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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  ICMAKE (1)

NAME

icmake - A program maintenance (make) utility using a C-like grammar

CONTENTS

SYNOPSIS

icmake [options] source[.im] [dest[.bim]] [-- [args]]

icmun bimfile

DESCRIPTION

Icmake(1) can be used as an alternative to make(1). In its standard operation more, it calls the following programs:
o icm-pp to preprocess the icmake file
o icm-comp to byte-code compile the icmake s
o icm-exec to interpret the byte-code file

Icmake allows the programmer to use a program language (closely resembling the well-known C-programming language) to define the actions involved in (complex) program maintenance. For this, icmake offers various special operators as well as a set of support functions that have proven to be useful in program maintenance.

The program icmun(1) may be used to disassemble the compiled byte-code file.

Traditional make-utilities recompile sources once header files are modified. In the context of C++ program development this is often a bad idea, as adding a new member to a class does not normally require you to recompile the class\(cqs sources. To handle class dependencies in a more sensible way, icmake(1)\(cqs CLASSES file may define dependencies among classes. By default, class-dependencies are not interpreted. See the icmconf(7) man-page for details.

ADDITONS SINCE VERSION 7.00

o Integral constants may be specified using hexadecimal notation (e.g., 0x12ab);
o The IM environment variable may contain multiple directories, separated from each other by colons (:).
o #define-directives may refer to other macro definitions using the ${identifier} format.
o #ifdef, #ifndef, #else and #endif directives can be nested.
o The ‘backtick\(cq operator is defined, executing a program in a shell and collecting its standard output in a list (see below).
o The index operator ([]) is defined as an alternative to the pre-defined function element(), and can be used on lists and strings.
o The function string getenv(string envvar) is predefined. If existing scripts already define a getenv() function of their own, it it suggested to remove this function and use the new getenv() function instead. Alternatively, rename the script-defined function getenv() and calls of this function to, e.g. my_getenv().
o The function int strstr(string haystack, string needle) is renamed to int strfind(string haystack, string needle).
NOTE: this modification in version 7.00 could very well affect your earlier (6.xx) icmake scripts. Changing ‘strstr\(cq into ‘strfind\(cq should bring your older scripts up-to-date again.

OPTIONS

Icmake:

source: icmake script source file (default extension: .im).

dest: binary icmake script file (default: ‘source\(cq.bim).

--: icmake/icmake-script arguments separator

args: arguments following -- are entered into the icmake scipt main() function\(cqs argv-list (see below at section USER DEFINED FUNCTIONS).

o -a
information about icmake
o -b
blunt execution of the destinationfile
o -c
the destination file is only compiled
o -i file
file: name of source. Icmake argument processing stops.
o -o file
all icmake output is written to file (Not implemented on unix platforms)
o -p
only the preprocessor is activated
o -q
quiet mode: copyright banner not displayed
o -t file
file is used as a temporary bim-file, to be removed on exit. Icmake argument processing stops.

Icmun:

bimfile: binary icmake script file.

PREPROCESSOR DIRECTIVES

The following preprocessor directives are available:
o comment:
standard C comment (all between /* and */) as well as comment-to-end-of-line (all line contents following //) are ignored.
o Shell startup: The first line of the icmake-script may start with #!path, where path defines the absolute location of the icmake program. By making the script executable, it can be called without explicitly calling icmake.
E.g., if the first line of an (executable) icmakefile \(cqicm\(cq (without extension) contains

#!/usr/local/bin/icmake -qi

then icm may be given as a command, thus executing

/usr/bin/icmake -qi icm ...

Alternatively,

#!/usr/local/bin/icmake -qt /tmp/icm

may be used, resulting in the execution of

#!/usr/local/bin/icmake -qt /tmp/icm icm ...

In this case the binary makefile is not kept, but a temporary file /tmp/icm.PID is used and removed on exit. The PID extension being the process-id of the icmake program executing icm.
o #include \(dqfilename\(dq
The file filename is included at the location of the directive
o #include <filename>
The file filename is included at the location of the #include directive; filename is searched in the directories pointed to by the IM environment variable.
o #define identifier definition
The text identifier will be replaced by definition. The definition may contain references to already defined identifiers, using the ${identifier} format. If the ${identifier} hasn\(cqt been defined (yet), the text ${identifier} is literally kept. At each #define at most 100 text-replacements are performed, preventing infinite recursion.
o #ifdef identifier
If the identifier macro was defined the next block of code (until a matching #else or #endif directive was detected) is byte-compiled. Otherwise, the block of code is ignored.
o #ifndef identifier
If the identifier macro was not defined the next block of code (until a matching #else or #endif directive was detected) is byte-compiled. Otherwise, the block of code is ignored.
o #else
Terminates a #ifdef and #ifndef directive, reversing the acceptance decision about the following code.
o #endif
Terminates the preprocessor block starting at the matching #ifdef, #ifndef or #else directive.
o #undef identifier
Remove identifier from the set of defined symbols. This will not affect the specification of any previously defined symbols in which identifier was used.

DATA TYPES

The following data types are available:
o int
Integral values, ranging from -0x8000 until 0x7fff. int constants may be specified as decimal numbers, hexadecimal numbers or as ASCII character constants (e.g., \(cqx\(cq).
o string
Text variables. Text constants are delimited by double quotes. Multiple text constants may be concatenated, but a text constant may not extend over multiple lines. To indicate an end-of-line in a text constant use the \n escape sequence. The escape sequences \a \b \f \n \r and \t are available. Otherwise, \x is interpreted as a literal x. So, use \\ to indicate \ within a text constant.
o list
A data structure containing a series of individually accessible string values. When a list contains elements, its first element is indicated by index 0.
o void
Used with function definitions to indicate that the function does not return a value.

Variables may be defined both at the global level as well as locally to functions. Variables are strongly typed. A variable cannot have the type void.

Variables may be initialized when they are defined. The initialization can use return values of functions, but cannot use variables. Consider initializations as being constructed from constant values.

PREDEFINED SYMBOLS

The following symbols are predefined by icmake. All are constant int values:

The following symbols are available depending on the architecture:

OPERATORS

All C operators, except for the ternary operator, are supported, operating like their C counterparts on int variables and/or values.

Additionally, for string type variables and/or values the following operators are available:
o a + b: returns a new string value containing the concatenation of string values a and b. Note that string constants may be concatetated without using the + operator, e.g.,

\(dqhello \(dq \(dqworld\(dq \(dqhello \(dq + \(dqworld\(dq

o a += b: a must be a string variable, to which the string variable or value b is appended.
o string comparisons: operators == != <= >= < > != and == may be applied to string values or variables, returning 1 if the comparison succeeds, otherwise 0. Comparison is case sensitively, and follows the ASCII character set.
o !a: the boolean ! operator returns 1 if the string a is empty, otherwise 0 is returned.
o a younger b, a newer b: returns 1 if file a is more recent than file b. E.g., \(dqsource.cc\(dq newer \(dqsource.o\(dq. If b doesn\(cqt exist, 1 is returned; if a doesn\(cqt exist 0 is returned; if neither a nor b exists, 0 is returned; if they are of the same age, 0 is returned. Explicit tests for the existence of a file can be performed using the exists() predefined function (see below, section PREDEFINED FUNCTIONS).
o a older b: turns 1 if file a is older than file b. E.g., \(dqlibprog.a\(dq older \(dqsource.o\(dq. If a doesn\(cqt exist, 1 is returned; if b doesn\(cqt exist 0 is returned; if neither a nor b exists, 0 is returned; if they are of the same age, 0 is returned.
o []: the index operator is defined as an alternative to the built-in function element. It can only be applied (as holds true for element() as well) as so-called rvalue. Therefore, constructions like:

// assume str1 and str2 are strings str1 = str2[3]

will be accepted, but the following construction will not be accepted:

str2[3] = str; // won\(cqt compile

For list type variables and/or values the following operators are available:
o a + b: returns a new list value containing the concatenation of list values a and b. This is not a set operation: if an element appears both in a and in b, they will appear twice in the resulting list.
o a - b: returns a new list value containing the elements in a that are not present in b. This is a set operation.
o a += b: elements in b are added to the elements in a, which must be a list variable. This is not a set operation.
o a -= b: elements in b are removed from the elements in a, which must be a list variable. This is a set operation.
o list equality comparisons: operators != and == may be applied to list values or variables. Operator == returns 1 if both lists have element-by-element identical elements, 0 otherwise. Operator != reverses the result of ==.
o !a: the boolean ! operator returns 1 if the list a is empty, otherwise 0 is returned.
o []: the index operator is defined as an alternative to the built-in function element. It can only be applied (as holds true for element() as well) as so-called rvalue. Therefore, constructions like:

// assume lst is a list, str is a string str = lst[3]

will be accepted, but the following construction will not be accepted:

lst[3] = str; // won\(cqt compile

Typecasts may be performed using the standard C cast-operator to cast:
o Strings to ints and vice versa ((int)\(dq123\(dq, (string)55)
o Strings may be cast to lists (list lst = (list)\(dqhello\(dq)

FLOW CONTROL

Icmake offers the following subset of C\(cqs statement types. They can be used as in the C programming language.
o expression ;
The plain expression statement;
o The compound statement
Different from C icmake does not support variable definitions inside a compound statement. All variables used locally by a function must be defined as either function parameters or as variables that are defined immediately at the beginning of a function\(cqs body.
o if (condition) statement
o if (condition) statement else statement
o for (init; condition; increment) statement
The variable(s) used in the initialization section must already have been defined. The init, condition and increment sections may be left empty. The empty condition section is interpreted as ‘always true\(cq.
o while (condition) statement
The do ... while() statement is not implemented for icmake.
o return (for void functions) and return expression for other functions.
o break
To leave for and while statements, overruling the statement\(cqs condition. C\(cqs continue is not available.
o exit(expression)
To terminate the icmake-script. The expression must evaluate to an int value, which becomes the script\(cqs exit value.

PREDEFINED FUNCTIONS

Icmake offers the following predefined functions, which can be used immediately by icmake scripts. The function overview is ordered alphabetically by function name, but where appropriate short summary labels are provided:

Helper functions of exec() (see also below at exec()):
o void arghead(string h)
Defines the ‘argument head\(cq, to be used with exec(). By default, the ‘argument head\(cq is an empty string.
o void argtail (string t)
Defines the ‘argument tail\(cq, to be used with exec(). By default, the ‘argument tail\(cq is an empty string.

String-to-ascii converters:
o int ascii(string s)
Returns the first character of s as an int; e.g., ascii(\(dqA\(dq) returns 65;
o string ascii(int i)
Returns i as a string, e.g., ascii(65) returns the string \(dqA\(dq;

System calls:
o The ‘backtick‘ operator ()
A string placed between two backticks is executed by the popen(3) function. The standard output gererated by the command that is stored in the string argument is returned as a list. An empty list indicates that the command could not be executed. A command that could be executed but did not produce any output returns a list containing one empty element. The command\(cqs standard error stream output is not automatically collected. Standard shell redirection could be used to collect the standard error stream\(cqs output as well. Example:

string s = \(dqls\(dq; printf(‘s‘); // prints the elements in the current // directory

Filename modifiers:
o string change_base(string file, string newbase)
Changes the basename of file, returns the changed name. E.g, change_base(\(dq/path/demo.im\(dq, \(dqout\(dq) returns \(dq/path/out.im\(dq;
o string change_ext(string file, string newext)
Changes the extension of file, returns the changed name. E.g, change_ext(\(dqsource.cc\(dq, \(dqo\(dq) returns \(dqsource.o\(dq;
o string change_path(string file, string newpath)
Changes the path specification of file, returns the changed name. E.g, change_path(\(dqtmp/binary\(dq, \(dq/usr/bin\(dq) returns \(dq/usr/bin/binary\(dq. Note that the /-separator is inserted if required.

System calls:
o string chdir(string newdir)
Changes the script\(cqs working directory, returns the previous dir as an absolute path.
Use chdir(\(dq.\(dq) to get current working directory, chdir(\(dq\(dq) may be used to obtain the startup working directory (this functionality was broken in releases before than 7.00, but is now operational). The function terminates the icmake-script if the specified newdir does not exist.
o string chdir(int checking, string newdir)
Same functionality as the previous function, but by specifying checking as P_NOCHECK the function won\(cqt terminate the script. Rather, it will return the script\(cqs current working directory.

Helper functions of exec() (see also below at exec()):
o cmdhead(string h)
Defines a ‘command head\(cq, to be used with exec(). By default, the ‘command head\(cq is an empty string.
o cmdtail(string t)
Defines a ‘command tail\(cq, to be used with exec(). By default, the ‘command tail\(cq is an empty string.

Icmake execution modifier:
o echo(int opt)
Controls echoing of called programs (and their arguments), specify OFF if echoing is not requested. By default ON is active.

Functions returning elements of aggregates:
o string element(int index, list lst)
Returns string index (0-based) from lst. An empty string is returned if an unavailable index value is provided. See also the [] operator in the section OPERATORS.
o string element(int index, string str)
Returns character index (0-based) from str. An empty string is returned if an unavailable index value is provided. See also the [] operator in the section OPERATORS.

System calls:
o exec(string cmd, ...)
Executes command with arguments. Each argument will be prefixed by arghead()\(cqs argument and postfixed by argtail()\(cqs argument. Note that no blanks are inserted between arghead()\(cqs contents, the argument proper, and argtail()\(cqs argument. All thus modified arguments are concatenated, this time separated by single blanks, and then cmdhead()\(cqs contents are inserted between the command and the first argument (on either side delimited by single blanks) and cmdtail()\(cqs contents are appended to the arguments (again, separated by a single blank). PATH is searched to locate cmd. 0 is returned.
o exec(int checkcmd, string cmd, ...)
Same functionality as the previous function, but by specifying checking as P_NOCHECK the function won\(cqt terminate the script. Rather, it will return the called command\(cqs exit status, or 0x7f00 if the command wasn\(cqt found.
o execute(string cmd, string cmdhd, string arghd, ..., string argtl, string cmdtl)
Same as exec(), but command head/tail and argument head/tail must be specified. The actually executed command starts with cmd, followed by cmdhd. Next is a series of arguments follows, each enclosed by arghd and argtl. The command terminates with cmdtl. 0 is returned
o execute(int checking, string cmd, string cmdhd, string arghd, ..., string argtl, string cmdtl)
Same functionality as the previous function, but by specifying checking as P_NOCHECK the function won\(cqt terminate the script. Rather, it will return the called command\(cqs exit status, or 0x7f00 if the command wasn\(cqt found. )
System interface:
o int exists(string file)
Returns a non-zero value if file exists, otherwise 0 is returned.

Input interface:
o list fgets(string file, int offset)
The next line found at offet offset is read from file. It returns a list retlist containing two elements:
element(0, retlist) is the string that was read (including the \n, if found)
element(1, retlist) is the next offset to read.

An empty return list signifies EOF. Since an empty list\(cqs ‘first\(cq eement is an empty string, which is converted to the value 0, a file may be read and processed as follows:

list line; while (1) { line = fgets(\(dqfilename\(dq, (int)line[1]); if (!line) break; process(line[0]); }

Output interface:
o int fprintf(string filename, ...)
Appends all (comma separated) arguments to the file filename. Returns the number of printed arguments.

Filename modifier:
o string get_base(string file)
Returns the base name of file. The base name is the file without its path prefix and without its extension. The extension is all information starting at the final dot in the filename. If no final dot is found, the file name is the base name. Eg., the base name of a.b equals a, the base name of a.b.c equals a.b, the base name of a/b/c equals c.

System interface:
o list getenv(string envvar)
Returns the value of environment variable envvar in a list containing two elements:
the first element indicates whether the environment variable was defined (value \(dq1\(dq) or not (value \(dq0\(dq);
the second element indicates the value of the environment variable.
Enivironment variables are of the form variable=value, and if defined the list\(cqs second element contains value. If the value is empty, the variable is defined, but has no text associated with it.

Filename modifier:
o string get_ext(string file)
Returns the extension of file, except for the separating dot. The extension is all information starting at the final dot in the filename. If no final dot is found, the extension is an empty string.

Input interface:
o string getch()
Returns the next pressed key as a string (no ‘Enter\(cq required for ms-dos and unix (incl. linux) systems).

Filename modifier:
o string get_path(string file)
Returns the path-prefix of file. The path prefix is all information up to (and including) the final directory separator (which is, depending on the operating system, a forward- or backslash).
If no path is found, an empty strring is returned.

System interface:
o int getpid()
Returns the process-id (UNIX) or PSP-paragraph (DOS) of the icmake byte code interpreter icm-exec.

Input interface:
o string gets()
Returns the next line read from the keyboard as a string. The line entered on the keyboard must be terminated by an ‘Enter\(cq key, which is not stored in the returned string.

Functions creating lists of files:
o list makelist(string mask)
Returns a list of all files matching mask. E.g., makelist(\(dq*.c\(dq) returns a list containing all files ending in .c.
o list makelist(type, string mask)
Same as the previous function, but the type of the directory elements may be specified as its first argument:

Note that the pattern * will not match hidden entries under Unix-type operating systems. Use .* for that.
o list makelist(string mask, newer, string comparefile)
Returns list of all files matching mask which are newer than a provided comparefile. Operator younger may be used instead of newer. Note that newer and younger are operators, not strings.
o list makelist([int = O_FILE,] string mask, newer, string comparefile)
Same as the previous function, but type may be specified as in list makelist(type, string mask).
o makelist(string mask, older, string comparefile)
See above; returns a list of files that are older than the comparefile.
o makelist(type, string mask, older, string comparefile)
Same as the previous function, but type may be specified as in list makelist(type, string mask).

Output interface:
o int printf(...)
Shows all (comma separated) arguments to screen (i.e., the standard output stream). Returns the number of printed arguments.

System interface:
o int putenv(string envvar)
Adds envvar to the current (icmake) environment Use the format: \(dqVAR=value\(dq. Returns 0.

List information:
o int sizeof(list l)
Returns the number of elements in list

System information:
o list stat(string entry)
Returns stat(2) information of directory entry entry as a list. The returned list has two elements: element 0 is the attribute value, element 1 contains the size of the file.
Attributes are returned as bit-flags, composed from the following predefined constants:

S_IFCHR S_IFDIR S_IFREG S_IREAD S_IWRITE S_IEXEC

See the stat(2) manual page for the meanings of these constants.
o list stat(checking, string entry)
Same as the previous function, but by specifying checking as P_NOCHECK the function won\(cqt terminate the script. Rather, it will rturn stat(2)\(cqs return value.

String support:
o int strlen(string s)
Returns the number of characters in s (not counting the final 0).
o int strfind(string haystack, string needle)
returns index in haystack where needle is found, or -1 if needle is not contained in haystack.
This function was called strstr() in versions before 7.00.
o string strlwr(string s)
Returns a lower-case duplicate of s.
o list strtok(string str, string separators)
Returns a list containing all substrings of str separated by one or more (consecutive) characters in separators. E.g., strtok(\(dqhello icmake\(cqs+world\(dq, \(dq +\(dq) returns the list containing the three strings \(dqhello\(dq, \(dqicmake\(cqs\(dq, and \(dqworld\(dq.
o string strupr(string s)
Returns an upper-case duplicate of s.
o string substr(string text, int offset, int count)
Returns a substring of text, starting at offset, consisting of count characters. If offset exceeds (or equals) the string\(cqs size or if count <= 0, then an empty string is returned. If offset is less than 0 then 0 is used.

System calls:
o int system(string command)
Executes command. The return value indicates the executed command\(cqs exit value. The string command may contain redirection and/or piping characters.
o int system(int checking, string command)
Same functionality as the previous function, but by specifying checking as P_NOCHECK the function won\(cqt terminate the script. Rather, it will return the called command\(cqs exit status, or 0x7f00 if the command wasn\(cqt found. )

USER DEFINED FUNCTIONS

Icmake scripts may define functions, and a function main() must be defined. Functions must have the following elements:
o The function\(cqs return type. One of the available types must be used explicitly, e.g., void. There is no default type.
o The function\(cqs name, e.g., compile.
o A parameter list, defining zero or more comma-separated parameters. The parameters themselves consist of a type name followed by the parameter\(cqs identifier. E.g., (string outfile, string source).
o A body surrounded by a pair of curly braces ({ and }).
Function bodies may contain (optionally initialized) variable definitions. Variable definitions start with a type name, followed by one or more comma separated (optionally initialized) variable identifiers. If a variable is not explicitly initialized it is initialized by default. An int variable is initialized to 0, a string is initialized to empty text (\(dq\(dq) and a list is initialized to a list of zero elements.
Following variable definitions, bodies may contain zero or more statements (see below at section FLOW CONTROL for the various flow-control statements). Note that all local variables must be defined at the very beginning of function bodies.

User defined functions must be defined before they can be used, although they may be called recursively. Therefore, indirect recursion is not supported by icmake.
The user-defined function main() has three optional arguments, which may be omitted from the last one (envp) to the first (argc), as in C. Its full prototype is (note: void return type):

void main(int argc, list argv, list envp)

In main(),
o argc represents the number of elements in argv;
o argv contains the arguments, with element 0 the compiled icmake script (the ‘.bim\(cq file);
o envp containts the ‘environment\(cq variables. The function sizeof() (see below) may be used to determine its elements. Elements in envp have the form variable=value. Alternatively, the function getenv() (see below) can be used to retrieve a specific environment variable immediately. Example:

void main(int argc, list argv) { list toCompile; int idx;

if (argc == 1) usage(element(0, argv));

if (toCompile = altered(\(dq*.cc\(dq)) { for (idx = sizeof(toCompile); idx--; ) compile(element(idx, toCompile));

if (getenv(\(dqdryrun\(dq)[0] == \(dq0\(dq) linking(element(2, argv)); } exit (0); }

FILES

The mentioned paths are sugestive only and may be installation dependent:
o /usr/bin/icmake: the main icmake program;
o /usr/bin/icmun: the icmake unassembler;
o /usr/lib/icm-pp: the preprocessor called by icmake;
o /usr/lib/icm-comp: the compiler called by icmake;
o /usr/lib/icm-exec: the byte-code interpreter called by icmake;

EXAMPLES

The distribution (usually in /usr/share/doc/icmake) contains a directory examples containing various examples of icmake script. Note in particular the examples/icmbuild subdirectory containing a general script for C++ and C program maintenance.

SEE ALSO

icmbuild(1), icmconf(7), icmstart(1), icmstart.rc(7), make(1)

BUGS

None reported

COPYRIGHT

This is free software, distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).

AUTHOR

Frank B. Brokken (f.b.brokken@rug.nl).

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