Enable hypervisor mode.
The hypervisor mode of dynamips allows you to run simultaneously many virtual router instances, and to simulate ATM, Ethernet or Frame-Relay networks.
You can connect directly to the TCP control port with telnet, or use dynagen(1), dynagui(1) that will pass commands transparently. The second method is highly recommended.
|Set logging file (default is dynamips_log.txt)|
|-j||Disable the JIT compiler, very slow|
Set the exec area size (default: 64 Mb)
The exec area is a pool of host memory used to store pages translated by the JIT (they contain the native code corresponding to MIPS code pages).
Set the idle PC (default: disabled)
The "idle PC" feature allows you to run a router instance without having a 100% CPU load. This implies that you can run a larger number of instances per real machine.
To determine the "idle PC", start normally the emulator with your Cisco IOS image, and a totally IOS empty configuration (although not mandatory, this will give better results). When the image is fully booted, wait for the "Press RETURN to get started!" message prompt, but do not press Enter key. Wait about 5 seconds, then press "Ctrl-] + i". Some statistics will be gathered during 10 seconds. At the end, the emulator will display a list of possible values to pass to the "--idle-pc" option. You may have to try some values before finding the good one. To check if the idle PC value is good, just boot the Cisco IOS image, and check your CPU load when the console prompt is available. If it is low, you have found a good value, keep it preciously.
* An "idle PC" value is *specific* to a Cisco IOS image. You cannot boot a different IOS image without proceeding as described above.
* Do not run the process while having the "autoconfiguration" prompt.
|Timer IRQ interval check (default: 1000)|
|Set instance ID|
|Set the virtual RAM size (default: 256 Mb)|
|Set the virtual ROM size (default: 4 Mb)|
|Set the NVRAM size (default: 128 Kb)|
|Set the configuration register (default: 0x2102)|
|Set the MAC address of the chassis (default: automatically generated)|
|-C, --startup-config <file>|
|Import IOS configuration file into NVRAM|
|Import IOS configuration file into NVRAM|
|-X||Do not use a file to simulate RAM (faster)|
|Load an alternate ROM (default: embedded)|
Set the clock divisor (default: 4)
Specify the clock divider (integer) based on the host clock. Alter the value to match the CISCO clock with the real time. The command "show clock" at the IOS CLI will help you set this value.
|Console is on TCP <port>|
|Console in on serial interface <si_desc> (default is on the terminal)|
|AUX is on TCP <port>|
|AUX is on serial interface <si_desc> (default is no AUX port)|
|Set PCMCIA ATA disk0: size (default: 64 Mb)|
|Set PCMCIA ATA disk1: size (default: 0 Mb)|
|Virtual ATM switch configuration file.|
|Virtual Frame-Relay switch configuration file.|
|Virtual Ethernet switch configuration file.|
Show network device list of the host machine.
-t <npe_type> Select NPE type (default: "npe-200") -M <midplane> Select Midplane ("std" or "vxr") -p <pa_desc> Define a Port Adapter -s <pa_nio> Bind a Network IO interface to a Port Adapter
-t <chassis_type> Select Chassis type (default: "3640") -p <nm_desc> Define a Network Module -s <nm_nio> Bind a Network IO interface to a Network Module
Format slot:pa_driver slot the number of the physical slot (starts from 0) pa_driver the name of a Port Adapter driver in:
C7200-IO-FE (FastEthernet, slot 0 only) PA-FE-TX (FastEthernet, slots 1 to 6) PA-4E (Ethernet, 4 ports) PA-8E (Ethernet, 8 ports) PA-4T+ (Serial, 4 ports) PA-8T (Serial, 8 ports) PA-A1 (ATM)
Format slot:nm_driver slot the number of the physical slot (starts from 0) nm_driver the name of a Network Module driver in:
NM-1E (Ethernet, 1 port) NM-4E (Ethernet, 4 ports) NM-1FE-TX (FastEthernet, 1 port) NM-4T (Serial, 4 ports) Leopard-2FE (Cisco 3660 FastEthernet in slot 0, automatically used)
Format slot:port:netio_type[:netio_parameters] slot the number of the physical slot (starts from 0) port the port in the specified slot (starts from 0) netio_type host interface for communication
unix:<local_sock>:<remote_sock> Use unix sockets for local communication. <local_sock> is created and represents the local NIC. <remote_sock> is the file used by the other interface. (ex. "/tmp/local:/tmp/remote") vde:<control_sock>:<local_sock> For use with UML (User-Mode-Linux) or VDE switches. VDE stands for "Virtual Distributed Ethernet". Please refer to : http://sourceforge.net/projects/vde/ tap:<tap_name> Use a virtual ethernet device for communication. <tap_name> is the name of the tap device (ex. "tap0") gen_eth:<dev_name> Use a real ethernet device for communication, using libpcap 0.9 or WinPcap. Works on Windows and Unix systems.
<dev_name> is the name of the Ethernet device (ex. "eth0")
The device list can be found using the "-e" option.
linux_eth:<dev_name> Use a real ethernet device for communication (Linux specific). <dev_name> is the name of the Ethernet device (ex. "eth0") udp:<local_port>:<remote_host>:<remote_port> Use an UDP socket for connection between remote instances. <local_port> is the port we listen to. <remote_host> is the host listening the port you want to connect to. <remote_port> is the port you want to connect to. (ex. "1000:somehost:2000" and "2000:otherhost:1000" on the other side) tcp_cli:<host>:<port> Client side of a tcp connection. <host> is the ip address of the server. <port> is the port to connect to. tcp_ser:<port> Server side of a tcp connection. <port> is the port to listen to. null Dummy netio (used for testing/debugging), no parameters needed.
device character device name, e.g. /dev/ttyS0 baudrate baudrate databits number of databits parity data parity: N=none, O=odd, E=even stopbits number of stop bits hwflow hardware flow control (0=disable, 1=enable)
Note that the device field is mandatory, however other fields are optional. (dynamips will default to 9600, 8, N, 1, no hardware flow control)
Note that access to the escape commands (described below) through a serial port are deliberately prevented, as the escape commands interfere with serial encapsulation protocols.
You can press ^] (Ctrl + ]) at any time, followed by one of these characters:
o Show the VM object list d Show the device list r Dump MIPS CPU registers t Dump MIPS TLB entries m Dump the latest memory accesses s Suspend CPU emulation u Resume CPU emulation q Quit the emulator b Dump the instruction block tree h JIT hash table statistics l MTS64 cache statistics c Write IOS configuration to disk (ios_cfg.txt) j Non-JIT mode statistics x Experimentations (can crash the box!) ^] Send ^]
If you press an unrecognized key, help will be shown. Note: on Windows, it may be the "Ctrl + $" sequence.
The virtual bridge is used to emulate a shared network between emulator instances. Any emulator instance can act as a virtual bridge.
The configuration file (specified by the "-b" option) contains a list of NetIO descriptors, with the following syntax:
# Connection to instance "I0" I0:udp:10000:127.0.0.1:10001 # Connection to instance "I1" I1:udp:10002:127.0.0.1:10003 # Connection to instance "I2" I2:udp:10004:127.0.0.1:10005 The "I0" instance would be launched with the following parameters: dynamips ios.bin -p 1:PA-FE-TX -s 1:0:udp:10001:127.0.0.1:10000
The virtual ethernet switch is used to emulate an Ethernet network between emulator instances. This switch supports access and trunk ports (802.1Q). ISL will be available in a future release.
Any emulator instance can act as a virtual ethernet switch.
The configuration file (specified by the "-E" option) contains a list of NetIO descriptors (representing interfaces) and a list of interface properties (access/trunk port, VLAN info...)
The interface definition is similar to Port Adapters:
ACCESS:interface_name:vlan_id 802.1Q Trunk Port DOT1Q:interface_name:native_vlan The native VLAN is not tagged. On Cisco devices, by default the native VLAN is VLAN 1. Example of configuration file: IF:E0:udp:10000:127.0.0.1:10001 IF:E1:udp:10002:127.0.0.1:10003 IF:E2:gen_eth:eth0 DOT1Q:E0:1 ACCESS:E1:4 DOT1Q:E2:1
The virtual ATM switch fabric is used to emulate an ATM backbone between emulator instances. The use of this virtual switch is not mandatory, you can directly connect emulator instances for point-to-point ATM connections. Please note that only basic VP/VC switching is supported, there is no support for ILMI/QSAAL/... or other specific ATM protocols.
Any emulator instance can act as a virtual ATM switch.
Example of configuration file (specified by the "-a" option): # Virtual Interface List IF:A0:udp:10001:127.0.0.1:10000 IF:A1:udp:10002:127.0.0.1:10003 IF:A2:udp:10004:127.0.0.1:10005 # VP connection between I0 and I1 VP:A0:10:A1:20 VP:A1:20:A0:10 # VP connection between I0 and I2 VP:A0:11:A2:30 VP:A2:30:A0:11 # VC connection between I1 and I2 VC:A1:5:2:A2:7:3 VC:A2:7:3:A1:5:2 In this example, we have 3 virtual interfaces, A0, A1 and A2. The syntax for interface definition is similar to Port Adapters: IF:interface_name:netio_type[:netio_parameters] You can do VP switching or VC switching: VP switching VP:input_if:input_vpi:output_if:output_vpi VC switching VC:input_if:input_vpi:input_vci:output_if:output_vpi:output_vci
Virtual ATM switch configuration file ("atm.cfg"): IF:A0:udp:10003:127.0.0.1:10001 IF:A1:udp:10004:127.0.0.1:10002 # a0/vpi=1/vci=100 connects to a1/vpi=2/vci=200 VC:A0:1:100:A1:2:200 VC:A1:2:200:A0:1:100 Invoking dynamips: ./dynamips -p 1:PA-A1 -s 1:0:udp:10001:127.0.0.1:10003 -p 2:PA-A1 -s 2:0:udp:10002:127.0.0.1:10004 -a atm.cfg IOS.BIN
(note input ports of IOS interfaces are output ports of ATM switch interfaces, and vice versa).
IOS Configuration: ip cef ip vrf test rd 1:1 route-target both 1:1 int a1/0 no shut int a1/0.2 p ip addr 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 pvc 1/100 interface a2/0 no shut interface a2/0.2 p ip vrf forwarding test ip addr 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.0 pvc 2/200 !
The virtual Frame-Relay switch fabric is used to emulate a Frame-Relay backbone between emulator instances. The use of this virtual switch is not mandatory, you can directly connect emulator instances with appropriate IOS configuration.
Any emulator instance can act as a virtual Frame-Relay switch. There is only a basic implementation of the LMI protocol (ANSI Annex D), which is probably not conforming but works with Cisco IOS. Fortunately, Cisco IOS is able to detect automatically the LMI protocol.
Example of configuration file (specified by the "-f" option): # Virtual Interface List IF:S0:udp:10001:127.0.0.1:10000 IF:S1:udp:10002:127.0.0.1:10003 # DLCI switching between S0 and S1 VC:S0:200:S1:100 VC:S1:100:S0:200 In this example, we have 2 virtual interfaces, S0 and S1. The syntax for interface definition is similar to Port Adapters: IF:interface_name:netio_type[:netio_parameters]
DLCI switching syntax:
In the example above, the switch is configured to switch packets received on interface S0 with DLCI 200 to interface S1 with DLCI 100, and vice-versa.
Please send bug reports to
nvram_export(1), hypervisor_mode(7), dynagen(1), dynagui(1)
dynamips is being maintained by Flávio J. Saraiva <firstname.lastname@example.org>. This manual page was initially written by Erik Wenzel <email@example.com> for the Debian GNU/Linux system.
|-->||DYNAMIPS (1)||Sep 28, 2013|