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Manual Reference Pages  -  CHIO (1)


chio - medium changer control utility


Supported Commands
See Also


chio [-f changer] command [-<flags>] arg1 arg2 [arg3 [...]]


The chio utility is used to control the operation of medium changers, such as those found in tape and optical disk jukeboxes.

The options are as follows:
-f changer
  Use the device changer rather than the default device /dev/ch0.

The default changer may be overridden by setting the environment variable CHANGER to the desired changer device.

A medium changer apparatus is made up of elements. There are five element types: picker (medium transport), slot (storage), portal (import/export), drive (data transfer), and voltag (select by volume identifier). The voltag pseudo-element type allows the selection of tapes by their volume tag (typically a barcode on the tape).

In this command description, the shorthand ET will be used to represent an element type, and EU will be used to represent an element unit. For example, to represent the first robotic arm in the changer, the ET would be "picker" and the EU would be "0".


move Xo
  <from ET> <from EU> <to ET> <to EU> [inv]
  Move the media unit from <from ET/EU> to <to ET/EU>. If the optional modifier inv is specified, the media unit will be inverted before insertion.
exchange Xo
  <src ET> <src EU> <dst1 ET> <dst1 EU> [<dst2 ET> <dst2 ET>] [inv1] [inv2]
  Perform a media unit exchange operation. The media unit in <src ET/EU> is moved to <dst1 ET/EU> and the media unit previously in <dst1 ET/EU> is moved to <dst2 ET/EU>. In the case of a simple exchange, <dst2 ET/EU> is omitted and the values <src ET/EU> are used in their place. The optional modifiers inv1 and inv2 specify whether the media units are to be inverted before insertion into <dst1 ET/EU> and <dst2 ET/EU> respectively.

Note that not all medium changers support the exchange operation; the changer must have multiple free pickers or emulate multiple free pickers with transient storage.

return Xo
  <from ET> <from EU>
  Return the media unit to its source element. This command will query the status of the specified media unit, and will move it to the element specified in its source attribute. This is a convenient way to return media from a drive or portal to its previous element in the changer.

position Xo
  <to ET> <to EU> [inv]
  Position the picker in front of the element described by <to ET/EU>. If the optional modifier inv is specified, the media unit will be inverted before insertion.

Note that not all changers behave as expected when issued this command.

  Report the number of slots, drives, pickers, and portals in the changer, and which picker unit the changer is currently configured to use.
  Report which picker unit the changer is currently configured to use.
setpicker Xo
  Configure the changer to use picker <unit>.

ielem Xo
  Perform an INITIALIZE ELEMENT STATUS operation on the changer. The optional <timeout> parameter may be given to specify a timeout in seconds for the operations. This may be used if the operation takes unusually long because of buggy firmware or the like.
voltag Xo
  [-fca] <ET> <EU> [<label>] [<serial>]
  Change volume tag for an element in the media changer. This command is only supported by few media changers. If it is not supported by a device, using this command will usually result in an "Invalid Field in CDB" error message on the console.

If the -c flag is specified, the volume tag of the specified element is cleared. If the -f flag is specified, the volume tag is superseded with the specified volume tag even if a volume tag is already defined for the element. It is an error to not specify the -f flag when trying to set a label for an element which already has volume tag information defined.

The command works with the primary volume tag or, if the -a flag is given, with the alternate volume tag.

status Xo
  [-vVsSbIa] [<type>]
  Report the status of all elements in the changer. If <type> is specified, report the status of all elements of type <type>.
-v Print the primary volume tag for each loaded medium, if any. The volume tag is printed as "<LABEL:SERIAL>".
-V Print the alternate volume tag for each loaded medium, if any.
-s Print the additional sense code and additional sense code qualifier for each element.
-S Print the element source address for each element.
-b Print SCSI bus information for each element. Note that this information is valid only for drives.
-I Print the internal element addresses for each element. The internal element address is not normally used with this driver. It is reported for diagnostic purposes only.
-a Print all additional information (as in -vVsSba ).

The status bits are defined as follows:
FULL Element contains a media unit.
  Media was deposited into element by an outside human operator.
  Element is in an abnormal state.
  Media in this element is accessible by a picker.
  Element supports passing media (exporting) to an outside human operator.
  Element supports receiving media (importing) from an outside human operator.


  default changer device


chio move slot 3 drive 0
  Move the media in slot 3 (fourth slot) to drive 0 (first drive).
chio move voltag VOLUME01 drive 0
  Move the media with the barcode VOLUME01 to drive 0 (first drive).
chio return drive 0
  Remove the tape from drive 0 (first drive) and return it to its original location in the rack.
chio setpicker 2
  Configure the changer to use picker 2 (third picker) for operations.


mt(1), mount(8)


.An -nosplit The chio program and SCSI changer driver were written by
.An Jason R. Thorpe Aq for And Communications,

Additional work by
.An Hans Huebner <> and
.An Steve Gunn <>.

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