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Manual Reference Pages  -  LIBPUZZLE (3)


puzzle_init_cvec, puzzle_init_dvec, puzzle_fill_dvec_from_file, puzzle_fill_cvec_from_file, puzzle_fill_cvec_from_dvec, puzzle_free_cvec, puzzle_free_dvec, puzzle_init_compressed_cvec, puzzle_free_compressed_cvec, puzzle_compress_cvec, puzzle_uncompress_cvec, puzzle_vector_normalized_distance - compute comparable signatures of bitmap images.


Libpuzzle Context
Dvec And Cvec Vectors
Loading Pictures
Comparing Vectors
Cvec Compression
Return Value
See Also


.Fd #include <puzzle.h> int puzzle_init_context PuzzleContext *context int puzzle_free_context PuzzleContext *context int puzzle_init_cvec PuzzleContext *context PuzzleCvec *cvec int puzzle_init_dvec PuzzleContext *context PuzzleDvec *cvec void puzzle_fill_dvec_from_file PuzzleContext *context PuzzleDvec * dvec const char *file void puzzle_fill_cvec_from_file PuzzleContext *context PuzzleCvec * cvec const char *file void puzzle_fill_cvec_from_dvec PuzzleContext *context PuzzleCvec * cvec const PuzzleDvec *dvec void puzzle_free_cvec PuzzleContext *context PuzzleCvec *cvec void puzzle_free_dvec PuzzleContext *context PuzzleDvec *cvec void puzzle_init_compressed_cvec PuzzleContext *context PuzzleCompressedCvec * compressed_cvec void puzzle_free_compressed_cvec PuzzleContext *context PuzzleCompressedCvec * compressed_cvec int puzzle_compress_cvec PuzzleContext *context PuzzleCompressedCvec * compressed_cvec const PuzzleCvec * cvec int puzzle_uncompress_cvec PuzzleContext *context PuzzleCompressedCvec * compressed_cvec PuzzleCvec * const cvec double puzzle_vector_normalized_distance PuzzleContext *context const PuzzleCvec * cvec1 const PuzzleCvec * cvec2, const int fix_for_texts


The Puzzle library computes a signature out of a bitmap picture. Signatures are comparable and similar pictures have similar signatures.

After a picture has been loaded and uncompressed, featureless parts of the image are skipped (autocrop), unless that step has been explicitely disabled, see puzzle_set(3)


Every public function requires a PuzzleContext object, that stores every required tunables.

Any application using libpuzzle should initialize a PuzzleContext object with puzzle_init_context and free it after use with puzzle_free_context

PuzzleContext context;

puzzle_init_context(&context); ... puzzle_free_context(&context);


The next step is to divide the cropped image into a grid and to compute the average intensity of soft-edged pixels in every block. The result is a PuzzleDvec object.

PuzzleDvec objects should be initialized before use, with puzzle_init_dvec and freed after use with puzzle_free_dvec

The PuzzleDvec structure has two important fields: vec is the pointer to the first element of the array containing the average intensities, and sizeof_compressed_vec is the number of elements.

PuzzleDvec objects are not comparable, so what you usually want is to transform these objects into PuzzleCvec objects.

A PuzzleCvec object is a vector with relationships between adjacent blocks from a PuzzleDvec object.

The puzzle_fill_cvec_from_dvec fills a PuzzleCvec object from a PuzzleDvec object.

But just like the other structure, PuzzleCvec objects must be initialized and freed with puzzle_init_cvec and puzzle_free_cvec

PuzzleCvec objects have a vector whoose first element is in the vec field, and the number of elements is in the sizeof_vec field


PuzzleDvec and PuzzleCvec objects can be computed from a bitmap picture file, with puzzle_fill_dvec_from_file and puzzle_fill_cvec_from_file

GIF , PNG and JPEG files formats are currently supported and automatically recognized.

Here’s a simple example that creates a PuzzleCvec objects out of a file.

PuzzleContext context;
PuzzleCvec cvec;

puzzle_init_context(&context); puzzle_init_cvec(&context, &cvec); puzzle_fill_cvec_from_file(&context, &cvec, "test-picture.jpg"); ... puzzle_free_cvec(&context, &cvec); puzzle_free_context(&context);


In order to check whether two pictures are similar, you need to compare their PuzzleCvec signatures, using puzzle_vector_normalized_distance

That function returns a distance, between 0.0 and 1.0. The lesser, the nearer.

Tests on common pictures show that a normalized distance of 0.6 (also defined as PUZZLE_CVEC_SIMILARITY_THRESHOLD ) means that both pictures are visually similar.

If that threshold is not right for your set of pictures, you can experiment with PUZZLE_CVEC_SIMILARITY_HIGH_THRESHOLD , PUZZLE_CVEC_SIMILARITY_LOW_THRESHOLD and PUZZLE_CVEC_SIMILARITY_LOWER_THRESHOLD or with your own value.

If the fix_for_texts of puzzle_vector_normalized_distance is 1 , a fix is applied to the computation in order to deal with bitmap pictures that contain text. That fix is recommended, as it allows using the same threshold for that kind of picture as for generic pictures.

If fix_for_texts is 0 , that special way of computing the normalized distance is disabled.

PuzzleContext context;
PuzzleCvec cvec1, cvec2;
double d;

puzzle_init_context(&context); puzzle_init_cvec(&context, &cvec1); puzzle_init_cvec(&context, &cvec2); puzzle_fill_cvec_from_file(&context, &cvec1, "test-picture-1.jpg"); puzzle_fill_cvec_from_file(&context, &cvec2, "test-picture-2.jpg"); d = puzzle_vector_normalized_distance(&context, &cvec1, &cvec2, 1); if (d < PUZZLE_CVEC_SIMILARITY_THRESHOLD) { puts("Pictures are similar"); } puzzle_free_cvec(&context, &cvec2); puzzle_free_cvec(&context, &cvec1); puzzle_free_context(&context);


In order to reduce storage needs, PuzzleCvec objects can be compressed to 1/3 of their original size.

PuzzleCompressedCvec structures hold the compressed data. Before and after use, these structures have to be passed to puzzle_init_compressed_cvec and puzzle_free_compressed_cvec

puzzle_compress_cvec compresses a PuzzleCvec object into a PuzzleCompressedCvec object.

And puzzle_uncompress_cvec uncompresses a PuzzleCompressedCvec object into a PuzzleCvec object.

PuzzleContext context;
PuzzleCvec cvec;
PuzzleCompressedCvec c_cvec;
puzzle_init_compressed_cvec(&context, &c_cvec);
puzzle_compress_cvec(&context, &c_cvec, &cvec);
puzzle_free_compressed_cvec(&context, &c_cvec);

The PuzzleCompressedCvec structure has two important fields: vec that is a pointer to the first element of the compressed data, and sizeof_compressed_vec that contains the number of elements.


Functions return 0 on success, and -1 if something went wrong.


.Nf Frank DENIS libpuzzle at pureftpd dot org


.Nf Xerox Research Center H. CHI WONG Marschall BERN David GOLDBERG Sameh SCHAFIK


puzzle_set(3) puzzle-diff(8)
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