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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  RETURN::TYPE (3)

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NAME

Return::Type - specify a return type for a function (optionally with coercion)

CONTENTS

SYNOPSIS



   use Return::Type;
   use Types::Standard qw(Int);
  
   sub first_item :ReturnType(Int) {
      return $_[0];
   }
  
   my $answer = first_item(42, 43, 44);     # returns 42
   my $pie    = first_item(3.141592);       # throws an error!



DESCRIPTION

Return::Type allows you to specify a return type for your subs. Type constraints from any Type::Tiny, MooseX::Types or MouseX::Types type library are supported.

The simple syntax for specifying a type constraint is shown in the SYNOPSIS. If the attribute is passed a single type constraint as shown, this will be applied to the return value if called in scalar context, and to each item in the returned list if called in list context. (If the sub is called in void context, type constraints are simply ignored.)

It is possible to specify different type constraints for scalar and list context:



   sub foo :ReturnType(scalar => Int, list => HashRef[Num]) {
      if (wantarray) {
         return (pie => 3.141592);
      }
      else {
         return 42;
      }
   }



Note that because type constraint libraries are really aimed at validating scalars, the type constraint for the list is specified as a hashref of numbers and not a hash of numbers! For the purposes of validation against the type constraint, we slurp the returned list into a temporary arrayref or hashref.

For type constraints with coercions, you can also pass the option coerce => 1:



   use Return::Type;
   use Types::Standard qw( Int Num );
  
   # Define a subtype of "Int" at compile time, which can
   # coerce from "Num" by rounding to nearest integer.
   use constant Rounded => Int->plus_coercions(Num, sub { int($_) });
  
   sub first_item :ReturnType(scalar => Rounded, coerce => 1) {
      return $_[0];
   }
  
   my $answer = first_item(42, 43, 44);     # returns 42
   my $pie    = first_item(3.141592);       # returns 3



The options coerce_scalar and coerce_list are also available if you wish to enable coercion only in particular contexts.

    Power-user Inferface

Rather than using the :ReturnType attribute, it’s possible to wrap a coderef like this:



   my $wrapped = Return::Type->wrap_sub($orig, %options);



The accepted options are scalar, list, coerce, coerce_list, and coerce_scalar, as per the attribute-based interface.

There is an additional option scope_upper which will load and use Scope::Upper so that things like caller used within the wrapped sub are unaware of being wrapped. This behaviour was the default prior to Return::Type 0.004, but is now optional and disabled by default.

BUGS

Please report any bugs to <http://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=Return-Type>.

SUPPORT

<B>IRC:B> support is available through in the #moops channel on irc.perl.org <http://www.irc.perl.org/channels.html>.

SEE ALSO

Attribute::Contract, Sub::Filter, Sub::Contract.

AUTHOR

Toby Inkster <tobyink@cpan.org>.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENCE

This software is copyright (c) 2013-2014 by Toby Inkster.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES

THIS PACKAGE IS PROVIDED AS IS AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
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perl v5.20.3 RETURN::TYPE (3) 2014-09-07

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