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Man Pages

Manual Reference Pages  -  DWH_FILE (3)

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DWH_File 0.22 - data and object persistence in deep and wide hashes



    use DWH_File qw/ GDBM_File /;
    # the use argument set the DBM module used

    tie( %h, DWH_File, myFile, O_RDWR|O_CREAT, 0644 );

    untie( %h ); # essential!


Note: the files produced by DWH_File 0.22 are in a different format and are incompatible with the files produced by previous versions.

DWH_File is used in a manner resembling NDBM_File, DB_File etc. These DBM modules are limited to storing flat scalar values. References to data such as arrays or hashes are stored as useless strings and the data in the referenced structures will be lost.

DWH_File uses one of the DBM modules (configurable through the parameters to use()), but extends the functionality to not only save referenced data structures but even object systems.

This is why I made it. It makes it extremely simple to achieve persistence in object oriented Perl programs and you can skip the cumbersome interaction with a conventional database.

DWH_File tries to make the tied hash behave as much like a standard Perl hash as possible. Besides the capability to store nested data structures DWH_File also implements exists(), delete() and undef() functionality like that of a standard hash (as opposed to all the DBM modules).


It is possible to distribute for instance an object system over several files if wanted. This might be practical to avoid huge single files and may also make it easier make a reasonable structure in the data. If this feature is used the same set of files should be tied each time if any of the contents that may refer across files is altered. See MODELS.


DWH_File uses a garbage collection scheme similar to that of Perl itself. This means that you actually don’t have to worry about freeing anything (see the cyclic reference caveat though). Just like Perl DWH_File will remove entries that nothing is pointing to (and therefore noone can ever get at). If you’ve got a key whose value refers to an array for instance, that array will be swept away if you assign something else to the key. Unless there’s a reference to the array somewhere else in the structure. This works even across different dbm files when using multiple files.

The garbage collection housekeeping is performed at untie time - so it is mandatory to call untie (and if you keep any references to the tied object to undef those in advance). Otherwise you’ll leave the object at the mercy of global destruction and garbage won’t be properly collected.


Ealier versions had some specialized locking schemes to deal with concurrency in eg. web-applications. I havn’t put any into this version, and I think I’ll leave them out to avoid scope creep.

The reason for having those features were that locking dbm-files isn’t as straightforward as locking ordinary files. I find now, that the best solution is to use some of the generalized mechanisms for handling concurrency. There are some fine perl modules for facilitating the use of semaphores for instance.


Earlier versions had a logging feature. I haven’t put it into this new generation of DWH_File yet. If you need it, send me a mail. That might tempt me.

    FURTHER INFORMATION - home of the DWH_File.

As of this writing, there’s nothing much there, but I hope to find time to make a series of examples and templates to show just how beautiful life can be if you only remember to

   use DWH_File;


    A typical script using DWH_File

    use Fcntl;
    use DWH_File;
    # with no extra parameters to use() DWH_File defaults to:
    # AnyDBM_File
    tie( %h, DWH_File, myFile.dbm, O_RDWR|O_CREAT, 0644 );

    # use the hash ...

    # cleanup
    # (necessary whenever reference values have been tampered with)
    untie %h;

    A script using data in three different files

The data in one file may refer to that in another and even that reference will be persistent.

    use Fcntl;
    use DWH_File;
    tie( %a, DWH_File, fileA, O_RDWR|O_CREAT, 0644 );
    tie( %b, DWH_File, fileB, O_RDWR|O_CREAT, 0644 );
    tie( %c, DWH_File, fileC, O_RDWR|O_CREAT, 0644 );

    $a{ doo } = [ qw(doo bi dee), { a => "ah", u => "uh" } ];
    $b{ bi } = $a{ doo }[ 3 ];
    # this will work

    print "$b{ bi }{ a }\n";
    # prints "ah";

    $b{ bi }{ a } = "Ive changed";
    print "$a{ doo }[ 3 ]{ a }\n"; # prints "Ive changed"

    # note that if - in another program - you tie %g to fileB
    # without also having tied some other hash variable to fileA)
    # then $g{ bi } will be undefined. The actual data is in fileA.
    # Moreover there will be a high risk of corrupting the data.

    # cleanup
    # (necessary whenever reference values have been tampered with)
    untie %a;
    untie %b;
    untie %c;

Earlier versions of DWH_File used a tag in each individual data file to identlify it in the context of other file. From 0.22 a file-URI is used in stead. This removes some problems related to the tagging scheme, but it introduces an obligation that your data files don’t move around.

    A persistent class

Earlier versions of DWH_File demanded, that the package defining a class set a special variable to a special value for the class to be persistent in DWH_File.

The intention was to avoid weird results of trying to save objects of classes which didn’t know about DWH_File and thus would not work properly when retrieved (because they didn’t define methods to restore state that DWH_File couln’t restore automatically - like open files etc.).

I’ve removed this limitation, so DWH_File has become more sticky. I’m thinking of a new and more elegant way, like demanding that classes have DWH_File::Object in their heritage. Something may appear later.



This version of DWH_File seems to work on all unices and I expect it to work on Windows too. I’m eager to hear from anybody who’s tested it on anything.


It appears that DWH_File does much of the same stuff that the MLDBM module from CPAN does. There are substantial differences though, which means that both modules outperform the other in certain situations. DWH_Files main attractions are (a) it only has to load the data actually acessed into memory (b) it restores all referential identity (MLDBM sometimes makes duplicates) (c) it has an approach to setting up dynamic state elements (like sockets, pipes etc.) of objects at load time.

Also at this point, MLDBM is a near-canon part of institutionalized Perl-culture. It may be expected to be thouroughly tested and stable. DWH_File is just the work of a single mind (one that you have no particular reason to trust), and to my surprise it hasn’t gained much acceptance since I first put it on CPAN sometime 2000 (I think).


This version cannot share files with versions 0.01 to 0.21 of DWH_File. If you have legacy data that you’d really like to convert to the new format, send me an email. I may write a convertion facility if persuaded. I don’t need one myself, so if nobody asks for it, I probably won’t make it.


REMEMBER UNTIE It is very important that untie be called at the end of any script that changes data referenced by the entries in the hash. Otherwise the file will be corrupted. Also remember to remove any references to the tied object before untieing.
BEWARE OF DBM Using DWH_File with NDBM_File I found that arrays wouldn’t hold more than a few hundred entries. Assignment seemed to work OK but when global destruction came along (and the data should be flushed to disk) a segmentation error occured. It seems to me that this must be a NDBM_File related bug. I’ve tried it with DB_File (under linuxPPC) - 100000 entries no problem :-)

At all times be aware of the limitations to data size imposed by the DBM module you use. See AnyDBM_File(3) for specs of the various DMB modules. Also some DBM modules may not be complete (I had trouble with the EXIST method not existing in NDBM_File).

BEWARE OF CYCLIC REFERENCES Your data may contain cyclic references which mean that the reference count is above zero eventhough the data is unreachable. This will defeat the DWH_File garbage collection scheme an thus may cause your file to swell with useless unreachable data.

    # %h being tied to DWH_File $h{ a } = [ qw( foo bar ) ];
    push @{ $h{ a } }, $h{ a };
    # the anonymous array pointed
    # to by $h{ a } now contains a
    # reference to itself
    $h{ a } = "Gone with the wind";
    # so its refcount will now # be 1 and it wont be garbage
    # collected

To avoid the problem, break the self reference before losing touch:

    # %h being tied to DWH_File
    $h{ a } = [ qw( foo bar ) ];
    push @{ $h{ a } }, $h{ a };
    # now break the reference
    $h{ a }[ 2 ] = ;
    $h{ a } = "Gone with the wind";
    # the anonymous array will be
    # garbage collected at untie time

Currently I don’t have the time to try to work out a better garbage collection scheme for DWH_File. Sorry.

DON’T MOVE DATA FILES AROUND From version 0.22 the DWH_File instances use file URIs to identify themselves amongst one another. This means that if you have more than one tied hash and there are references to data across tied hashes, these references will become invalid if the files change location. This may be solved if you must move a file by adding a symbolic link to the file at its original path and then tie to that link.
REFERENCES USED AS KEYS REMAIN LIVE REFERENCES This is certainly a feature, but it is a deviation from the way standard hashes work. Also it means, that an object which is used as hash key anywhere will not be garbage collected because it’s reference count will remain at least one.

I made it this way in 0.22 in order to fulfill the aim af DWH_File to practically eliminate the differences between multiple and a single invocation of the code using the hash. Here’s an example:

If a perl program goes:

    # %h being an empty standard hash
    $h{ batman } = 12000;
    print "$h{ batman }\n";

- then it’ll output


But if you split this in to two portions, se one program says

    $h{ batman } = 12000;

and another program which incidentally is run the next day goes

    print "$h{ batman }\n";

- then nothing but the newline is printed (to standard out anyway)

Well, if the hash %h had been tied to DWH_File on the same file, your data would be persistent, so putting the two statements in two different invocations would make no difference. You’d get your


- in the latter case too.

Now if the key is a reference:

    # this has happened at some time
    $h{ some } = [ qw( hoo do you love ) ];
    # and then someone decides to use the array ref as a key:
    $h{ $h{ some } } = "koochi koochi";
    print "$h{ $h{ some } }\n";

- then converting the array reference to a string based on the address of the references item (as standard hashes do) will mean, that $h{ some } will most likely constitute a different key in a different invocation. Thus if I split off the print statement into a different program and run it another day, I won’t get the intended result.

By using actual references as keys, I solve this problem. But it has a couple of consequences. Eg this code:

   for ( keys %h ) { $_->bingo }

might make sense if the %h is tied to DWH_File, because the keys may actually be objects of a class which implements the method bingo(). This code would not make sense if %h is a plain hash, since all the keys would surely be strings.

There’s an issue, which I haven’t tested, but I suspect, that if you use an object of a class that overloads operator "" as a key in a regular hash, then you’ll get the result of the overload operation as a key (and not just that standard string based on the address).

If the stringifying method yealds a different result depending on eg. the state of the object (or the environment), then

    $h{ $some_object } = "Slot one";
    $h{ $some_object } = "Slot two";

will store the two strings as the values for two different keys in the hash if $some_object is stringified before being used as a key (as in a standard hash) while Slot two will simply overwrite the first assignment if the actual reference (which is unchanged form line one to line three of the program) is used as key (as in a DWH_File tied hash).

It’s not hard to work around this (quite unlikely) problem - but you’ve got to know that it’s there.

It may even be possible to correct DWH_File to use the stringification if the overload is present - I may look into it later (oh and do mail me if you know how this can be done - the checking if the "" operator is overloaded, that is).

LIMITATION 1 Data structures saved to disk using DWH_File must not be tied to any other class. DWH_File needs to internally tie the data to some helper classes - and Perl does not allow data to be tied to more than one class at a time.

At one point I dreamed up at workaround for this, but as of this writing I have no plans for trying to implement it. You have a go if you want.

LIMITATION 2 You’re not allowed to assign references to constants in the DWH structure as in (%h being tied to DWH_File)

    $h{ statementref } = \"I am a donut";
    # wont wash

You can’t do an exact equivalent, but you can of course say

    $r = "All men are born equal";
    $h{ statementref } = \$r;

LIMITATION 3 Autovivification doen’t always work. This may depend on the DBM module used. I haven’t really investigated this problem but it seems that the problems I have experienced using DB_File arise either from some quirks in either DB_File or Perl itself.

This means that if you say

    %h = ();
    $h{ a }[ 3 ]{ pie } = "Apple!";

you can’t be sure that the implicit anonymous array and hash spring into existence like they should. You’ll have to make them exist first:

    %h = ( a =E<gt> [ undef, undef, undef, {} ] );
    $h{ a }[ 3 ]{ pie } = "Apple!";

Strangely though I have found that often autovivification does actually work but I can’t find the pattern.

I don’t plan on trying to fix this right now because it appears to be quite mysterious and that I can’t really do anything about it on DWH_File’s side.

LIMITATION 4 DWH_File hashes store straight scalars and references (blessed or not) to scalars, hashes and arrays - in other words: data. File handles and subrutine (CODE) references are not stored.

These are the only known limitations. If you encounter any others please tell me.


Please let me know if you find any.

As the version number indicates this is an early beta state piece of software. Please contact me if you have any comments or suggestions - also language corrections or other comments on the documentation.


Copyright (c) Jakob Schmidt/Orqwood Software 2003

The DWH_File distribution is free software and may be used and distributed under the same terms as Perl itself.


    Jakob Schmidt <>

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