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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  MINIRSYSLOGD (8)

NAME

minirsyslogd - highly efficient, minimalistic, remote-only syslog receiver.

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Options
Examples
Signals
Files
Caveats
     Port numbers below 1024
     Standards compliance
     No out-of-diskspace checking
     Abuse of the ’split’ receive mode
Diagnostics
     Status messages in ./minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD files
     Fatal error messages in ./minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD files
     Messages that appear in individual log files
Bugs
Restrictions
Author

SYNOPSIS

minirsyslogd [ --daemon ] [ --rootdir path ] [ --maxopen num ] [ --port num ] [ --recvmode mode ] [ --split mode ] [ --oldtimestamp ] [ --pidfile filename ] [ --umask mask ] [ --maxopenspersec num ] [ --maxfilesize mbytes ] [ --bufsize bytes ] [ --verbose ]

DESCRIPTION

Minirsyslogd is designed for one single thing: to receive lots of syslog events via UDP from lots of hosts, and do so rapidly. It is suitable for centralized log receivers whose only purpose is to receive data from multiple sources over the network.

Minirsyslogd will not receive events from local syslog sockets. It will not do forwarding, alerting, or perform any kind of excessive logic. Look elsewhere for such functionality.

The maximum message size that minirsyslogd will handle is 8KB. If a host sends messages longer than that, they will be split into multiple messages at the 8KB line(s) with no additional intelligence.

    Quick Getting-Started Guide

The below steps are enough to get most installations up and running.

- Create a root directory for your logs, e.g. "/my/logs".
Make sure that its permissions and ownership, and the permissions and ownership of all its parent directories, are secure - especially if you plan on running minirsyslogd as root.

- Create subdirectories for the IP addresses you want to receive syslog events from, e.g. "/my/logs/1.2.3.4", "/my/logs/2.3.4.5", etc. Minirsyslogd will not automatically create directories; the (non-)existance of a particular directory is, in fact, its ACL (Access Control List).

- Execute minirsyslogd:
minirsyslogd --rootdir /my/logs
This will start minirsyslogd as a foreground application so you can see what it is doing. If everything looks good, you can stop it and restart it with the --daemon switch.

A log file for the daemon itself, e.g. "minirsyslogd-20030930" should immediately be created in the root directory, and contain events like:
2003-09-30T20:23:01.139972+02:00 startup: version="1.02" pid=29534 uid=500 gid=101 euid=500 egid=101
2003-09-30T20:23:01.139972+02:00 settings: rootdir="/my/logs" maxopen=50 port=514 maxopenspersec=200 split=day recvmode=split
2003-09-30T20:23:01.139972+02:00 startup: minirsyslogd initialized. listening on 1234/udp

See DIAGNOSTICS for help if minirsyslogd fails to start.

New subdirectories may also be created while minirsyslogd is running. Giving it a "kill -HUP" after doing so may be a good idea, but is strictly speaking not necessary; it will pick up on the existance of the new directory at the turn of the hour, at the latest.

You may also want to add a call to start minirsyslogd in your system startup scripts.

For a central syslog receiver, it may also be a good idea to start minirsyslogd with a priority slightly above the system default, e.g.
nice --3 ./minirsyslogd --daemon
to avoid ending up with for instance log analysis jobs getting in the way of syslog reception.

It is also a very good idea to read at least the rest of the DESCRIPTION section of this man page.

    Basic idea of operation

- Receive inbound UDP syslog packets on a port of the user’s choice. Do NOT deal with local syslog sockets! This is remote only.

- Do very simple reformatting of the received event as per the --recvmode switch. This basically only deals with control characters and newlines in the events.

- Store in a structured way according to sender IP, e.g.: "./192.168.0.123/192.168.0.123-2002102407" (The timestamp is YYYYMMDDHH, or YYYYMMDD with --split day).

- Open files always close at the turn of the hour.

- Do NOT create directories automatically. The existance/nonexistance of a destination directory is the Access Control List of the receiver.

- If the open file table is full, a random file will be closed to allow a new one to be opened. This is better than it sounds; definitely a LOT better than "closing the oldest one".

- Once an hour: Close all open output files. Output a list IP addresses denied access to the minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD file. The size of this list is limited to 10 entries.

- Do nothing else, as per the KISS principle.

    Log file rotation

Minirsyslogd always appends a timestamp to the files that it creates, and starts a new file at the turn of the hour/day (depending on the --split switch). Manual log file rotation is not necessary.

Example file names, in split-by-hour mode:
/my/logs/1.2.3.4/1.2.3.4-2003123100
/my/logs/1.2.3.4/1.2.3.4-2003123101
/my/logs/1.2.3.4/1.2.3.4-2003123102
[...]
/my/logs/1.2.3.4/1.2.3.4-2003123123
/my/logs/1.2.3.4/1.2.3.4-2004010100
^^^^^^^^^^
YYYYMMDDHH

However, this leaves the issues of log file compression and deletion.
Example for gzipping all of yesterday’s files (using day splitting):
  gzip [0-9]*/[0-9]*-‘
gawk ’BEGIN {
print strftime("%Y%m%d", systime()-22*3600);
exit(0);
}’‘
Example for gzipping all of yesterday’s files (using hour splitting):
  gzip [0-9]*/[0-9]*-‘
gawk ’BEGIN {
print strftime("%Y%m%d", systime()-22*3600);
exit(0);
}’‘[0-2][0-9]
The above examples can safely be run anywhere between 00:00 and 22:00 each day, any number of times.
Example for deleting all files that are 100 days old (using any splitting, compressed or not)
  rm -f [0-9]*/[0-9]*-‘
gawk ’BEGIN {
print strftime("%Y%m%d", systime()-100*24*3600);
exit(0);
}’‘*
The above example can safely be run between 01:00 and 23:00 (assuming perfect clock synchronization, you may want to allow for a few minutes of drift) each day, any number of times.

A more sophisticated setup would be able to work with files of any age, in case the maintenance scripts fail to run one day, but this is beyond the scope of this document. The above examples will also break when the command line becomes too long in the expansion, but they should work with "dozens" of syslog sources even in hour splitting mode.

    Log file sizes

Minirsyslogd will limit the size of its output files according to the --maxfilesize switch. This value defaults to 2000 megabytes. It will never create output files larger than 2GB, as this leads to abrupt process exits or other problems under many OSes and/or libc implementations. To counter this limit, minirsyslogd splits its output files every hour, by default.

Minirsyslogd will not split files because of the size limit being exceeded. This serves as a rudimentary flood protection.

    How many output files to keep open

Minirsyslogd defaults to keeping up to 50 output files open simultaneously. This can be changed through the --maxopen switch, and is limited by what your operating system and/or libc supports. There is also a hard-coded limit in minirsyslogd itself (see #define MAX_DESTS in minirsyslogd.c), which is currently set to 1000.
As an example, Debian Linux on x86 platforms supports slightly over 1000 open files (and is hence limited by the above 1000-file limit).

High-activity units, for instance firewalls that log every connection that opens and closes, basically need one file each, as they constantly generate activity.

Low-activity units, for instance switches that only log power events and ports going up and down, can have dozen of units "sharing" a single slot. A thousand low-activity units can likely get away with only 50 open files.

If you have too few open files, minirsyslogd will need to close and open its files constantly, which will lead to high system load and possibly lost syslog events. Examine the "statistics:" events in the minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD files: the "opens=" field will tell you how many files were opened each hour. Values in the thousands is OK. Perhaps even values in the low tens of thousands. Values in the high tens of thousands or higher than that is most likely not OK.

Note that the --maxopenspersec switch can put a cap on the number of files that minirsyslogd will attempt to open each second. It defaults to 200 (720,000 per hour), which is a very high number.

See the DIAGNOSTICS section for more information about relevant status messages.

    How to receive local syslog events

Minirsyslogd is not meant for receiving events from the local system; it does not implement the local sockets/streams necessary to do this on its own.

If, however, you for some reason want minirsyslogd to handle storage of your local logs, you can always run your syslogd in local-only mode (this tends to be the default) and have it pass everything on to minirsyslogd on 127.0.0.1. Minirsyslogd will then receive these events from the same address: 127.0.0.1.

To set up this type of forwarding, add a line like this to your /etc/syslog.conf file:

*.*     @127.0.0.1

and create a "127.0.0.1" subdirectory in your minirsyslogd root directory to allow syslog events from this address.

OPTIONS

--daemon
  Run minirsyslogd as a daemon (in the background). You most likely want to do this, except perhaps on the first trial run.

--rootdir path
  Tell minirsyslogd where to store its logs. Minirsyslogd’s own logs will end up in this directory, and logs from syslog sources in subdirectories beneath it, named according to their numerical IP addresses.
Default: . (current directory)
--maxopen num
  Specifies how many output files to keep open simultaneously. See "How many output files to keep open", above.
Default: 50

--port num
  Specifies which UDP port to listen on. Note that only the root user can bind ports lower than 1024. See the CAVEATS section.
Default: 514

--recvmode mode
  The "receive mode" controls how minirsyslogd will treat control characters in the received syslog events. Control characters should not be present in events according to the syslog specification, but applications sometimes include them anyway, and there is of course no telling what attackers might do.
Possible values are truncate, split, flat, forensic and forensicraw. See "Receive modes", below.
Default: split

--split mode
  Controls splitting of output files. There are only two such modes:
day, which splits the output files each day and appends -YYYYMMDD, and
hour, which splits them hourly and appends -YYYYMMDDHH.
Note the log size limitations outlined in "Log file sizes", above, before changing this setting.
Default: hour

--oldtimestamp
  Instructs minirsyslogd to use syslogd-compatible timestamps, "01 Oct 00:24:30", in its output files rather than RFC3339 timestamps, "2003-10-01T00:24:30.123456+02:00", which is the default.

--pidfile filename
  Specifies where to write the PID (process ID) of the minirsyslogd process.
Default: /var/run/minirsyslogd[-1234].pid
The [-1234] (port number) is appended if minirsyslogd listens on a port different from 514.

--umask mask
  Specifies the umask of the files that minirsyslogd creates.
It defaults to 077, which means that files will be created as "-rw-------".
Setting it to 037 to have files created as "-rw-r-----" is likely a good idea if log analysis jobs run as a different user than (but in the same group as) the minirsyslogd process itself.
007 ("-rw-rw----") is necessary if said user also does log file compression.

--maxopenspersec num
  This setting controls how many files minirsyslogd is allowed to open each second. It functions as a sort of sanity filter, and may be used for some measure of protection against event storms from varying IP addresses.
This function is more or less useless in a setup with more open files than allowed syslog sources, but may help in other scenarios.
The default value is 200, which is very high. If this setting is actively used, a good starting point is probably about 50 and then experimenting from there.
Note that, if --maxopenfiles is higher than --maxopenspersec, minirsyslogd will allow up to --maxopenfiles to be opened each second the first two seconds each hour, and after SIGHUP is received.

--maxfilesize mbytes
  This setting controls the maximum size of files that minirsyslogd creates. See "Log file sizes" above.
Default: 2000 megabytes

--bufsize bytes
  Tweaks the in-software (libc) write buffer size. The effects of increasing the buffer size have not been properly researched, but, for systems nearing their capacity, it may be worth while to experiment with it.
Default: 16384 bytes

--verbose
  Prints various status messages during startup and shutdown, and when opening and closing log files. Everything that normally ends up in the local daemon log will also be printed.
Running minirsyslogd in verbose mode implicitly disables daemon mode.

    Receive modes

The following is a list of receive modes that may be specified using the --recvmode switch:

truncate
  The event will be truncated at the first LF (new line) encountered. Additionally, all ASCII codes 0-31 and 128-159 will be converted to spaces.

flat All ASCII codes 0-31 and 128-159 will be converted to spaces, including LF. In other words: multiple lines will appear as a single line.

split If the received data contains LFs, it will be split up into multiple events; one per line. Additionally, ASCII codes 0-31 and 128-159 will be converted to spaces.
This is the default receive mode

forensic
  LFs are left untouched. Additionally, ASCII codes 0-31 and 128-159 will be converted to spaces. The event will be prefixed by a character count to allow correct parsing, e.g.
2003-10-02T12:45:56.123456 127.0.0.1 57 First line of event
Second line of event
Last line of event
2003-10-02T12:45:56.234567 127.0.0.1 10 Next event

forensicraw
  Like forensic, except control codes are left untouched. The only character that receives special treatment is the NUL character (ASCII code 0), which is converted to space.

EXAMPLES

minirsyslogd
  Execute minirsyslogd with all values set to default, running as a foreground application. This is suitable for running from Dan Bernstein’s "daemontools" (http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html) and Gerrit Pape’s "runit" (http://smarden.org/runit/).

nice --3 minirsyslogd --daemon --rootdir /my/logs
  Execute minirsyslogd as a daemon in the correct root directory, with all values set to default, and running at a slightly higher priority than normal. This is good enough for most installations. Performance tweaking is however necessary for large installations; see especially the --maxopen switch.

minirsyslogd --port 1234
  Listen on port 1234 instead of the default: 514. Useful for running as an unprivileged user; perhaps with a packet filter that redirects requests from port 514 to the unprivileged port.

minirsyslogd --maxopen 200
  Keep up to 200 output files open for write simultaneously, instead of the default: 50. Adjusting this is likely necessary for large installations.

SIGNALS

SIGHUP Cause minirsyslogd to immediately flush any cached output and close all output files. Closed files will, naturally, be re-opened as necessary after the HUP.
Useful for log analyzers that run more often than hourly.
Example: kill -HUP ‘cat /var/run/minirsyslogd.pid‘

SIGTERM and SIGINT
  Minirsyslogd traps SIGTERM (default "kill" signal) and SIGINT (ctrl-c) and attempts to exit gracefully. If either signal is received again while the shutdown is in progress, minirsyslogd is forcefully terminated.

Note that SIGHUP is also useful to get minirsyslogd to stop caching a negative decision. The fact that a certain directory does not exist is cached, so if you’ve just created a new directory, and log data does not arrive, you may want to give minirsyslogd a HUP to have it forget about the cached decision immediately rather than waiting until the turn of the hour.

FILES

Minirsyslogd has no configuration / input files. Assuming a root directory of "/my/logs", it will create output files like the following:

/my/logs/minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD
  Events concering the operation of minirsyslogd itself, e.g. starting and stopping, errors, hourly usage statistics, and reports of disallowed syslog senders.

/my/logs/1.2.3.4/1.2.3.4-YYYYMMDD[HH]
  Events from the IP address in question - 1.2.3.4 in this example. The [HH] (hour) is appended unless minirsyslogd was started with the --split day switch.

/var/run/minirsyslogd[-1234].pid
  Contains the PID (process ID) of minirsyslogd. The [-1234] (port number) is appended if minirsyslogd is listening on a port different from the default: 514/udp. The name of this file may also be specified via the --pidfile switch.

CAVEATS

    Port numbers below 1024

Minirsyslogd will not drop privileges, so to bind the default syslog port (514/udp), you will have to run it as root. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this should not be dangerous, given the simplistic design of minirsyslogd, but the author is only human, and humans make mistakes.

A different approach may be to use a packet filter to redirect packets to port 514 to some high port and have minirsyslogd listen there as an unprivileged user.

    Standards compliance

Minirsyslogd breaks the syslog "standard" in three ways:
- By default, minirsyslogd uses RFC3339 timestamps, e.g. "2003-09-30T20:37:12.123456+02:00". The original syslog implementation uses timestamps like "Sep 30 20:37:12".
- Minirsyslogd will not use and/or remove timestamps from the received events. If the event contains a timestamp, it will be displayed unmodified after minirsyslogd’s own timestamp.
- Minirsyslogd will not strip the severity/facility tag, e.g. "<123>" from the received events.
  The tag will be visible in the stored event.
The author believes that these deviations are all Good Things.

    No out-of-diskspace checking

Minirsyslogd will not perform any kind of diskspace checking. If left to its own, it will eventually fill the partition it uses for log storage.

    Abuse of the ’split’ receive mode

An attacker that knows an allowed IP address can always flood the log server, but this is slightly easier in the "split" receive mode than in other modes: for each LF received, the server will prefix a timestamp and IP address, over 40 bytes, when storing the event. Hence, to use up 2GB of disk space, an attacker need only send about 50MB over the network.

Note that "split" is the default receive mode. This may be changed with the --recvmode switch.

DIAGNOSTICS

    Status messages in ./minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD files

- startup: version="1.02" pid=n uid=n gid=n euid=n egid=n
  This message is logged at startup, fairly early on. If it does not appear, minirsyslogd either failed to parse its arguments, or tried to write to a completely different log file, maybe because of --rootdir pointing to the wrong place.

- settings: rootdir="path" maxopen=n port=n maxopenspersec=n split=mode recvmode=mode
  These values reflect various minirsyslogd switches.

- startup: backgrounding (daemonizing)
  This message is logged fairly early at startup if the --daemon switch is used, before actually daemonizing the process.

- startup: minirsyslogd initialized. listening on port/udp
  This message is logged when minirsyslogd is completely initialized, just before it starts receiving log events.

- statistics: opens=num recvd=bytes
  This message is logged every hour.
"opens": the number of file open attempts during the past hour, successful or not.
"recvd": the number of bytes received during the past hour; guaranteed to always contain at least seven digits (zero prefixed if necessary), and may count up to 4294967295999999 (4 petabytes).

- signal: got SIGHUP - flushing and closing all open files
- signal: back from SIGHUP - all files including local daemon log were closed
  These two messages occur when minirsyslogd was "kill -HUP"ed. All files are closed, and minirsyslogd is almost completely reinitialized.

- shutdown: version="1.02" pid=n uid=n gid=n euid=n egid=n
  This is the last message logged before minirsyslogd exits. Minirsyslogd will normally attempt to trap SIGTERM and SIGINT and exit gracefully. If it did so successfully, this message appears, otherwise: not.

    Common warning messages in ./minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD files

These warning / status messages can all be caused by the behavior of a third party (syslog source).

- drop: failed ipaddr num times
  Minirsyslogd keeps track of the 10 first disallowed hosts each hour, and how many log messages they sent.
These events are reported once an hour, at which point the list is cleared and the process starts over.

- drop: failed * num times
  In addition to the 10 individually tracked hosts (above), minirsyslogd keeps track of disallowed messages that did not belong to one of the individually tracked hosts.
These events are reported once an hour, at which point the counter is cleared and the process starts over.

- drop: maximum file length (length) exceeded for filename
  This message appears when the size of a file exceeds the maximum configured file size, controlled by the --maxfilesize switch.
A similar message will also appear in the file itself.

- drop: ignored num file open attempts. maxopenspersec (num) exceeded
  This message may be logged at most once a second. If it occurs often, it means one of three things:
1. Your syslog receiver is being flooded (you are under attack)
2. --maxopens is set too low, and minirsyslogd continuously closes and reopens files
3. --maxopenspersec is simply set too low

- drop: ignored num file open attempts. maxopen (num) exceeded during a single second
  During the first two seconds after startup, of each hour, and after receiving a SIGHUP, minirsyslogd allows up to --maxopen files per second to be opened, given that this setting is actually higher than --maxopenspersec.
If this limit is overrun, this message will be logged rather than the previous one.

    Uncommon warning messages in ./minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD files

These messages are indicative of something that may be worth your attention. Minirsyslogd keeps running.

- warning: could not get length of filename: reason
  When reopening existing log files, minirsyslogd needs to find out their current size. If this fails, this message appears. The file will be treated as unwritable and no logging will occur for the affected syslog source until minirsyslogd moves on to the next file (hour/day).

- warning: failed to write to pidfile ’filename
  Minirsyslogd could not write to the process ID tracking file, which defaults to /var/run/minirsyslogd[-1234].pid. This is not a fatal error.
If minirsyslogd runs as an unprivileged user, you should use the --pidfile switch to specify a different file; perhaps even /dev/null.

    Fatal error messages in ./minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD files

These messages result in minirsyslogd terminating.

- fatal: out of memory mallocing destination descriptors
  This indicates that your computer / user is severely low on memory, or that --maxopen is set too high (although the latter is unlikely).

- fatal: fork n: reason
  This message is most likely indicative of the user running minirsyslogd having its process ulimit set too low. When daemonizing, three forked minirsyslogd processes will exist during a short period of time.
The reason should tell you more.

- fatal: socket: reason
  This basically should not happen. See the reason.

- fatal: bind: reason
  Minirsyslogd could not listen on the given port. Reasons for this include:
1. some other process already listening on the port - another copy of minirsyslogd? the default syslogd?
2. minirsyslogd is running as an unprivileged user but tried to bind a port below 1024. In this case the reason should be "Permission denied". A resolution could be using the "--port" parameter to bind a different port.

The above errors can only happen during initialization.

As far as the author knows, the only error that can get minirsyslogd to exit once it is up and running is not being able to open its local log file: ./minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD. This error can not, however, be recorded in the minirsyslogd log file, for obvious reasons.

    Messages that appear in individual log files

- minirsyslogd <44>Maximum file length (num) exceeded for filename
  When the size of a log file exceeds the maximum allowed file size, this message is logged as the last message in the file. No more data is written to the file. A log event is also generated in the .\minirsyslogd-YYYYMMDD file.

BUGS

Minirsyslogd does not properly check and report the reason why an output file could not be created, and assumes that it is because the target directory is not there, i.e. that the administrator does not allow syslog events from the IP address in question.

RESTRICTIONS

The UDP syslog protocol is insecure and unreliable. This means that an attacker can read any messages that he gets hold of, and inject messages from known-allowed addresses. Packet loss between the sender and receiver goes uncorrected and undetected.
This is beyond the scope of any log receiver to fix. It is simply a property of UDP syslog.

AUTHOR

Written by Mikael Olsson <mikael.olsson@clavister.com>.

TERMS OF USE

Minirsyslogd is released into the public domain, and, as such, is provided "AS IS". Do with it what you wish. I’ll happily consider adding relevant improvements to it, but be warned: I won’t personally host anything called ’minirsyslogd’ that grows to include a full-sized ruleset, alerting, etc...

SEE ALSO

syslog-ng
  BalaBit’s syslog-ng is a much more full-featured log receiver, and consequently also slower and, at least according to the laws of complexity, more (security?) bug prone. The author of minirsyslogd happily uses it for local syslog messages.
http://www.balabit.com/products/syslog_ng/

syslogd
  The original syslog daemon implementation. Very limited and, in most implementations, slow. Unsuitable for receiving syslog events from remote sources.

socklog
  Gerrit Pape’s small and secure syslog replacement. Has a few features that standard syslogd does not have, including logfile rotation and better remote reception management.
http://smarden.org/socklog/

RFC3164 - The BSD syslog Protocol
  http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3164.txt

RFC3339 - Date and Time on the Internet: Timestamps
  http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3339.txt

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

How do I do log file rotation with minirsyslogd?
  Minirsyslogd always rotates its logs according to day/hour. Out of the box.

How do I split output files per facility / severity?
  You don’t, and I don’t intend to add support for it. It increases the strain on the file layer substantially; continously opening and closing lots of little files is rather expensive. Write smarter log analysis scripts instead; the facility/severity tag is included in the stored events.

Will you add uid switching so minirsyslogd can bind low ports but run as an unprivileged user?
  Maybe. Convince me that it is necessary.

Will you add mail reporting / piping into other processes / etcetc
  No.

Will you add reception of local syslog events?
  No. All OSes do it differently, so that’s a LOT of code for something that is supposed to be minimalistic. See however "How to receive local syslog events".

Can I add stuff to minirsyslogd myself and redistribute?
  Yes. But if you turn it to something completely different, please rename it in the interest of reducing confusion. A quick credit note would also be appreciated but is in no way necessary.

Can I submit patches to you?
  Yes. If I think that they are relevant to a "minimalistic, secure, remote-only syslog receiver", I will happily add them (and give credit in this man page).

HISTORY

There never was a version 1.0. Paul Robertson added his two cents.

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Version 1.02 MINIRSYSLOGD (8) 30 October 2003

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