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Man Pages

Manual Reference Pages  -  R (1)


R - a language for data analysis and graphics




R [options] [< infile] [> outfile]
R CMD command [arguments]


Start R, a system for statistical computation and graphics, with the specified options, or invoke an R tool via the ’R CMD’ interface.

R is a language which bears a passing resemblance to the S language developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories. It provides support for a variety of statistical and graphical analyses. R is a true computer language which contains a number of control-flow constructions for iteration and alternation. It allows users to add additional functionality by defining new functions.

On systems which have the GNU readline(3) library, R will maintain a command history, so that commands can be recalled, edited and re-executed.


Most options control what happens at the beginning and at the end of an R session, in particular which files are being read and written, and how much memory is reserved for the R process.
-h, --help Print short help message and exit
  Print version info and exit
  Specify encoding to be used for stdin
--encoding ENC
RHOME Print path to R home directory and exit
--save Do save workspace at the end of the session
--no-save Don’t save it
  Don’t read the site and user environment files
  Don’t read the site-wide Rprofile
  Don’t read the user R profile
  Do restore previously saved objects at startup
  Don’t restore previously saved objects
  Don’t restore the R history file
  Don’t restore anything
  Combine --no-save, --no-restore, --no-site-file, --no-init-file and --no-environ
  Don’t use readline for command-line editing
  Set max size of protect stack to N
  Set min number of fixed size obj’s ("cons cells") to N
  Set vector heap minimum to N bytes; ’4M’ = 4 MegaB
-q, --quiet
  Don’t print startup message
  Same as --quiet
--slave Make R run as quietly as possible
  Force an interactive session
  Print more information about progress
-d, --debugger=NAME
  Run R through debugger NAME
  Pass ARGS as arguments to the debugger
-g TYPE, --gui=TYPE
  Use TYPE as GUI; possible values are ’X11’ (default) and ’Tk’.
  Specify a sub-architecture
--args Skip the rest of the command line
-f FILE, --file=FILE
  Take input from ’FILE’
-e EXPR Execute ’EXPR’ and exit
FILE may contain spaces but not shell metacharacters.


BATCH Run R in batch mode
  Compile files for use with R
SHLIB Build shared library for dynamic loading
  Install add-on packages
REMOVE Remove add-on packages
build Build add-on packages
check Check add-on packages
LINK Front-end for creating executable programs
Rprof Post-process R profiling files
Rdconv Convert Rd format to various other formats
Rd2pdf Convert Rd format to PDF
Rd2txt Convert Rd format to pretty text
  Extract S/R code from Sweave documentation
Sweave Process Sweave documentation
Rdiff Diff R output ignoring headers etc
config Obtain configuration information about R
  Update the Java configuration variables
rtags Create Emacs-style tag files from C, R, and Rd files
Please use ’R CMD command --help’ to obtain further information about the usage of ’command’.

Options --arch, --no-environ, --no-init-file, --no-site-file and --vanilla can be placed between R and CMD, to apply to R processes run by ’command’


Report bugs at


Copyright © 2015 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing Platform: amd64-portbld-freebsd10.1 (64-bit)

R is free software and comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. You are welcome to redistribute it under the terms of the GNU General Public License versions 2 or 3. For more information about these matters see


The full documentation for R is provided by a collection of Texinfo manuals and individual help for R objects which is also available on-line.

Start R and type ?topic at the R prompt to obtain on-line information for ‘topic’.

If the processed manuals have been installed they will be available as DVI and/or PDF files in the doc/manual subdirectory of the documentation directory tree (default ‘R RHOME‘).

If the info program and the R manuals are installed on your system, typing info -f R-intro, info -f R-data, info -f R-exts, info -f R-FAQ, info -f R-lang and info -f R-ints should give you access to ‘‘An Introduction to R’’ (the basic manual), the ‘‘R Data Import/Export’’ Guide, the ‘‘R Extension Writer’s Guide’’, the ‘‘R FAQ’’, the ‘‘The R Language Definition’’, and the ‘‘R Internals’’.

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R 3.2.2 R (1) April 2016

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