type,
                              MGVTBL *vtbl)



sv_unref_flags Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference count of whatever was being referenced by the RV. This can almost be thought of as a reversal of newSVrv. The cflags argument can contain SV_IMMEDIATE_UNREF to force the reference count to be decremented (otherwise the decrementing is conditional on the reference count being different from one or the reference being a readonly SV). See SvROK_off.



        void    sv_unref_flags(SV *const ref, const U32 flags)



sv_untaint Untaint an SV. Use SvTAINTED_off instead.



        void    sv_untaint(SV *const sv)



sv_upgrade Upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Generally adds a new body type to the SV, then copies across as much information as possible from the old body. It croaks if the SV is already in a more complex form than requested. You generally want to use the SvUPGRADE macro wrapper, which checks the type before calling sv_upgrade, and hence does not croak. See also svtype.



        void    sv_upgrade(SV *const sv, svtype new_type)



sv_usepvn_flags Tells an SV to use ptr to find its string value. Normally the string is stored inside the SV, but sv_usepvn allows the SV to use an outside string. The ptr should point to memory that was allocated by Newx. It must be the start of a Newx-ed block of memory, and not a pointer to the middle of it (beware of OOK and copy-on-write), and not be from a non-Newx memory allocator like malloc. The string length, len, must be supplied. By default this function will Renew (i.e. realloc, move) the memory pointed to by ptr, so that pointer should not be freed or used by the programmer after giving it to sv_usepvn, and neither should any pointers from behind that pointer (e.g. ptr + 1) be used.

If flags & SV_SMAGIC is true, will call SvSETMAGIC. If flags & SV_HAS_TRAILING_NUL is true, then ptr[len] must be NUL, and the realloc will be skipped (i.e. the buffer is actually at least 1 byte longer than len, and already meets the requirements for storing in SvPVX).



        void    sv_usepvn_flags(SV *const sv, char* ptr,
                                const STRLEN len,
                                const U32 flags)



sv_utf8_decode NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8 and contains a multiple-byte character, the SvUTF8 flag is turned on so that it looks like a character. If the PV contains only single-byte characters, the SvUTF8 flag stays off. Scans PV for validity and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.



        bool    sv_utf8_decode(SV *const sv)



sv_utf8_downgrade NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters to bytes. If the PV contains a character that cannot fit in a byte, this conversion will fail; in this case, either returns false or, if fail_ok is not true, croaks.

This is not a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding interface: use the Encode extension for that.



        bool    sv_utf8_downgrade(SV *const sv,
                                  const bool fail_ok)



sv_utf8_encode Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns the SvUTF8 flag off so that it looks like octets again.



        void    sv_utf8_encode(SV *const sv)



sv_utf8_upgrade Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form. Forces the SV to string form if it is not already. Will mg_get on sv if appropriate. Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even if the whole string is the same in UTF-8 as not. Returns the number of bytes in the converted string

This is not a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface: use the Encode extension for that.



        STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade(SV *sv)



sv_utf8_upgrade_flags Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form. Forces the SV to string form if it is not already. Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even if all the bytes are invariant in UTF-8. If flags has SV_GMAGIC bit set, will mg_get on sv if appropriate, else not.

If flags has SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE set, this function assumes that the PV will expand when converted to UTF-8, and skips the extra work of checking for that. Typically this flag is used by a routine that has already parsed the string and found such characters, and passes this information on so that the work doesn’t have to be repeated.

Returns the number of bytes in the converted string.

This is not a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface: use the Encode extension for that.



        STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_flags(SV *const sv,
                                      const I32 flags)



sv_utf8_upgrade_flags_grow Like sv_utf8_upgrade_flags, but has an additional parameter extra, which is the number of unused bytes the string of ’sv’ is guaranteed to have free after it upon return. This allows the caller to reserve extra space that it intends to fill, to avoid extra grows.

sv_utf8_upgrade, sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg, and sv_utf8_upgrade_flags are implemented in terms of this function.

Returns the number of bytes in the converted string (not including the spares).



        STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_flags_grow(SV *const sv,
                                           const I32 flags,
                                           STRLEN extra)



sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg Like sv_utf8_upgrade, but doesn’t do magic on sv.



        STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(SV *sv)



sv_vcatpvf Processes its arguments like vsprintf and appends the formatted output to an SV. Does not handle ’set’ magic. See sv_vcatpvf_mg.

Usually used via its frontend sv_catpvf.



        void    sv_vcatpvf(SV *const sv, const char *const pat,
                           va_list *const args)



sv_vcatpvfn


        void    sv_vcatpvfn(SV *const sv, const char *const pat,
                            const STRLEN patlen,
                            va_list *const args,
                            SV **const svargs, const I32 svmax,
                            bool *const maybe_tainted)



sv_vcatpvfn_flags Processes its arguments like vsprintf and appends the formatted output to an SV. Uses an array of SVs if the C style variable argument list is missing (NULL). When running with taint checks enabled, indicates via maybe_tainted if results are untrustworthy (often due to the use of locales).

If called as sv_vcatpvfn or flags include SV_GMAGIC, calls get magic.

Usually used via one of its frontends sv_vcatpvf and sv_vcatpvf_mg.



        void    sv_vcatpvfn_flags(SV *const sv,
                                  const char *const pat,
                                  const STRLEN patlen,
                                  va_list *const args,
                                  SV **const svargs,
                                  const I32 svmax,
                                  bool *const maybe_tainted,
                                  const U32 flags)



sv_vcatpvf_mg Like sv_vcatpvf, but also handles ’set’ magic.

Usually used via its frontend sv_catpvf_mg.



        void    sv_vcatpvf_mg(SV *const sv,
                              const char *const pat,
                              va_list *const args)



sv_vsetpvf Works like sv_vcatpvf but copies the text into the SV instead of appending it. Does not handle ’set’ magic. See sv_vsetpvf_mg.

Usually used via its frontend sv_setpvf.



        void    sv_vsetpvf(SV *const sv, const char *const pat,
                           va_list *const args)



sv_vsetpvfn Works like sv_vcatpvfn but copies the text into the SV instead of appending it.

Usually used via one of its frontends sv_vsetpvf and sv_vsetpvf_mg.



        void    sv_vsetpvfn(SV *const sv, const char *const pat,
                            const STRLEN patlen,
                            va_list *const args,
                            SV **const svargs, const I32 svmax,
                            bool *const maybe_tainted)



sv_vsetpvf_mg Like sv_vsetpvf, but also handles ’set’ magic.

Usually used via its frontend sv_setpvf_mg.



        void    sv_vsetpvf_mg(SV *const sv,
                              const char *const pat,
                              va_list *const args)



Unicode Support

Unicode Support in perlguts has an introduction to this API.

See also Character classification, and Character case changing. Various functions outside this section also work specially with Unicode. Search for the string utf8 in this document.
bytes_cmp_utf8 Compares the sequence of characters (stored as octets) in b, blen with the sequence of characters (stored as UTF-8) in u, ulen. Returns 0 if they are equal, -1 or -2 if the first string is less than the second string, +1 or +2 if the first string is greater than the second string.

-1 or +1 is returned if the shorter string was identical to the start of the longer string. -2 or +2 is returned if there was a difference between characters within the strings.



        int     bytes_cmp_utf8(const U8 *b, STRLEN blen,
                               const U8 *u, STRLEN ulen)



bytes_from_utf8 NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Converts a string s of length len from UTF-8 into native byte encoding. Unlike utf8_to_bytes but like bytes_to_utf8, returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and updates len to contain the new length. Returns the original string if no conversion occurs, len is unchanged. Do nothing if is_utf8 points to 0. Sets is_utf8 to 0 if s is converted or consisted entirely of characters that are invariant in utf8 (i.e., US-ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines).



        U8*     bytes_from_utf8(const U8 *s, STRLEN *len,
                                bool *is_utf8)



bytes_to_utf8 NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Converts a string s of length len bytes from the native encoding into UTF-8. Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and sets len to reflect the new length in bytes.

A NUL character will be written after the end of the string.

If you want to convert to UTF-8 from encodings other than the native (Latin1 or EBCDIC), see sv_recode_to_utf8().



        U8*     bytes_to_utf8(const U8 *s, STRLEN *len)



DO_UTF8 Returns a bool giving whether or not the PV in sv is to be treated as being encoded in UTF-8.

You should use this after a call to SvPV() or one of its variants, in case any call to string overloading updates the internal UTF-8 encoding flag.



        bool    DO_UTF8(SV* sv)



foldEQ_utf8 Returns true if the leading portions of the strings s1 and s2 (either or both of which may be in UTF-8) are the same case-insensitively; false otherwise. How far into the strings to compare is determined by other input parameters.

If u1 is true, the string s1 is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode; otherwise it is assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding. Correspondingly for u2 with respect to s2.

If the byte length l1 is non-zero, it says how far into s1 to check for fold equality. In other words, s1+l1 will be used as a goal to reach. The scan will not be considered to be a match unless the goal is reached, and scanning won’t continue past that goal. Correspondingly for l2 with respect to s2.

If pe1 is non-NULL and the pointer it points to is not NULL, that pointer is considered an end pointer to the position 1 byte past the maximum point in s1 beyond which scanning will not continue under any circumstances. (This routine assumes that UTF-8 encoded input strings are not malformed; malformed input can cause it to read past pe1). This means that if both l1 and pe1 are specified, and pe1 is less than s1+l1, the match will never be successful because it can never get as far as its goal (and in fact is asserted against). Correspondingly for pe2 with respect to s2.

At least one of s1 and s2 must have a goal (at least one of l1 and l2 must be non-zero), and if both do, both have to be reached for a successful match. Also, if the fold of a character is multiple characters, all of them must be matched (see tr21 reference below for ’folding’).

Upon a successful match, if pe1 is non-NULL, it will be set to point to the beginning of the next character of s1 beyond what was matched. Correspondingly for pe2 and s2.

For case-insensitiveness, the casefolding of Unicode is used instead of upper/lowercasing both the characters, see <http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/> (Case Mappings).



        I32     foldEQ_utf8(const char *s1, char **pe1, UV l1,
                            bool u1, const char *s2, char **pe2,
                            UV l2, bool u2)



isUTF8_CHAR Returns the number of bytes beginning at s which form a legal UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) encoded character, looking no further than e - s bytes into s. Returns 0 if the sequence starting at s through e - 1 is not well-formed UTF-8

Note that an INVARIANT character (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines) is a valid UTF-8 character.



        STRLEN  isUTF8_CHAR(const U8 *s, const U8 *e)



is_ascii_string This is a misleadingly-named synonym for is_invariant_string. On ASCII-ish platforms, the name isn’t misleading: the ASCII-range characters are exactly the UTF-8 invariants. But EBCDIC machines have more invariants than just the ASCII characters, so is_invariant_string is preferred.



        bool    is_ascii_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)



is_invariant_string Returns true iff the first len bytes of the string s are the same regardless of the UTF-8 encoding of the string (or UTF-EBCDIC encoding on EBCDIC machines). That is, if they are UTF-8 invariant. On ASCII-ish machines, all the ASCII characters and only the ASCII characters fit this definition. On EBCDIC machines, the ASCII-range characters are invariant, but so also are the C1 controls and \c? (which isn’t in the ASCII range on EBCDIC).

If len is 0, it will be calculated using strlen(s), (which means if you use this option, that s can’t have embedded NUL characters and has to have a terminating NUL byte).

See also is_utf8_string(), is_utf8_string_loclen(), and is_utf8_string_loc().



        bool    is_invariant_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)



is_utf8_string Returns true if the first len bytes of string s form a valid UTF-8 string, false otherwise. If len is 0, it will be calculated using strlen(s) (which means if you use this option, that s can’t have embedded NUL characters and has to have a terminating NUL byte). Note that all characters being ASCII constitute ’a valid UTF-8 string’.

See also is_invariant_string(), is_utf8_string_loclen(), and is_utf8_string_loc().



        bool    is_utf8_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)



is_utf8_string_loc Like is_utf8_string but stores the location of the failure (in the case of utf8ness failure) or the location s+len (in the case of utf8ness success) in the ep.

See also is_utf8_string_loclen() and is_utf8_string().



        bool    is_utf8_string_loc(const U8 *s, STRLEN len,
                                   const U8 **ep)



is_utf8_string_loclen Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the failure (in the case of utf8ness failure) or the location s+len (in the case of utf8ness success) in the ep, and the number of UTF-8 encoded characters in the el.

See also is_utf8_string_loc() and is_utf8_string().



        bool    is_utf8_string_loclen(const U8 *s, STRLEN len,
                                      const U8 **ep, STRLEN *el)



pv_uni_display Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the string spv, length len, the displayable version being at most pvlim bytes long (if longer, the rest is truncated and ... will be appended).

The flags argument can have UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT set to display isPRINT()able characters as themselves, UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH to display the \\[nrfta\\] as the backslashed versions (like ’\n’) (UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH is preferred over UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT for \\). UNI_DISPLAY_QQ (and its alias UNI_DISPLAY_REGEX) have both UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH and UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT turned on.

The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

See also sv_uni_display.



        char*   pv_uni_display(SV *dsv, const U8 *spv,
                               STRLEN len, STRLEN pvlim,
                               UV flags)



sv_cat_decode The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, the PV of the ssv is assumed to be octets in that encoding and decoding the input starts from the position which (PV + *offset) pointed to. The dsv will be concatenated the decoded UTF-8 string from ssv. Decoding will terminate when the string tstr appears in decoding output or the input ends on the PV of the ssv. The value which the offset points will be modified to the last input position on the ssv.

Returns TRUE if the terminator was found, else returns FALSE.



        bool    sv_cat_decode(SV* dsv, SV *encoding, SV *ssv,
                              int *offset, char* tstr, int tlen)



sv_recode_to_utf8 The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, on entry the PV of the sv is assumed to be octets in that encoding, and the sv will be converted into Unicode (and UTF-8).

If the sv already is UTF-8 (or if it is not POK), or if the encoding is not a reference, nothing is done to the sv. If the encoding is not an Encode::XS Encoding object, bad things will happen. (See lib/encoding.pm and Encode.)

The PV of the sv is returned.



        char*   sv_recode_to_utf8(SV* sv, SV *encoding)



sv_uni_display Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the scalar sv, the displayable version being at most pvlim bytes long (if longer, the rest is truncated and ... will be appended).

The flags argument is as in pv_uni_display().

The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.



        char*   sv_uni_display(SV *dsv, SV *ssv, STRLEN pvlim,
                               UV flags)



to_utf8_case p contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding the character that is being converted. This routine assumes that the character at p is well-formed.

ustrp is a pointer to the character buffer to put the conversion result to. lenp is a pointer to the length of the result.

swashp is a pointer to the swash to use.

Both the special and normal mappings are stored in lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl, and loaded by SWASHNEW, using lib/utf8_heavy.pl. special (usually, but not always, a multicharacter mapping), is tried first.

special is a string, normally NULL or "". NULL means to not use any special mappings; "" means to use the special mappings. Values other than these two are treated as the name of the hash containing the special mappings, like "utf8::ToSpecLower".

normal is a string like ToLower which means the swash %utf8::ToLower.



        UV      to_utf8_case(const U8 *p, U8* ustrp,
                             STRLEN *lenp, SV **swashp,
                             const char *normal,
                             const char *special)



to_utf8_fold Instead use toFOLD_utf8.



        UV      to_utf8_fold(const U8 *p, U8* ustrp,
                             STRLEN *lenp)



to_utf8_lower Instead use toLOWER_utf8.



        UV      to_utf8_lower(const U8 *p, U8* ustrp,
                              STRLEN *lenp)



to_utf8_title Instead use toTITLE_utf8.



        UV      to_utf8_title(const U8 *p, U8* ustrp,
                              STRLEN *lenp)



to_utf8_upper Instead use toUPPER_utf8.



        UV      to_utf8_upper(const U8 *p, U8* ustrp,
                              STRLEN *lenp)



utf8n_to_uvchr THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES. Most code should use utf8_to_uvchr_buf() rather than call this directly.

Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine. Returns the native code point value of the first character in the string s, which is assumed to be in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) encoding, and no longer than curlen bytes; *retlen (if retlen isn’t NULL) will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

The value of flags determines the behavior when s does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character. If flags is 0, when a malformation is found, zero is returned and *retlen is set so that (s + *retlen) is the next possible position in s that could begin a non-malformed character. Also, if UTF-8 warnings haven’t been lexically disabled, a warning is raised.

Various ALLOW flags can be set in flags to allow (and not warn on) individual types of malformations, such as the sequence being overlong (that is, when there is a shorter sequence that can express the same code point; overlong sequences are expressly forbidden in the UTF-8 standard due to potential security issues). Another malformation example is the first byte of a character not being a legal first byte. See utf8.h for the list of such flags. For allowed 0 length strings, this function returns 0; for allowed overlong sequences, the computed code point is returned; for all other allowed malformations, the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned, as these have no determinable reasonable value.

The UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag overrides the behavior when a non-allowed (by other flags) malformation is found. If this flag is set, the routine assumes that the caller will raise a warning, and this function will silently just set retlen to -1 (cast to STRLEN) and return zero.

Note that this API requires disambiguation between successful decoding a NUL character, and an error return (unless the UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag is set), as in both cases, 0 is returned. To disambiguate, upon a zero return, see if the first byte of s is 0 as well. If so, the input was a NUL; if not, the input had an error.

Certain code points are considered problematic. These are Unicode surrogates, Unicode non-characters, and code points above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF. By default these are considered regular code points, but certain situations warrant special handling for them. If flags contains UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, all three classes are treated as malformations and handled as such. The flags UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE, UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR, and UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER (meaning above the legal Unicode maximum) can be set to disallow these categories individually.

The flags UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE, UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR, and UTF8_WARN_SUPER will cause warning messages to be raised for their respective categories, but otherwise the code points are considered valid (not malformations). To get a category to both be treated as a malformation and raise a warning, specify both the WARN and DISALLOW flags. (But note that warnings are not raised if lexically disabled nor if UTF8_CHECK_ONLY is also specified.)

Very large code points (above 0x7FFF_FFFF) are considered more problematic than the others that are above the Unicode legal maximum. There are several reasons: they requre at least 32 bits to represent them on ASCII platforms, are not representable at all on EBCDIC platforms, and the original UTF-8 specification never went above this number (the current 0x10FFFF limit was imposed later). (The smaller ones, those that fit into 32 bits, are representable by a UV on ASCII platforms, but not by an IV, which means that the number of operations that can be performed on them is quite restricted.) The UTF-8 encoding on ASCII platforms for these large code points begins with a byte containing 0xFE or 0xFF. The UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF flag will cause them to be treated as malformations, while allowing smaller above-Unicode code points. (Of course UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER will treat all above-Unicode code points, including these, as malformations.) Similarly, UTF8_WARN_FE_FF acts just like the other WARN flags, but applies just to these code points.

All other code points corresponding to Unicode characters, including private use and those yet to be assigned, are never considered malformed and never warn.



        UV      utf8n_to_uvchr(const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen,
                               STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)



utf8n_to_uvuni Instead use utf8_to_uvchr_buf, or rarely, utf8n_to_uvchr.

This function was useful for code that wanted to handle both EBCDIC and ASCII platforms with Unicode properties, but starting in Perl v5.20, the distinctions between the platforms have mostly been made invisible to most code, so this function is quite unlikely to be what you want. If you do need this precise functionality, use instead NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8_to_uvchr_buf(...)) or NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8n_to_uvchr(...)).



        UV      utf8n_to_uvuni(const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen,
                               STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)



UTF8SKIP returns the number of bytes in the UTF-8 encoded character whose first (perhaps only) byte is pointed to by s.



        STRLEN  UTF8SKIP(char* s)



utf8_distance Returns the number of UTF-8 characters between the UTF-8 pointers a and b.

WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers point inside the same UTF-8 buffer.



        IV      utf8_distance(const U8 *a, const U8 *b)



utf8_hop Return the UTF-8 pointer s displaced by off characters, either forward or backward.

WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know* off is within the UTF-8 data pointed to by s *and* that on entry s is aligned on the first byte of character or just after the last byte of a character.



        U8*     utf8_hop(const U8 *s, I32 off)



utf8_length Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string s in characters. Stops at e (inclusive). If e < s or if the scan would end up past e, croaks.



        STRLEN  utf8_length(const U8* s, const U8 *e)



utf8_to_bytes NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

Converts a string s of length len from UTF-8 into native byte encoding. Unlike bytes_to_utf8, this over-writes the original string, and updates len to contain the new length. Returns zero on failure, setting len to -1.

If you need a copy of the string, see bytes_from_utf8.



        U8*     utf8_to_bytes(U8 *s, STRLEN *len)



utf8_to_uvchr_buf Returns the native code point of the first character in the string s which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; send points to 1 beyond the end of s. *retlen will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

If s does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are enabled, zero is returned and *retlen is set (if retlen isn’t NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value, if well-defined (or the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER if not), is silently returned, and *retlen is set (if retlen isn’t NULL) so that (s + *retlen) is the next possible position in s that could begin a non-malformed character. See utf8n_to_uvchr for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.



        UV      utf8_to_uvchr_buf(const U8 *s, const U8 *send,
                                  STRLEN *retlen)



utf8_to_uvuni_buf DEPRECATED! It is planned to remove this function from a future release of Perl. Do not use it for new code; remove it from existing code.

Only in very rare circumstances should code need to be dealing in Unicode (as opposed to native) code points. In those few cases, use NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8_to_uvchr_buf(...)) instead.

Returns the Unicode (not-native) code point of the first character in the string s which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; send points to 1 beyond the end of s. retlen will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

If s does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are enabled, zero is returned and *retlen is set (if retlen isn’t NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and *retlen is set (if retlen isn’t NULL) so that (s + *retlen) is the next possible position in s that could begin a non-malformed character. See utf8n_to_uvchr for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.



        UV      utf8_to_uvuni_buf(const U8 *s, const U8 *send,
                                  STRLEN *retlen)



UVCHR_SKIP returns the number of bytes required to represent the code point cp when encoded as UTF-8. cp is a native (ASCII or EBCDIC) code point if less than 255; a Unicode code point otherwise.



        STRLEN  UVCHR_SKIP(UV cp)



uvchr_to_utf8 Adds the UTF-8 representation of the native code point uv to the end of the string d; d should have at least UVCHR_SKIP(uv)+1 (up to UTF8_MAXBYTES+1) free bytes available. The return value is the pointer to the byte after the end of the new character. In other words,



    d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);



is the recommended wide native character-aware way of saying



    *(d++) = uv;



This function accepts any UV as input. To forbid or warn on non-Unicode code points, or those that may be problematic, see uvchr_to_utf8_flags.



        U8*     uvchr_to_utf8(U8 *d, UV uv)



uvchr_to_utf8_flags Adds the UTF-8 representation of the native code point uv to the end of the string d; d should have at least UVCHR_SKIP(uv)+1 (up to UTF8_MAXBYTES+1) free bytes available. The return value is the pointer to the byte after the end of the new character. In other words,



    d = uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);



or, in most cases,



    d = uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);



This is the Unicode-aware way of saying



    *(d++) = uv;



This function will convert to UTF-8 (and not warn) even code points that aren’t legal Unicode or are problematic, unless flags contains one or more of the following flags:

If uv is a Unicode surrogate code point and UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE is set, the function will raise a warning, provided UTF8 warnings are enabled. If instead UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE is set, the function will fail and return NULL. If both flags are set, the function will both warn and return NULL.

The UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR and UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR flags affect how the function handles a Unicode non-character. And likewise, the UNICODE_WARN_SUPER and UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER flags affect the handling of code points that are above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF. Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (which are even less portable) can be warned and/or disallowed even if other above-Unicode code points are accepted, by the UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF and UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF flags.

And finally, the flag UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four of the above WARN flags; and UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four DISALLOW flags.



        U8*     uvchr_to_utf8_flags(U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)



uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES. Instead, <B>Almost all code should use uvchr_to_utf8 or uvchr_to_utf8_flagsB>.

This function is like them, but the input is a strict Unicode (as opposed to native) code point. Only in very rare circumstances should code not be using the native code point.

For details, see the description for uvchr_to_utf8_flags.



        U8*     uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)



uvuni_to_utf8_flags Instead you almost certainly want to use uvchr_to_utf8 or uvchr_to_utf8_flags.

This function is a deprecated synonym for uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags, which itself, while not deprecated, should be used only in isolated circumstances. These functions were useful for code that wanted to handle both EBCDIC and ASCII platforms with Unicode properties, but starting in Perl v5.20, the distinctions between the platforms have mostly been made invisible to most code, so this function is quite unlikely to be what you want.



        U8*     uvuni_to_utf8_flags(U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)



Variables created by xsubpp and xsubpp internal functions

newXSproto Used by xsubpp to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs. Adds Perl prototypes to the subs.
XS_APIVERSION_BOOTCHECK Macro to verify that the perl api version an XS module has been compiled against matches the api version of the perl interpreter it’s being loaded into.



                XS_APIVERSION_BOOTCHECK;



XS_VERSION The version identifier for an XS module. This is usually handled automatically by ExtUtils::MakeMaker. See XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK.
XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK Macro to verify that a PM module’s $VERSION variable matches the XS module’s XS_VERSION variable. This is usually handled automatically by xsubpp. See The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword in perlxs.



                XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK;



Versioning

new_version Returns a new version object based on the passed in SV:



    SV *sv = new_version(SV *ver);



Does not alter the passed in ver SV. See upg_version if you want to upgrade the SV.



        SV*     new_version(SV *ver)



prescan_version Validate that a given string can be parsed as a version object, but doesn’t actually perform the parsing. Can use either strict or lax validation rules. Can optionally set a number of hint variables to save the parsing code some time when tokenizing.



        const char* prescan_version(const char *s, bool strict,
                                    const char** errstr,
                                    bool *sqv,
                                    int *ssaw_decimal,
                                    int *swidth, bool *salpha)



scan_version Returns a pointer to the next character after the parsed version string, as well as upgrading the passed in SV to an RV.

Function must be called with an already existing SV like



    sv = newSV(0);
    s = scan_version(s, SV *sv, bool qv);



Performs some preprocessing to the string to ensure that it has the correct characteristics of a version. Flags the object if it contains an underscore (which denotes this is an alpha version). The boolean qv denotes that the version should be interpreted as if it had multiple decimals, even if it doesn’t.



        const char* scan_version(const char *s, SV *rv, bool qv)



upg_version In-place upgrade of the supplied SV to a version object.



    SV *sv = upg_version(SV *sv, bool qv);



Returns a pointer to the upgraded SV. Set the boolean qv if you want to force this SV to be interpreted as an extended version.



        SV*     upg_version(SV *ver, bool qv)



vcmp Version object aware cmp. Both operands must already have been converted into version objects.



        int     vcmp(SV *lhv, SV *rhv)



vnormal Accepts a version object and returns the normalized string representation. Call like:



    sv = vnormal(rv);



NOTE: you can pass either the object directly or the SV contained within the RV.

The SV returned has a refcount of 1.



        SV*     vnormal(SV *vs)



vnumify Accepts a version object and returns the normalized floating point representation. Call like:



    sv = vnumify(rv);



NOTE: you can pass either the object directly or the SV contained within the RV.

The SV returned has a refcount of 1.



        SV*     vnumify(SV *vs)



vstringify In order to maintain maximum compatibility with earlier versions of Perl, this function will return either the floating point notation or the multiple dotted notation, depending on whether the original version contained 1 or more dots, respectively.

The SV returned has a refcount of 1.



        SV*     vstringify(SV *vs)



vverify Validates that the SV contains valid internal structure for a version object. It may be passed either the version object (RV) or the hash itself (HV). If the structure is valid, it returns the HV. If the structure is invalid, it returns NULL.



    SV *hv = vverify(sv);



Note that it only confirms the bare minimum structure (so as not to get confused by derived classes which may contain additional hash entries):



        SV*     vverify(SV *vs)



Warning and Dieing

croak This is an XS interface to Perl’s die function.

Take a sprintf-style format pattern and argument list. These are used to generate a string message. If the message does not end with a newline, then it will be extended with some indication of the current location in the code, as described for mess_sv.

The error message will be used as an exception, by default returning control to the nearest enclosing eval, but subject to modification by a $SIG{__DIE__} handler. In any case, the croak function never returns normally.

For historical reasons, if pat is null then the contents of ERRSV ($@) will be used as an error message or object instead of building an error message from arguments. If you want to throw a non-string object, or build an error message in an SV yourself, it is preferable to use the croak_sv function, which does not involve clobbering ERRSV.



        void    croak(const char *pat, ...)



croak_no_modify Exactly equivalent to Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s", PL_no_modify), but generates terser object code than using Perl_croak. Less code used on exception code paths reduces CPU cache pressure.



        void    croak_no_modify()



croak_sv This is an XS interface to Perl’s die function.

baseex is the error message or object. If it is a reference, it will be used as-is. Otherwise it is used as a string, and if it does not end with a newline then it will be extended with some indication of the current location in the code, as described for mess_sv.

The error message or object will be used as an exception, by default returning control to the nearest enclosing eval, but subject to modification by a $SIG{__DIE__} handler. In any case, the croak_sv function never returns normally.

To die with a simple string message, the croak function may be more convenient.



        void    croak_sv(SV *baseex)



die Behaves the same as croak, except for the return type. It should be used only where the OP * return type is required. The function never actually returns.



        OP *    die(const char *pat, ...)



die_sv Behaves the same as croak_sv, except for the return type. It should be used only where the OP * return type is required. The function never actually returns.



        OP *    die_sv(SV *baseex)



vcroak This is an XS interface to Perl’s die function.

pat and args are a sprintf-style format pattern and encapsulated argument list. These are used to generate a string message. If the message does not end with a newline, then it will be extended with some indication of the current location in the code, as described for mess_sv.

The error message will be used as an exception, by default returning control to the nearest enclosing eval, but subject to modification by a $SIG{__DIE__} handler. In any case, the croak function never returns normally.

For historical reasons, if pat is null then the contents of ERRSV ($@) will be used as an error message or object instead of building an error message from arguments. If you want to throw a non-string object, or build an error message in an SV yourself, it is preferable to use the croak_sv function, which does not involve clobbering ERRSV.



        void    vcroak(const char *pat, va_list *args)



vwarn This is an XS interface to Perl’s warn function.

pat and args are a sprintf-style format pattern and encapsulated argument list. These are used to generate a string message. If the message does not end with a newline, then it will be extended with some indication of the current location in the code, as described for mess_sv.

The error message or object will by default be written to standard error, but this is subject to modification by a $SIG{__WARN__} handler.

Unlike with vcroak, pat is not permitted to be null.



        void    vwarn(const char *pat, va_list *args)



warn This is an XS interface to Perl’s warn function.

Take a sprintf-style format pattern and argument list. These are used to generate a string message. If the message does not end with a newline, then it will be extended with some indication of the current location in the code, as described for mess_sv.

The error message or object will by default be written to standard error, but this is subject to modification by a $SIG{__WARN__} handler.

Unlike with croak, pat is not permitted to be null.



        void    warn(const char *pat, ...)



warn_sv This is an XS interface to Perl’s warn function.

baseex is the error message or object. If it is a reference, it will be used as-is. Otherwise it is used as a string, and if it does not end with a newline then it will be extended with some indication of the current location in the code, as described for mess_sv.

The error message or object will by default be written to standard error, but this is subject to modification by a $SIG{__WARN__} handler.

To warn with a simple string message, the warn function may be more convenient.



        void    warn_sv(SV *baseex)



Undocumented functions

The following functions have been flagged as part of the public API, but are currently undocumented. Use them at your own risk, as the interfaces are subject to change. Functions that are not listed in this document are not intended for public use, and should NOT be used under any circumstances.

If you use one of the undocumented functions below, you may wish to consider creating and submitting documentation for it. If your patch is accepted, this will indicate that the interface is stable (unless it is explicitly marked otherwise).
GetVars
Gv_AMupdate
PerlIO_clearerr
PerlIO_close
PerlIO_context_layers
PerlIO_eof
PerlIO_error
PerlIO_fileno
PerlIO_fill
PerlIO_flush
PerlIO_get_base
PerlIO_get_bufsiz
PerlIO_get_cnt
PerlIO_get_ptr
PerlIO_read
PerlIO_seek
PerlIO_set_cnt
PerlIO_set_ptrcnt
PerlIO_setlinebuf
PerlIO_stderr
PerlIO_stdin
PerlIO_stdout
PerlIO_tell
PerlIO_unread
PerlIO_write
amagic_call
amagic_deref_call
any_dup
atfork_lock
atfork_unlock
av_arylen_p
av_iter_p
block_gimme
call_atexit
call_list
calloc
cast_i32
cast_iv
cast_ulong
cast_uv
ck_warner
ck_warner_d
ckwarn
ckwarn_d
clone_params_del
clone_params_new
croak_memory_wrap
croak_nocontext
csighandler
cx_dump
cx_dup
cxinc
deb
deb_nocontext
debop
debprofdump
debstack
debstackptrs
delimcpy
despatch_signals
die_nocontext
dirp_dup
do_aspawn
do_binmode
do_close
do_gv_dump
do_gvgv_dump
do_hv_dump
do_join
do_magic_dump
do_op_dump
do_open
do_open9
do_openn
do_pmop_dump
do_spawn
do_spawn_nowait
do_sprintf
do_sv_dump
doing_taint
doref
dounwind
dowantarray
dump_eval
dump_form
dump_indent
dump_mstats
dump_sub
dump_vindent
filter_add
filter_del
filter_read
foldEQ_latin1
form_nocontext
fp_dup
fprintf_nocontext
free_global_struct
free_tmps
get_context
get_mstats
get_op_descs
get_op_names
get_ppaddr
get_vtbl
gp_dup
gp_free
gp_ref
gv_AVadd
gv_HVadd
gv_IOadd
gv_SVadd
gv_add_by_type
gv_autoload4
gv_autoload_pv
gv_autoload_pvn
gv_autoload_sv
gv_check
gv_dump
gv_efullname
gv_efullname3
gv_efullname4
gv_fetchfile
gv_fetchfile_flags
gv_fetchpv
gv_fetchpvn_flags
gv_fetchsv
gv_fullname
gv_fullname3
gv_fullname4
gv_handler
gv_name_set
he_dup
hek_dup
hv_common
hv_common_key_len
hv_delayfree_ent
hv_eiter_p
hv_eiter_set
hv_free_ent
hv_ksplit
hv_name_set
hv_placeholders_get
hv_placeholders_set
hv_rand_set
hv_riter_p
hv_riter_set
ibcmp_utf8
init_global_struct
init_stacks
init_tm
instr
is_lvalue_sub
leave_scope
load_module_nocontext
magic_dump
malloc
markstack_grow
mess_nocontext
mfree
mg_dup