Quick Navigator

Search Site

Unix VPS
A - Starter
B - Basic
C - Preferred
D - Commercial
MPS - Dedicated
Previous VPSs
* Sign Up! *

Contact Us
Online Help
Domain Status
Man Pages

Virtual Servers

Topology Map

Server Agreement
Year 2038

USA Flag



Man Pages

Manual Reference Pages  -  TEXT::TYPOGRAPHY (3)

.ds Aq ’


Text::Typography - Markup ASCII text with correct typography for HTML



    use Text::Typography qw(typography);
    print typography($text);


This module is a thin wrapper for John Gruber’s SmartyPants plugin for various CMSs.

SmartyPants is a web publishing utility that translates plain ASCII punctuation characters into smart typographic punctuation HTML entities. SmartyPants can perform the following transformations:
o Straight quotes ( and ’ ) into curly" quote HTML entities
o Backticks-style quotes (‘‘like this’’) into curly quote HTML entities
o Dashes (-- and ---) into en- and em-dash entities
o Three consecutive dots (...) into an ellipsis entity
SmartyPants does not modify characters within <pre>, <code>, <kbd>, <script>, or <math> tag blocks. Typically, these tags are used to display text where smart quotes and other smart punctuation would not be appropriate, such as source code or example markup.

typography($text[, CW$attributes])

Returns a string marked up with the proper HTML entities for proper typography.

For fine grain control over what gets converted, use the $attributes option. The default value is 3.

The following numeric values set a group of options:

    0 : do nothing
    1 : set all
    2 : set all, using old school en- and em- dash shortcuts (-- and ---)
    3 : set all, using inverted old school en- and em- dash shortcuts (--- and --)

For even finer control, specify a string of one or more of the following characters:

    q : quotes
    b : backtick quotes (``double only)
    B : backtick quotes (``double and `single)
    d : dashes
    D : old school dashes
    i : inverted old school dashes
    e : ellipses
    w : convert " entities to " for Dreamweaver users

    Backslash Escapes

If you need to use literal straight quotes (or plain hyphens and periods), SmartyPants accepts the following backslash escape sequences to force non-smart punctuation. It does so by transforming the escape sequence into a decimal-encoded HTML entity:

              Escape  Value  Character
              ------  -----  ---------
                \\    \    \
                \"    "    "
                \    '    
                \.    .    .
                \-    -    -
                \`    `    `

This is useful, for example, when you want to use straight quotes as foot and inch marks: 6’2 tall; a 17 iMac.

    Algorithmic Shortcomings

One situation in which quotes will get curled the wrong way is when apostrophes are used at the start of leading contractions. For example:

    Twas the night before Christmas.

In the case above, SmartyPants will turn the apostrophe into an opening single-quote, when in fact it should be a closing one. I don’t think this problem can be solved in the general case — every word processor I’ve tried gets this wrong as well. In such cases, it’s best to use the proper HTML entity for closing single-quotes () by hand.


Thomas Sibley created this module using the code from the SmartyPants CMS plugin by John Gruber (<>).


    Copyright (c) 2003 John Gruber
    All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

* Neither the name SmartyPants nor the names of its contributors may
be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
without specific prior written permission.

This software is provided by the copyright holders and contributors as is and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed. In no event shall the copyright owner or contributors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of this software, even if advised of the possibility of such damage.

Search for    or go to Top of page |  Section 3 |  Main Index

perl v5.20.3 TEXT::TYPOGRAPHY (3) 2006-01-10

Powered by GSP Visit the GSP FreeBSD Man Page Interface.
Output converted with manServer 1.07.