|-c||Specify an alternate configuration file to load. Default is /usr/local/etc/duo/login_duo.conf|
|-d||Debug mode; send logs to stderr instead of syslog.|
|-h||Specify the remote IP address for this login (normally taken from the SSH_CONNECTION environment variable, if set).|
|-f||Specify an alternate Duo user to authenticate as.|
If login_duo is installed setuid root (the default), these options are only available to the super-user.
After successful Duo authentication, the users login shell is invoked, or if an alternate command or SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND environment variable is specified, it will be executed via the users shell with a -c option.
The INI-format configuration file must have a "duo" section with the following options:
host Duo API host (required). ikey Duo integration key (required). skey Duo secret key (required). groups If specified, Duo authentication is required only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the space-separated pattern-lists (see PATTERNS below). failmode On service or configuration errors that prevent Duo authentication, fail "safe" (allow access) or "secure" (deny access). Default is "safe". pushinfo Send command to be approved via Duo Push authentication. Default is "no". http_proxy Use the specified HTTP proxy, same format as the HTTP_PROXY environment variable. autopush Upon successful first-factor authentication, automatically send a login request to the primary second-factor (usually Duo Push). Can be "yes" or "no". Default is "no". motd Print the contents of /usr/local/etc/motd to screen after a successful login. Either "yes" or "no." Default is "no". prompts Number of login attempts a user gets. Default is 3. If using autopush, it is recommended to set prompts to 1. accept_env_factor Look for factor selection or passcode in the DUO_PASSCODE environment variable, before prompting the user. Can override autopush. Default is "no". fallback_local_ip If unable to determine the authentication userss IP address, fallback on the IP address of the server. Default is "no". https_timeout Set to the number of seconds to wait for HTTPS responses from Duo Security. If Duo Security takes longer than the configured number of seconds to respond to the preauth API call, the configured failmode is triggered. Other network operations such as DNS resolution, TCP connection establishment, and the SSL handshake have their own independent timeout and retry logic. Default is 0, which disables the HTTPS timeout.
An example configuration file:[duo] host = api-deadbeef.duosecurity.com ikey = SI9F...53RI skey = 4MjR...Q2NmRiM2Q1Y pushinfo = yes autopush = yes
If installed setuid root (the default), login_duo performs Duo authentication as a dedicated privilege separation user, requiring that the configuration file be owned and readable only by this user.
A pattern consists of zero or more non-whitespace characters, '*' (a wildcard that matches zero or more characters), or '?' (a wildcard that matches exactly one character).
A pattern-list is a comma-separated list of patterns. Patterns within pattern-lists may be negated by preceding them with an exclamation mark ('!'). For example, to specify Duo authentication for all users (except those that are also admins), and for guests:
groups = users,!wheel,!*admin guests
login_duo can be enabled system-wide by specifying its full path as a ForceCommand in sshd_config(5) to capture any SSH remote login (including subsystems, remote commands, and interactive login):ForceCommand /usr/local/sbin/login_duo
Similarly, a group of administrators could require two-factor authentication for login to a shared root account by specifying login_duo as the forced command for each public key in ~root/.ssh/authorized_keys:
command="/usr/local/sbin/login_duo -f alice" ssh-rsa AAAAB2...19Q== email@example.com command="/usr/local/sbin/login_duo -f bob" ssh-dss AAAAC3...51R== firstname.lastname@example.org
A user without root access could configure their own account to require Duo authentication via the same ~/.ssh/authorized_keys forced command mechanism and a user-installed (non-setuid) login_duo.
/usr/local/etc/duo/login_duo.conf Default configuration file path
login_duo was written by
.An Duo Security Aq email@example.com
When used to protect remote SSH access, only interactive sessions support interactive Duo login. For scp(1), sftp(1), rsync(1), and other ssh(1) remote commands, login_duo automatically tries the users default out-of-band factor (smartphone push or voice callback) and disables real-time login progress reporting to provide a clean shell environment.