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Manual Reference Pages  -  DNSVIZ-PROBE (1)


dnsviz-probe - issue diagnostic DNS queries


Exit Codes
See Also


dnsviz probe [options] [domain_name...]


Perform a series of diagnostic queries of specified names to either recursive (default) or authoritative DNS servers, the results of which are serialized into JSON format. Its output is used to assess the health of DNS deployments, using, e.g., "dnsviz grok" and "dnsviz graph".

Domain names to be processed may be passed either as command-line arguments or in a file (using the -f option). When the -r option is used, then the domain names can simply be implied using the diagnostic query input.

Domain names are extracted from the diagnostic query input in conjunction with -r only when -f is not used and no domain names are supplied on the command line. If the -f option is used, then names may not be specified on the command line.

The domain names passed as input are fully-qualified domain names, such as,,,, or Because it is implied that specified domain names are fully qualified, no trailing dot is necessary.


-f <filename> Read names from a file (one name per line), instead of from command line.

If this option is used, then names may not be specified on the command line.

-d <level> Set debug level to a value from 0 to 3, with increasing verbosity. The default is "2" (informational-level output).
-r <filename> Read diagnostic query input from the specified file, instead of querying servers. Specify "-" to read from standard input.
-t <threads> Specify the number of threads to use for issuing diagnostic queries for different names in parallel. The default is to execute diagnostic queries of names serially.
-4 Use IPv4 only.
-6 Use IPv6 only.
-b <address> Specify a source IPv4 or IPv6 address for queries, rather than detecting it.

This option can be used more than once to supply both an IPv4 and an IPv6 address.

The use of this option is sometimes necessary when using a dual-homed machine, and it is desirable to use the non-default interface for queries.

-u <url> Specify the URL (HTTP/HTTPS only) for a DNS looking glass that will send the diagnostic queries, rather than sending them locally.


Issue DNS queries from using the cgi scripg dnsviz-lg.cgi">

Same, but use HTTP Basic authentication

This option is only supported when using python version 2.7.9 or greater.

-k When -u is used to specify the URL of a DNS looking glass, don’t verify the server-side TLS cert.

-a <ancestor> Issue diagnostic queries of each domain name through the specified ancestor. The default for recursive mode is "." (i.e., issue queries all the way to the root). The default for authoritative mode (i.e., with -A) is the domain name itself.
-R <type>[,<type>...] Issue diagnostic queries for only the specified type(s) (e.g., A, AAAA). The default is to pick query types based on the nature of the name (e.g., the number of labels, whether it is a subdomain of .arpa, labels indicating association to TLSA or SRV records, etc.) and whether there are NS records detected (i.e., it is a zone).
-s <server>[,<server>...] Designate one or more servers for recursive queries, rather than using those specified in /etc/resolv.conf.

Each server specified may either be an address (IPv4 or IPv6), a domain name (which will be resolved to an address using the standard resolution process), or both, using the syntax "name=address". Note that when both a name and an address are specified ("name=address"), the name is only used for identification purposes, and it doesn’t matter whether the name resolves to the corresponding address (or at all, for that matter).

This option cannot be used in conjunction with -A.

-A Query authoritative servers, rather than (the default) recursive servers.
-x <domain>:<server>[,<server>...] Set explicit delegation for the specified domain to one or more servers.

See -s for the syntax used for designating servers.

This option may be used multiple times on the command line.

This option can only be used in conjunction with -A.

-E Include diagnostic DNS queries that can assess EDNS compatibility of servers.

If this option is used, each server probed will be queried with "future" EDNS settings, the respective responses can later be assessed for proper behavior. These settings include future EDNS versions (i.e., > 0), unknown options, and unknown flags.

-o <filename> Write the output to the specified file instead of to standard output, which is the default.
-p Make JSON output "pretty" instead of minimal (i.e., using indentation and newlines).
-h Display the usage and exit.


The exit codes are:
0 Program terminated normally.
1 Incorrect usage.
2 The network was unavailable for diagnostic queries.
3 There was an error processing the input or saving the output.
4 Program execution was interrupted, or an unknown error ocurred.


dnsviz(1), dnsviz-grok(1), dnsviz-graph(1), dnsviz-print(1), dnsviz-query(1)
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v0.5.0 DNSVIZ-PROBE (1) 13 Dec 2015

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