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Man Pages

Manual Reference Pages  -  DDRESCUE (1)


ddrescue - data recovery tool




ddrescue [options] infile outfile [logfile]


GNU ddrescue - Data recovery tool. Copies data from one file or block device to another, trying to rescue the good parts first in case of read errors.

You should use a logfile unless you know what you are doing. If you reboot, check the device names before restarting ddrescue. Do not use options ’-F’ or ’-G’ without reading the manual first.


-h, --help display this help and exit
-V, --version
  output version information and exit
-a, --min-read-rate=<bytes>
  minimum read rate of good areas in bytes/s
-A, --try-again
  mark non-split, non-trimmed blocks as non-tried
-b, --sector-size=<bytes>
  sector size of input device [default 512]
-B, --binary-prefixes
  show binary multipliers in numbers [SI]
-c, --cluster-size=<sectors>
  sectors to copy at a time [128]
-C, --complete-only
  do not read new data beyond logfile limits
-d, --direct
  use direct disc access for input file
-D, --synchronous
  use synchronous writes for output file
-e, --max-errors=[+]<n>
  maximum number of [new] error areas allowed
-E, --max-error-rate=<bytes>
  maximum allowed rate of read errors per second
-f, --force
  overwrite output device or partition
-F, --fill-mode=<types>
  fill given type blocks with infile data (?*/-+)
-G, --generate-mode
  generate approximate logfile from partial copy
-H, --test-mode=<file>
  set map of good/bad blocks from given logile
-i, --input-position=<bytes>
  starting position in input file [0]
-I, --verify-input-size
  verify input file size with size in logfile
-K, --skip-size=<min>[,<max>]
  initial size to skip on read error [64 KiB]
-l, --logfile-size=<entries>
  do not grow logfile beyond this size [10000]
-L, --loose-domain
  accept an incomplete domain logfile
-m, --domain-logfile=<file>
  restrict domain to finished blocks in file
-M, --retrim
  mark all failed blocks as non-trimmed
-n, --no-split
  skip the splitting phase
-N, --no-trim
  skip the trimming phase
-o, --output-position=<bytes>
  starting position in output file [ipos]
-O, --reopen-on-error
  reopen input file after every read error
-p, --preallocate
  preallocate space on disc for output file
-q, --quiet
  suppress all messages
-r, --retry-passes=<n>
  exit after <n> retry passes (-1=infinity) [0]
-R, --reverse
  reverse direction of some copy operations
-s, --size=<bytes>
  maximum size of input data to be copied
-S, --sparse
  use sparse writes for output file
-t, --truncate
  truncate output file to zero size
-T, --timeout=<interval>
  maximum time since last successful read
-v, --verbose
  be verbose (a 2nd -v gives more)
-w, --ignore-write-errors
  make fill mode ignore write errors
-x, --extend-outfile=<bytes>
  extend outfile size to be at least this long
-1, --log-rates=<file>
  log rates and error sizes in file
-2, --log-reads=<file>
  log all read operations in file
Numbers may be in decimal, hexadecimal or octal, and may be followed by a multiplier: s = sectors, k = 1000, Ki = 1024, M = 10^6, Mi = 2^20, etc... Time intervals have the format 1[.5][smhd] or 1/2[smhd].

Exit status: 0 for a normal exit, 1 for environmental problems (file not found, invalid flags, I/O errors, etc), 2 to indicate a corrupt or invalid input file, 3 for an internal consistency error (eg, bug) which caused ddrescue to panic.


Report bugs to
Ddrescue home page:
General help using GNU software:


Copyright © 2014 Antonio Diaz Diaz. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


The full documentation for ddrescue is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and ddrescue programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info ddrescue
should give you access to the complete manual.
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ddrescue 1.18.1 DDRESCUE (1) June 2014

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