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Manual Reference Pages  -  NKF (1)

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nkf - Network Kanji Filter



nkf [-butjnesliohrTVvwWJESZxXFfmMBOcdILg] [file ...]


Nkf is a yet another kanji code converter among networks, hosts and terminals. It converts input kanji code to designated kanji code such as ISO-2022-JP, Shift_JIS, EUC-JP, UTF-8, UTF-16 or UTF-32.

One of the most unique faculty of nkf is the guess of the input kanji encodings. It currently recognizes ISO-2022-JP, Shift_JIS, EUC-JP, UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32. So users needn’t set the input kanji code explicitly.

By default, X0201 kana is converted into X0208 kana. For X0201 kana, SO/SI, SSO and ESC-(-I methods are supported. For automatic code detection, nkf assumes no X0201 kana in Shift_JIS. To accept X0201 in Shift_JIS, use -X, -x or -S.


-J -S -E -W -W16 -W32 -j -s -e -w -w16 -w32 Specify input and output encodings. Upper case is input. cf. --ic and --oc.
-J ISO-2022-JP (JIS code).
-S Shift_JIS and JIS X 0201 kana. EUC-JP is recognized as X0201 kana. Without -x flag, JIS X 0201 Katakana (a.k.a.halfwidth kana) is converted into JIS X 0208. If you use Windows, see Windows-31J (CP932).
-W UTF-8N.
-W16[BL][0] UTF-16. B or L gives whether Big Endian or Little Endian. 0 gives whther put BOM or not.
-W32[BL][0] UTF-32. B or L gives whether Big Endian or Little Endian. 0 gives whther put BOM or not.
-b -u Output is buffered (DEFAULT), Output is unbuffered.
-t No conversion.
-i[@B] Specify the escape sequence for JIS X 0208.
-i@ Use ESC ( @. (JIS X 0208-1978)
-iB Use ESC ( B. (JIS X 0208-1983/1990 DEFAULT)
-o[BJ] Specify the escape sequence for US-ASCII/JIS X 0201 Roman. (DEFAULT B)
-r {de/en}crypt ROT13/47
-h[123] --hiragana --katakana --katakana-hiragana
-h1 --hiragana Katakana to Hiragana conversion.
-h2 --katakana Hiragana to Katakana conversion.
-h3 --katakana-hiragana Katakana to Hiragana and Hiragana to Katakana conversion.
-T Text mode output (MS-DOS)
-f[m [- n]] Folding on m length with n margin in a line. Without this option, fold length is 60 and fold margin is 10.
-F New line preserving line folding.
-Z[0-3] Convert X0208 alphabet (Fullwidth Alphabets) to ASCII.
-Z -Z0 Convert X0208 alphabet to ASCII.
-Z1 Convert X0208 kankaku to single ASCII space.
-Z2 Convert X0208 kankaku to double ASCII spaces.
-Z3 Replacing fullwidth >, <, ", & into ’>’, ’<’, ’"’, ’&’ as in HTML.
-X -x With -X or without this option, X0201 is converted into X0208 Kana. With -x, try to preserve X0208 kana and do not convert X0201 kana to X0208. In JIS output, ESC-(-I is used. In EUC output, SS2 is used.
-B[0-2] Assume broken JIS-Kanji input, which lost ESC. Useful when your site is using old B-News Nihongo patch.
-B1 allows any chars after ESC-( or ESC-$.
-B2 force ASCII after NL.
-I Replacing non iso-2022-jp char into a geta character (substitute character in Japanese).
-m[BQN0] MIME ISO-2022-JP/ISO8859-1 decode. (DEFAULT) To see ISO8859-1 (Latin-1) -l is necessary.
-mB Decode MIME base64 encoded stream. Remove header or other part before conversion.
-mQ Decode MIME quoted stream. ’_’ in quoted stream is converted to space.
-mN Non-strict decoding. It allows line break in the middle of the base64 encoding.
-m0 No MIME decode.
-M MIME encode. Header style. All ASCII code and control characters are intact.
-MB MIME encode Base64 stream. Kanji conversion is performed before encoding, so this cannot be used as a picture encoder.
-MQ Perform quoted encoding.
-l Input and output code is ISO8859-1 (Latin-1) and ISO-2022-JP. -s, -e and -x are not compatible with this option.
-L[uwm] -d -c Convert line breaks.
-Lu -d unix (LF)
-Lw -c windows (CRLF)
-Lm mac (CR)

Without this option, nkf doesn’t convert line breaks.

--fj --unix --mac --msdos --windows Convert for these systems.
--jis --euc --sjis --mime --base64 Convert to named code.
--jis-input --euc-input --sjis-input --mime-input --base64-input Assume input system
--ic=input codeset --oc=output codeset Set the input or output codeset. NKF supports following codesets and those codeset names are case insensitive.
ISO-2022-JP a.k.a. RFC1468, 7bit JIS, JUNET
EUC-JP (eucJP-nkf) a.k.a. AT&T JIS, Japanese EUC, UJIS
CP51932 Microsoft Version of EUC-JP.
Shift_JIS a.k.a. SJIS, MS_Kanji
Windows-31J a.k.a. CP932
UTF-8 same as UTF-8N
UTF-8N UTF-8 without BOM
UTF-8-BOM UTF-8 with BOM
UTF8-MAC (input only) decomposed UTF-8
UTF-16 same as UTF-16BE
UTF-16BE UTF-16 Big Endian without BOM
UTF-16BE-BOM UTF-16 Big Endian with BOM
UTF-16LE UTF-16 Little Endian without BOM
UTF-16LE-BOM UTF-16 Little Endian with BOM
UTF-32 same as UTF-32BE
UTF-32BE UTF-32 Big Endian without BOM
UTF-32BE-BOM UTF-32 Big Endian with BOM
UTF-32LE UTF-32 Little Endian without BOM
UTF-32LE-BOM UTF-32 Little Endian with BOM
--fb-{skip, html, xml, perl, java, subchar} Specify the way that nkf handles unassigned characters. Without this option, --fb-skip is assumed.
--prefix=escape charactertarget character.. When nkf converts to Shift_JIS, nkf adds a specified escape character to specified 2nd byte of Shift_JIS characters. 1st byte of argument is the escape character and following bytes are target characters.
--no-cp932ext Handle the characters extended in CP932 as unassigned characters.
--no-best-fit-chars When Unicode to Encoded byte conversion, don’t convert characters which is not round trip safe. When Unicode to Unicode conversion, with this and -x option, nkf can be used as UTF converter. (In other words, without this and -x option, nkf doesn’t save some characters)

When nkf converts strings that related to path, you should use this opion.

--cap-input Decode hex encoded characters.
--url-input Unescape percent escaped characters.
--numchar-input Decode character reference, such as &#....;.
--in-place[=SUFFIX] --overwrite[=SUFFIX] Overwrite original listed files by filtered result.

Note --overwrite preserves timestamps of original files.

--guess=[12] Print guessed encoding and newline. (2 is default, 1 is only encoding)
--help Print nkf’s help.
--version Print nkf’s version.
-- Ignore rest of -option.


Copyright (c) 1987, Fujitsu LTD. (Itaru ICHIKAWA).

Copyright (c) 1996-2013, The nkf Project.

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nkf 2.1.3 NKF (1) 2013-11-22

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